Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor

Henry III, called the Black or the Pious, was Holy Roman Emperor from 1046 until his death in 1056. A member of the Salian Dynasty, he was the eldest son of Emperor Conrad II of Germany and Gisela of Swabia. Henry was raised by his father, who made him Duke of Bavaria in 1026, appointed him co-ruler in 1028 and bestowed him with the duchy of Swabia and the Kingdom of Burgundy ten years in 1038; the emperor's death the following year ended a remarkably smooth and harmonious transition process towards Henry's sovereign rule, rather uncharacteristic for the Ottonian and Salian monarchs. Henry succeeded Conrad II as Duke of Carinthia and King of Italy and continued to pursue his father's political course on the basis of virtus et probitas, which led to an unprecedented sacral exaltation of the kingship. In 1046 Henry ended the papal schism, was crowned Emperor by Pope Clement II, freed the Vatican from dependence on the Roman nobility and laid the foundation for its empire-wide authority. In the duchies Henry enforced sovereign royal right of disposition, thereby ensuring tighter control.

In Lorraine, this led to years of conflict from. Another sphere of defiance formed in southern Germany from 1052 to 1055. Henry III died aged only 38. Modern historians, identify the final years of his reign as the beginning of a crisis in the Salian monarchy. Born on 28 October 1017, Henry was the son of Conrad of Worms and Gisela of Swabia. Conrad was a Franconian aristocrat, he was related to the imperial Ottonian dynasty through his great-grandmother, Liutgard—a daughter of Holy Roman Emperor, Otto I. Conrad may have fathered a son before his marriage to Gisela, because a royal charter referred to his sons in 1024, but its reliability is dubious. Henry was always mentioned as his father's sole son in charters issued after February 1028. Gisela, descended from Charlemagne had a strong claim both to Swabia and to Burgundy. Conrad was Gisela's third husband and she had given birth to three sons and a daughter during her previous two marriages. Conrad was illiterate; the last Ottonian monarch, Henry II, died on 13 July 1024.

The German aristocrats who assembled at Kamba to elect his successor proclaimed Conrad of Worms king on 4 September. Conrad's opponent formed a coalition that included Ernest II, Duke of Swabia, they took up arms against the King in the second half of 1025, but he forced most of them into submission before the end of the year. Ernest asked his mother, Gisela to mediate a reconciliation and she convinced the eight-year-old Henry to intervene on Ernest's behalf in early 1026. Ernest had to promise to provide military assistance to Conrad to achieve a pardon. Conrad designated Henry as his heir in Augsburg in February 1027. A year before departing for his first Italian campaign, Conrad charged Bruno, Bishop of Augsburg, with Henry's guardianship. Historian Stefan Weinfurter states that Bruno, Emperor Henry II's brother was "particularly well-suited to impart regal concepts and imperial traditions" to his ward. Bruno accompanied Henry to Rome where they attended Conrad's imperial coronation on Easter 1027.

Emperor Conrad II was determined to strengthen royal authority in Germany. Ignoring the claim of Emeric, the son of King Stephen I of Hungary, to Bavaria, Conrad persuaded the Bavarian aristocrats to acknowledge Henry as their duke in Regensburg on 24 July 1027. Henry's appointment to the duchy was unprecedented—Bavaria had never been ruled by a ten-year-old duke. In autumn 1027, the Emperor sent Bishop Werner of Strasbourg to Constantinople to win a bride from the Byzantine imperial family for Henry, but Werner's sudden death put an end to the negotiations with Emperor Constantine VIII. At Conrad's initiative, the "clergy and the people" elected Henry his co-ruler and Pilgrim, Archbishop of Cologne crowned Henry king in Aachen on Easter 1028. Henry was thereafter named the "hope of the empire" on his father's seals in accordance with Byzantine customs. Conrad sent another embassy to Constantinople. Constantine VIII's successor, Emperor Romanos III Argyros, proposed the hand of one of his sisters to Henry, but Conrad's envoy, Count Manegold of Donauwörth, refused the offer since she was married.

Bishop Bruno of Augsburg died on 6 April 1029 and Conrad appointed Egilbert, Bishop of Freising, as Henry's new tutor. Bavaria provoked a Hungarian counter-attack. Conrad assembled Bavarian and Bohemian troops and invaded Hungary on June 1030. Insufficient supplies forced him to return and the Hungarians attacked and beat his army at Vienna. Conrad left Bavaria. Egilbert of Freising started negotiations with Stephen I of Hungary on Henry's behalf. Egilbert agreed to cede lands along the frontier to the Hungarians in return for the release of their prisoners. Henry accepted the terms and signed the peace treaty during a meeting with Stephen I in Hungary in early 1031. Egilbert's mentorship lasted until Henry's accolade in late June or early July in 1033. Egilbert received generous grants for his services on 19 July. Upon Rudolph III of Burgundy's death Conrad II claimed the title to the Burgundian succession and marched his army to Burgundy during the winter of 1032/1033. In two large-scale military summer campaigns in 1033 and 1034, Conrad defeated his rival Odo II, Count of Blois.

On August 1, 1034, Conrad II incorporated the Kingdom of Burgundy into the Holy Roman Empire at a ceremony held in the Cathedral of Geneva. Henry and Gunhilda of Denmark, the daughter of Emma o

Cloud 9 (Nine album)

Cloud 9 is the second album by Nine, released on August 6, 1996 through Profile Records. Nine had released his debut album Nine Livez the previous year; the album was an underground hit, reaching No. 90 on the Billboard 200, while reaching the top 20 on the R&B charts. The album spawned the crossover hit, "Whutcha Want?", which reached No. 50 on the Billboard Hot 100. After the success on "Whutcha Want?", Profile gave Nine the green light to begin work on his second album. Like his previous album, this album was produced by Rob Lewis; the album featured several guest appearances, including Smoothe da Hustler and 3rd Eye, a departure from his previous album which featured only two guest appearances. The album's lead single was "Lyin' King", an indirect diss to rappers who were trying to capitalize on the popular gangsta rap and mafioso rap genres at the time, it made it to No. 81 on 21 on the Hot Rap Singles chart. The album's second single was "Make or Take", a duet with label-mate Smoothe da Hustler.

Brad Mills of Allmusic gave the album three out of five stars and called the album "solid from start to finish. Nine's raspy, deep catchy voice is present, with simple beats complemented by hard basslines, it's easy to throw this back in for another round. Smoothe da Hustler makes a welcome appearance on "Make or Take," while every other track on the album bangs just as hard". Commercially, Cloud 9 failed to sell as many copies as Nine Livez and only reached No. 45 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums, not selling enough copies to reach the Billboard 200. Due to Profile Records' financial problems, the album featured no promotion, with the exception of the music videos for "Lyin' King" and "Make or Take"; the lack of promotion is the main reason behind the album's poor sales. "Know Introduction"- 2:38 "Every Man 4 Himself"- 3:11 "We Play 4 Keeps"- 3:53 "Tha Product"- 4:19 "Uncivilized"- 3:38 "No Part a Me"- 3:42 "Lyin' King"- 3:36 "Richman, Poorman"- 2:50 "Jon Doe"- 3:51 "Make or Take"- 4:00 "Warriors"- 3:46 "4 Chicken Wings and Rice"- 3:31 In December 2012, Smoke On Records presented a limited edition of the album, which features 6 bonus tracks:"Ova Confident Remix" "Industry Party" "The Veteran" "Rah Rah Nigga" "When The Shit Hits The Fan" "Ghetto Near You" Recording engineer: Rob Lewis, Joe Quinde, Ken Duro Ifill, Jesse West Mixing: Rob Lewis, Joe Quinde, Ken Duro Ifill, Jesse West, Father Shaheed Mastering: Craig Bevan Photography: Tim Carter Art direction & design: Carla Leighton

A Touch of Frost

A Touch of Frost is a television detective series produced by Yorkshire Television for ITV from 6 December 1992 until 5 April 2010 based on the Frost novels by R. D. Wingfield. Writing credit for the three episodes in the first 1992 series went to Richard Harris; the series stars David Jason as Detective Inspector William Edward "Jack" Frost, an experienced and dedicated detective who clashes with his superiors. In his cases, Frost is assisted by a variety of different detective sergeants or constables, with each bringing a different slant to the particular case. Comic relief is provided by Frost's interactions with the bureaucratically-minded Superintendent Norman "Horn-rimmed Harry" Mullett, played by Bruce Alexander. A number of young actors had their major debut as supporting cast in the show, including: Matt Bardock, Ben Daniels, Neil Stuke, Mark Letheren, Colin Buchanan, Jason Maza, Damian Lewis and Marc Warren; the series is set in the fictional South Midlands town of Denton, is marked by a gritty tone.

It is believed that Denton is in either Berkshire or Oxfordshire, though there are many references to Reading, in particular, Swindon. In the earlier episodes, the M4 and A417 were seen, the map of Swindon was seen in the control room, although a map of Reading was used occasionally. Paperwork given to Frost and other characters refers to Denton station as being part of the Thames Valley Police; the programme was produced by ITV in Leeds, most of the outdoor locations were shot in West Yorkshire. Several scenes were filmed in and around the city and district of Wakefield and neighbouring small towns of Pontefract and Castleford, West Yorkshire; the role of Frost was notable in changing the public perception of David Jason from a predominantly comic actor to a dramatic actor. At a press conference in London on 15 September 2008, David Jason announced that he would be quitting the role of DI Jack Frost. Jason's main reason for quitting the role was that Frost was by now the oldest detective on television and he felt that it was'natural' to retire as Frost.

At 68, a police detective would have been retired for eight years. Sir David said: "You wouldn't want me to play Frost in a wheelchair, would you?... Frost is getting a little long in the tooth. I still enjoy doing it and it's a great part but I just think he's got to retire. It'll be a sad day." David Jason as DI Jack Frost Bruce Alexander as Superintendent Norman Mullett John Lyons as DS George Toolan Arthur White as PC Ernie Trigg DI William Edward "Jack" Frost, is a empathic and sensitive detective, whose talents are offset by human failings, which include drinking other people's tea and coffee, dressing sloppily, leaving his home and car in states of extreme untidiness. This is marginally different from how he is portrayed in the novels, where he lacks empathy and has a gruff, coarse offensive tone, he is shown to shirk paperwork, leaving his subordinates to take up the slack. He never uses a police notebook to record evidence and other information, instead scribbling notes on various bits of paper.

Frost is widowed in the first episode. He had planned to leave his wife but just as he was going to tell her he was advised that she had been diagnosed with terminal cancer. After hearing this news he went on a drinking binge and recklessly approached an armed man, who shot him; as a result of subduing the man in what was ostensibly a selfless, heroic act, Frost was awarded the highest British civilian award for gallantry, the George Cross. Whenever he is reminded of his award he tends to suffer survivor guilt, he is respected and admired by his colleagues and is shown to be a good-hearted, if flawed, character, as acknowledged by troubled youth, the elderly, by some criminals he has arrested. On several occasions, as in the novels, Frost breaks the law and plants evidence to get an arrest or conducts searches without permission, although always has the correct suspect, as well as turning a blind eye to sympathetic villains or misdemeanours to get out of the paperwork; this type of behaviour saw Frost suspended, disciplined or threatened with the same throughout the series.

In the first novel, his name is shown to be Jack Frost, when DC Barnard finds his GC in a drawer and the inscription reads, "To Jack Edward Frost". It was felt by the producers that the name Jack Frost was implausible for the TV series, so Frost was given William as his real first name, with Jack becoming a nickname. In the novels, he was a heavy chain-smoker. Superintendent Norman Mullett, a social climber concerned with appearances and ambitious for promotion, is Frost's boss and his constant foil on the job. Mullett has a love-hate relationship with Frost whose detective skills he admires but whose people and political skills he abhors; the long-suffering Mullett threatens to sack Frost, but Frost's ability to close cases saves him. In addition, receiving the George Cross made Frost "the Chief Constable's blue-eyed boy", thus protecting Frost from being sacked or retired by Mullett, his background in the novels was extensive. This promotion is turned-down in a episode thanks to yet another crisis caused by Frost, who gets of