The Silesian Piasts were the elder of four lines of the Polish Piast dynasty beginning with Władysław II the Exile, eldest son of Duke Bolesław III of Poland. By Bolesław's testament, Władysław was granted Silesia as his hereditary province and the Lesser Polish Seniorate Province at Kraków according to the principle of agnatic seniority; the history of the Silesian Piasts began with the feudal fragmentation of Poland in 1138 following the death of the Polish duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. While the Silesian province and the Kraków seniorate were assigned to Władysław II the Exile, his three younger half–brothers Bolesław IV the Curly, Mieszko III the Old, Henry of Sandomierz received Masovia, Greater Poland and Sandomierz according to the Testament of Boleslaw III. Władysław soon entered into fierce conflicts with the Polish nobility; when in 1146 he attempted to take control of the whole of Poland, he was excommunicated by Archbishop Jakub ze Żnina of Gniezno and his brothers drove him into exile.
He was received by King Conrad III of Germany, his brother-in-law by Władysław's consort Agnes of Babenberg, at the imperial palace of Altenburg. Silesia and the Seniorate Province came under the control of second-born Bolesław IV the Curly, Duke of Masovia. In the same year King Conrad III failed. Not until 1157 Duke Bolesław IV the Curly was defeated in a campaign by Konrads successor Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, the "Silesian issue" was not mentioned in the treaty concluded by the rulers, so Władysław remained in exile, he died in 1159 without returning to Poland. In 1163, Bolesław the Curly was pressed by Frederick Barbarossa to return the hereditary Silesian province to Władysław's sons Bolesław the Tall, Konrad Spindleshanks and Mieszko Tanglefoot, though he retained the Seniorate Province and the Polish throne at Kraków; the Duchy of Silesia remained within the Polish seniorate constitution, but Władysław's sons were obliged to pay a yearly tribute to the Holy Roman Emperor. High Duke Bolesław the Curly retained control of the most important Silesian cities such as Wrocław, Opole, Głogów, Racibórz and Legnica until 1166, when the Silesian dukes took control of these parts.
Władysław's sons ruled Silesia together until 1172, when they divided their territory: Bolesław the Tall, eldest brother, received the large area from Legnica up the Oder River to Wroclaw and created the Duchy of Opole for his eldest son Jarosław. Mieszko Tanglefoot the smaller Duchy of Racibórz around Racibórz and Cieszyn, their minor brother Konrad Spindleshanks received Żagań, Głogów and Krosno from the hands of Bolesław the Tall. As Konrad prepared himself for a clerical career at the Fulda monastery, his brother Bolesław administered his possessions until Konrad's early death, when he incorporated Konrad's part into his own duchy. Mieszko at the same time was able to expand his duchy with the former Lesser Polish territories of Bytom and Oświęcim, given to him by High Duke Casimir II the Just, with the Duchy of Opole, which he received after the death of Duke Jarosław and his father Bolesław in 1201. One year Bolesław's heir, Duke Henry I the Bearded, his uncle Mieszko moreover specified to rule out the right of succession among their branches, an arrangement, responsible for the special position of what would become Upper Silesia.
In the same year, Poland abolished the seniorate and the Silesian duchies became independent entities. Henry I the Bearded took part in the inner-Polish conflicts and expanded his dominion with determination. Henry, before securing in 1229 the sovereignty in Kraków, had made no less persevering efforts to bring Greater Poland under his dominion. From the beginning of the thirteenth century he had not ceased to intervene in the disputes which were carried on between the descendants of Mieszko the Old. At last in 1234, a good half of that province was formally ceded to him; as a guardian of minor dukes, Henry moreover ruled over Sandomierz. But, he aimed higher; this Silesian prince not only intended to enlarge his possessions. He became duke of Kraków in 1232. Henry expanded his realm outside Poland ruling over Barnim, Teltow as well as parts of Lower Lusatia. Despite his efforts, he never gained the Polish crown; the royal crown forgotten since the fall of Bolesław II, was destined by him for his eldest son, whom he associated in his rule towards the end of his life.
This Henry II the Pious, who succeeded his father in 1238, was, in fact worthy of the heritage of the first Piasts. Pursuing the able policy of Henry the Bearded, his son was moreover able to obtain the support of the clergy, with whom his father had had frequent disagreements. In a close alliance with his brother-in-law, Bohemian king Wenceslaus, he consolidated his position in Greater Poland against Barnim I of Pomerania and repelled an attack on castle Lubusz by the margrave of Brandenburg and the archbishop of Magdeburg. Following an old tradition of his dynasty, he placed himself under the protection of the Holy See, with which he allied himself against Frederick II. In spite of all his German connections, Henry the Pious would, assuredly have maintained the independence and prestige of the kingdom if all his plan had not been annihilated by an unforeseen catastrophe. In 1241, he died as a Christian hero in the Battle of Legnica, in which he was attempting to arrest the Mongolian invasion.
His death left the Silesian Piast dynasty shaken. After Henry's death in 1
Duke of Silesia
The Duke of Silesia was the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. In accordance with the last will and testament of Bolesław, upon his death his lands were divided into four or five hereditary provinces distributed among his sons, a royal province of Kraków reserved for the eldest, to be High Duke of all Poland; this was known as the fragmentation of Poland. Subsequent developments lead to further splintering of the duchies. At the beginning of the 14th century, fourteen independent Duchies existed in Silesia: Brzeg, Wrocław, Świdnica, Jawor, Ziębice, Głogów, Ścinawa, Żagan and Oleśnica in Lower Silesia. Between 1327 and 1329 most dukes accepted the overlordship of Bohemian king John of Bohemia, who acquired the right of succession for all of these duchies. In the coming centuries all branches of the Silesian Piasts died out, with the death of George William, Duke of Liegnitz the dynasty ceased to exist; the Duchy of Silesia, one of the hereditary provinces of Poland, was granted to Bolesław III's eldest son, Władysław II the Exile, was subsequently divided among his sons Bolesław I the Tall, Mieszko I Tanglefoot and Konrad Spindleshanks.
After Konrad's death Głogów was again united with the Duchy of Wrocław/Lower Silesia. In 1173 Bolesław returned and he agreed to let Mieszko and Bolesław rule in their own Duchies, separated from the Duchy of Silesia; this led to the creation of the Duchy of Racibórz for Mieszko I and the Duchy of Opole for Jarosław, beginning the fragmentation of the Duchy of Silesia. The territories controlled by Mieszko I and Jarosław corresponded to what is known as Upper Silesia, while the territories remaining with Bolesław I corresponded to Lower Silesia. Duchy of Lower Silesia was a direct continuation of the Duchy of Silesia, but without the territories corresponding to Upper Silesia; some sources refer to it as the Duchy of Silesia. Wrocław was the capital of the Duchy of Silesia, yet this early Duchy of Silesia should not be confused with the smaller Duchy of Wrocław, created with further fragmentation in 1248; the Duchy went through various border changes in the coming years, sometimes losing and sometimes gaining territory.
In 1248 Lower Silesia was divided when Bolesław II had to cede the Duchy of Wrocław to his younger brother Henry III. Upper Silesia was divided into the Duchies of Cieszyn, Opole-Racibórz. In 1340 the Duchy of Racibórz was united with a Bohemian fief. Below follows a simplified table of Silesia's partitions: A quick reminder avoiding confusion: Established in 1290 by High Duke Henry IV Probus, held by the Bishops of Wrocław 1302–1319 Henry of Wiebrzno 1326–1341 Nankier 1342–1376 Przecław of Pogarell 1382–1417 Wenceslaus II of Legnica 1417–1447 Konrad IV of Oleśnica 1447–1456 Peter II Nowak 1456–1467 Jošt of Rožmberk 1468–1482 Rudolf of Rüdesheim 1482–1506 Jan IV Roth 1506–1520 Jan V Thurzo 1520–1539 Jacob of Salza 1539–1562 Balthazar of Promnitz 1562–1574 Caspar of Logau 1574–1585 Martin Gerstmann 1585–1596 Andreas Jerin 1596–1599 Bonaventura Hahn 1599–1600 Paul Albert of Radolfzell 1600–1608 Jan VI of Sitsch 1608–1624 Charles of Austria, son of Charles II, Archduke of Austria 1625–1655 Karol Ferdynand Vasa, Duke of Opole from 1648 1656–1662 Leopold Wilhelm of Habsburg 1663–1664 Charles Joseph of Habsburg Grand Master of the Teutonic Order from 1662 1665–1671 Sebastian von Rostock 1671–1682 Frederick of Hesse-Darmstadt 1683–1732 Franz Ludwig von Pfalz-Neuburg 1732–1747 Philipp Ludwig von SinzendorfMajor part annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia after the First Silesian War in 1742.
1747–1795 Philipp Gotthard von Schaffgotsch 1795–1817 Joseph Christian Franz zu Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-BartensteinPrussian part secularised in 1810. 1823–1832 Emanuel von Schimonsky 1835–1840 Leopold von Sedlnitzky 1843–1844 Joseph Knauer 1845–1850 Melchior von DiepenbrockTheocracy abolished in 1850. List of Polish rulers Piast dynasty Dukes of Masovia Dukes of Greater Poland Dukes of Little Poland Dukes of Cuiavia Dukes of Sieradz-Łęczyca Neue deutsche Biographie, Berlin 2001, Bd.: 20, p. 403-407 Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon, Leipzig 1905–1909, Bd.: 17, p. 845-847 http://www.tacitus.nu/historical-atlas/regents/poland/silesia.htm
Henry III the White
Henry III the White, a member of the Silesian Piasts, was Duke of Silesia at Wrocław from 1248 until his death, as co-ruler with his brother Władysław. He was the third son of the Polish high duke Henry II the Pious, by his wife Princess Anna, daughter of the Přemyslid king Ottokar I of Bohemia. After the heroic death of his father at the Battle of Legnica on 9 April 1241, Henry III was still a minor and found himself under the care of the mother together with his youngest brothers Konrad and Władysław. In 1242, the unexpected death of his brother Mieszko, placed him in the second place after his oldest brother Bolesław II the Bald. Since he became in the head of the political opposition in the Lower Silesia against the government of Bolesław II; the first appearance of Henry III as adult was found only in 1247. He only changed his mind after the revolt of his brothers, who captured him. Henry III was made the co-ruler with his older brother; the cooperation between the brothers was not good and a year under pressure from Henry III, they decided to make a division of the districts Legnica–Głogów–Lubusz and Wrocław.
Bolesław, as the older brother, had the opportunity to choose his district. Bolesław II may have hoped that Henry III encountered serious difficulties with Wrocław, so at the end the Duchy would come back to him; these expectations, never happened. Henry III was a strong ruler, immediately he could impose his will over the powerful nobility. An additional point of the agreement was the obligation to offer hospitality to the younger brothers, Konrad and Władysław, who were destined to the espiritual career. Henry III's successful attempts to make Władysław entered in the Church had a total contrast with the relations between Bolesław and Konrad. Between them, were several disputes, in particular after Konrad claimed his own district and refused to become a priest. Open war between Henry III and Bolesław II was only a matter of time. Bolesław II, without funds, began to fear the prospect of an armed conflict with his brothers. In order to obtain the necessary resources to conduct the war, he decided to sell half of Lubusz to the Archbishop of Magdeburg.
For him, Henry III began to seek an ally in the rulers of Meissen. Defeated, Bolesław II was forced to give the district of Głogów to Konrad, who wished to enforce Henry III's intervention over Legnica in 1250; when Konrad decided on Bolesław II's kidnapping to the ruler of Wrocław, this was too much. All these treatments are not expected to take effect over the Duke of Wrocław, however, as Henry III in his relations with the brothers now sought to avoid open conflicts. Only in 1253, when the authority of Bolesław II collapsed Henry III helped him to return to his Duchy. Between the 1250s and 1260s Henry III became the most powerful Piast Duke of Lower Silesia, it was not surprising that he was active in international politics. Henry III made alliances with his relatives, the Dukes of Opole and Głogów, with the Kings of Bohemia, Wenceslaus I and Ottokar II; the cooperation with the Přemyslids, was not having the expected results. After Bohemia decided to interfere in the Babenberg succession of Austria with the support of the English, Henry III decided to reafirm his alliance with them and repudiated his treaty with the rulers of Greater Poland, Przemysł I and Bolesław the Pious and the Árpád dynasty.
They decided to punish Henry III, during 1253–1254 the Duchy of Wrocław was besieged and plundered. Attempts to force concessions, either by blackmail or bribery did not yield a positive result. In the internal politics, Henry III stood on guard to defend the prerogatives of the Piast dynasty, the church supported him, because Henry III supported Bishop Thomas of Wrocław against Bolesław II in their disputes; this particular policy was not pleasing the Wrocław nobility. Another manifestation of Henry III's rule was the intensive German colonization of Lower Silesia, which contributed to the growth and prosperity of his Duchy. Many cities were founded during this time, in Ostrów Tumski in Wrocław a huge castle was built. Henry III generously supported artists in his court. In the 13th century, German was the language of policy; the dictatorial internal politics of Henry III led to a rebellion of the townspeople. The pretext emerged in the mid-year 1266 when they tried to forced a division of the Duchy of Wrocław between Henry III and his brother Archbishop Władysław of Salzburg.
Władysław was not the head of the revolt and this was total surprise to him. His origins are among the nobility; the Polish historian Jerzy Mularczyk, had two possibles leaders of the revolt: first, the Bishop Thomas of Wrocław, taking advantage from Henry III's apparent weakness, tried to strengthen the position of the church.
Margraviate of Brandenburg
The Margraviate of Brandenburg was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany and Central Europe. Brandenburg developed out of the Northern March founded in the territory of the Slavic Wends, it derived one of its names from the March of Brandenburg. Its ruling margraves were established as prestigious prince-electors in the Golden Bull of 1356, allowing them to vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor; the state thus became additionally known as the Electorate of Brandenburg. The House of Hohenzollern came to the throne of Brandenburg in 1415. In 1417, Frederick I moved its capital from Brandenburg an der Havel to Berlin. Under Hohenzollern leadership, Brandenburg grew in power during the 17th century and inherited the Duchy of Prussia; the resulting Brandenburg-Prussia was the predecessor of the Kingdom of Prussia, which became a leading German state during the 18th century. Although the electors' highest title was "King in/of Prussia", their power base remained in Brandenburg and its capital Berlin.
The Margraviate of Brandenburg ended with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. It was replaced after the Napoleonic Wars with the Prussian Province of Brandenburg in 1815; the Hohenzollern Kingdom of Prussia achieved the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire in 1871. As Prussia was the legal predecessor of the united German Reich of 1871–1945, as such a direct ancestor of the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, Brandenburg is one of the earliest linear ancestors of present-day Germany; the Mark Brandenburg is still used informally today to refer to the present German state of Brandenburg. The territory of the former margraviate known as the Mark Brandenburg, lies in present-day eastern Germany and western Poland. Geographically it encompassed the majority of the present-day German states Brandenburg and Berlin, the Altmark, the Neumark. Parts of the present-day federal state Brandenburg, such as Lower Lusatia and territory, Saxon until 1815, were not parts of the Mark.
Colloquially but not the federal state Brandenburg is sometimes identified as the Mark or Mark Brandenburg. The region was formed during the ice age and characterized by moraines, glacial valleys, numerous lakes; the territory march because it was a border county of the Holy Roman Empire. The Mark is defined by two depressions; the depressions are taken up by rivers and chains of lakes with marsh and boggy soil along the shores. The Northern or Baltic Uplands of the Mecklenburg Lake Plateau have only minor extensions into Brandenburg; the 230 km-long range of hills in the Mark's south begins in the Lusatian Highlands and continues past Trzebiel and Spremberg to the northwest through Calau, ends in the bare and dry Fläming. The southern depression is to the north of this ridge and appears strikingly in the Spreewald; the northern depression, lying directly south of the Baltic uplands, is defined by the lowlands of the Noteć and Warta Rivers, the Oderbruch, the valley of the Finow, the Havelland moor, the Oder River.
Between these two depressions is a low plateau that extends from the Poznań area westward to Brandenburg through Torzym, the Spree plateau, the Mittelmark. From southeast to northwest, this plateau is intersected by the lowland of the Leniwa Obra and the Oder River below the confluence of the Lusatian Neisse, the lower Spree Valley, the Havel Valley. Between these valleys rise a series of hills and plateaus, such as the Barnim, the Teltow, the Semmelberg near Bad Freienwalde, the Müggelberge in Köpenick, the Havelberge, the Rauen Hills near Fürstenwalde; the region is predominantly marked by dry, sandy soil, wide stretches of which have pine trees and erica plants, or heath. However, the soil is loamy in the uplands and plateaus and, when farmed appropriately, can be agriculturally productive. Mark Brandenburg has a cool, continental climate, with temperatures averaging near 0 °C in January and February and near 18 °C in July and August. Precipitation averages between 500 mm and 600 mm annually, with a modest summer maximum.
By the 8th century, Slavic Wends, such as the Sprewane and Hevelli, started to move into the Brandenburg area. They intermarried with Bohemians; the Bishoprics of Brandenburg and Havelberg were established at the beginning of the 10th century. They were suffragan to the Archbishopric of Mainz. King Henry the Fowler started governing in the region in 928–9, allowing Emperor Otto I to establish the Northern March under Margrave Gero in 936 during the German Ostsiedlung. However, the march and the bishoprics were overthrown by a Slavic rebellion in 983. Though the bishopric was retained. Prince Pribislav of the Hevelli came to power at the castle of Brenna in 1127. During Pribislav's reign, in which he cultivated close connections with the Germ
Gąsawa is a village in Żnin County, Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship, in north-central Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Gąsawa, it lies 10 kilometres south of Żnin and 43 km south-west of Bydgoszcz. The village has a population of 1,400. Gąsawa received the city rights in 1388 and lost them in 1934, it is famous as the place of the assassination of Leszek I the White, prince of Poland. In 1600 Gąsawa hosted the Lubrański Academy which temporarily moved out of plague-stricken Poznań; the main tourist attraction in Gąsawa is the 17th century wooden St. Nicolas Church with a unique collection of multi-layered mural paintings, the earliest from the 17th century, the most recent from 1807; the church itself, a larch construction with a slate roof, was in such a bad state around 1850 that local officials asked the regional Prussian government to allow the church to be dismantled and build a new one instead. The response gave permission to only overhaul the building. Existing wall paintings were covered with a layer of reed and ordinary plaster, forgotten for some 150 years.
The town name was spelled "Gonzawa" "Gonsawa", "Gassawa", etc. in some old documents
Konrad I, Duke of Głogów
Konrad I of Głogów, a member of the Silesian Piasts, was Silesian duke of Głogów from 1251 until his death. Konrad was the fourth son of Henry II the Pious, Duke of Silesia and High Duke of Poland from 1238, by his wife Anna, daughter of the Přemyslid king Ottokar I of Bohemia. At the time of his father's death in the 1241 Battle of Legnica against the Golden Horde, he and his younger brother Władysław were placed under the guardianship of their eldest brother Duke Bolesław II Rogatka. After Henry's sudden death, the Silesian Piasts were not able to maintain their dominant position: Bolesław II tried to succeed his father on the Polish throne at Kraków, but could not prevail against his Piast cousin Konrad I of Masovia. In order to avoid further fragmentation of the paternal lands, the elder duke, with the approval of their mother, sent Konrad to study in Paris, where he was to be educated with the intention of becoming a priest in the future. However, in 1248, when the young man found out about the division of the family lands between his older brothers Bolesław II, ruling as a Duke of Legnica, Henry III the White, Duke at Wrocław, he returned to the country and claimed his part of the Silesian inheritance.
Soon an preliminary agreement was reached under which Konrad remained under the protection and care of his older brother, who gave him the title of co-ruler in Legnica. Bolesław II still proposed Konrad for spiritual posts: first, as Provost of Głogów Cathedral, Bishop of Passau in Bavaria. Though he had not reached the canonical age, he was elected by the Passau cathedral chapter to succeed the deposed bishop Rüdiger of Bergheim. Konrad didn't have any intention of pursuing an ecclesiastical career, he never entered Passau and soon resumed his conflict with Bolesław II. In June 1249 Konrad fled to Greater Poland, where he could count on the support of Duke Przemysł I. In 1251 he campaigned Bolesław's ducal lands and he managed to conquer Bytom Odrzański. Konrad's bonds with the Piast dukes of Greater Poland were reinforced after his marriage with Przemysł I's sister Salome, his other brother Henry III the White soon became another ally in the fight against Bolesław II. With the help of his new allies, thanks to the revolt of the townspeople of Głogów, the campaign against Bolesław II ended in complete success.
The Duke of Legnica was forced to accept his defeat and give the Lower Silesian lands of Głogów up to Krosno Odrzańskie and Żagań to Konrad as a duchy in his own right. Until the end of his life Konrad's relations with his brother Bolesław II remain strained. In 1257 Konrad kidnapped Bolesław from his residence in Legnica; the duke regained his freedom after a few months. It can be said that after that the duke never left Bolesław II a moment of happiness, but in 1271 the Duke of Legnica managed to regain the town of Bolesławiec near the Bóbr river. From about 1260 Konrad established closer contacts with the Kingdom of Bohemia and became involved in the expansionist politics of King Ottokar II, he promoted the colonization in his lands by German settlers. This was a decisive contribution to the institution of the Magdeburg town law in his Głogów residence in 1253. In contrast to his brother Bolesław II, Konrad vigorously supported Bishop Thomas I of Wrocław in his defence of church rights. However, when the bishop died in 1268 Konrad began to violate the privileges conferred by him, which led to conflicts with the new Bishop Thomas II Zaremba.
At the end of his life he founded a church in Zielona Góra dedicated to his grandmother, St. Hedwig of Silesia; the church was completed only twenty years after his death by his son and heir Henry III. In 1249 Konrad contracted his first marriage to Salome, daughter of Duke Władysław of Greater Poland, they had six children: Anna, married on 24 August 1260 to Duke Louis II of Upper Bavaria. Henry III. Konrad II the Hunchback. Euphemia, married by 13 May 1266 to Count Albert I of Gorizia. Przemko. Hedwig, Abbess of St. Klara, Wroclaw. By 1271, Konrad married his second wife, daughter of Dietrich the Wise, Margrave of Landsberg and — according to some sources — widow of the last legitimate male member of the House of Hohenstaufen, King of Sicily and Jerusalem, they had no children. Beatrix von Silesia-Glogau Silesia Duchy Cawley, Charles, SILESIA, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, Miroslav. "Complete Genealogy of the House of Piast: Głogów". Genealogy. EU. Chronological Dates in Stoyan KONRAD I GŁOGOWSKI This article was translated from his original in Polish Wikipedia
Bolesław II Rogatka
Bolesław II Rogatka or Bolesław II the Horned, known as Bolesław II the Bald, a member of the Silesian Piasts, was High Duke of Poland in 1241 and Duke of Silesia at Wrocław from 1241 until 1248, when the duchy was divided between him and his brothers. After the partition, he ruled the Silesian Duchy of Legnica until his death; the second Mongol raid against Poland, led by Nogai Khan, occurred during his reign. Bolesław was the eldest son of the Polish high duke Henry II the Pious by his wife Anna, a daughter of the Přemyslid king Ottokar I of Bohemia, his paternal grandparents were Henry the Hedwig of Silesia. Among his younger siblings were Mieszko, Henry III the White, Konrad II, Władysław, Elisabeth, who married her Piast cousin Duke Przemysł I of Greater Poland. Bolesław succeeded as Duke of Silesia after his father, Henry II the Pious, was killed in the Battle of Legnica on 9 April 1241, fighting against the Mongol invaders led by Batu Khan. At the time, he and his immediate younger brother Mieszko were the only heirs who had reached majority.
Their mother Anna helped them during the transition. The Mongol forces conquered most of Silesia, but withdrew to Hungary. After Henry's death, the Silesian Piasts were not able to maintain their supremacy in the Polish lands. Bolesław's inheritance, including the Southern Greater Polish estates and the Lesser Polish Seniorate Province was threatened by neighboring Piast dukes. By July 1241, his cousin Konrad; the local nobles, led by the Kraków governor Clement of Ruszczy resisted but had to yield to Konrad's superior forces. Disappointed by Bolesław's lack of action, they turned their support to Bolesław V the Chaste, who ascended the Kraków throne in 1243. There was a similar situation in Greater Poland: after hearing the news of the defeat of Henry II in Legnica, Duke Przemysł I and his brother Bolesław the Pious retook the estates of Kalisz which once had been ruled by their father, the late Duke Władysław Odonic; the local nobility supported them as the true heirs to those lands. Bolesław renounced all his Greater Poland lands.
He tried to retain some districts, such as Santok and Międzyrzecz, but in 1247 the Dukes of Greater Poland forced Bolesław to resign all his rights to lands in Greater Poland. When in 1242, Bolesław next oldest brother Mieszko died without leaving an heir, his Lubusz estates reverted to Bolesław and his younger brothers became co-rulers of the Lower Silesian lands; when his brother Henry III the White came of age in 1247, however, he and his younger brothers revolted against Bolesław and were able to imprison him shortly thereafter. To regain freedom, Bolesław signed an agreement with Henry III, dividing the Lower Silesian lands of Legnica and Wrocław. To avoid further fragmentation, the two pledged to offer hospitality to their minor brothers, Bolesław to Konrad II, Henry to Władysław. Bolesław, as the eldest, got first choice of the districts, he chose the Legnica estates because of the gold discovery in the Kaczawa and Wierzbiak Rivers. Bolesław soon tried to recover Wrocław. Henry III refused to surrender his new duchy, war was inevitable.
Both didn't have adequate funds. Bolesław sought allies among the Ascanian relatives of his wife Hedwig, daughter of Count Henry I of Anhalt. Archbishop Wilbrand of Magdeburg contributed funds; the German aid only gave Bolesław a temporary advantage in the war against his brother. In 1249 his younger brother and co-ruler Konrad II unexpectedly returned to the country. Bolesław proposed him as Bishop of Passau, Konrad refused and began to press his own claims in Silesia. Bolesław opposed him, the young prince took refuge at the court of the Dukes of Greater Poland, Bolesław's long-time enemy. Shortly after, Konrad reinforced his bonds with Duke Przemysł I after a double marriage: the Duke of Greater Poland married Konrad's sister Elizabeth, Konrad married Duke Przemysł's sister, Salome; the final clash occurred two years when the Bolesław was defeated by the combined forces of Przemysł I and Henry III the White, who supported Konrad. In 1251 Bolesław agreed to the divide his own lands and ceded the Duchy of Głogów to Konrad.
Bolesław only retained the small district of Legnica proper. It took Bolesław another two years and the help of his brother Henry III to recover full authority over his principality. Bolesław made some agreements with the other Piast dukes with the princes of Greater Poland and with Thomas I, Bishop of Wrocław. However, Bolesław never forgave the bishop for his tendency to support the younger princes. Bolesław's conflict with the Bishop of Wrocław reached a more critical point in 1257, when the Bolesław incarcerated the Bishop at Wleń Castle. Bolesław was excommunicated, his brothers intervened and negotiated a settlement. In 1261, Bolesław's paid a large tribute and paid public penance at the gates of in Wrocław Cathedral, he had been excommunicated twice before, in 1248 and 1249, a call had been issued to the neighboring nobility to a crusade against him. He was forgiven by the Bishop, both of the previous excommunications were rescinded. Bolesław remained in hostile relations with his brother Duke Konrad of Głogów.
In 1257 Konrad kidnapped Bolesław from his castle in Legnica. The duke regained his freedom a few months later. In 1271 Bolesław took the town of Bo