click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Henry Parkes

Sir Henry Parkes, was a colonial Australian politician and longest non-consecutive Premier of the Colony of New South Wales, the present-day state of New South Wales in the Commonwealth of Australia. He has been referred to as the "Father of Federation" due to his early promotion for the federation of the six colonies of Australia, as an early critic of British convict transportation and as a proponent for the expansion of the Australian continental rail network. Parkes delivered his famous Tenterfield Oration in 1889 which led to his instigation of a conference in 1890 and a Constitutional Convention in 1891, the first of a series of meetings that led to the federation of Australia, he died in 1896. He was described during his lifetime by The Times as "the most commanding figure in Australian politics". Alfred Deakin described Sir Henry Parkes as having flaws but nonetheless being "a large-brained self-educated Titan whose natural field was found in Parliament". Parkes was born in Canley in Warwickshire and christened in the nearby village of Stoneleigh.

His father, Thomas Parkes, was a small-scale tenant farmer. Little is known about his mother, who died in 1842, he received little schooling, at an early age was working on a ropewalk for 4 pence a day. His next work was in a brickyard, describing it as "breaking stones on the Queen's highway with hardly enough clothing to protect him from the cold", he was apprenticed to John Holding, a bone and ivory turner at Birmingham, around 1832 joined the Birmingham political union. Between and 1838 he was associated with the political movements that aimed to improve living and working conditions for the working classes; as a young adult, Parkes educated himself by reading extensively, developed an interest in poetry. In 1835, he wrote poems that were addressed to the daughter of a local butler. On 11 July 1836 he went to live in a single room home. Parkes commenced business on his own account in Birmingham and had a bitter struggle to make ends meet. After the loss of their two children at an early age and a few unsuccessful weeks living in London and his wife emigrated to New South Wales.

They travelled aboard the Strathfieldsaye, which arrived at Sydney on 25 July 1839. Another child was born two days before. On arrival they had only a few shillings between them and had to sell their belongings as Parkes looked for work, he was employed as a labourer with John Jamison, one of the colony's wealthiest settlers, on the Regentville estate near Penrith. He was paid with food rations. After spending six months at Regentville, he returned to Sydney and worked in various low-paying jobs, first with an ironmongery store and with a firm of engineers and brass-founders. About a year after his arrival in Sydney, Parkes was hired by the New South Wales Customs Department as a Tide Waiter, given the task of inspecting merchant vessels to guard against smuggling, he had been recommended for this post by Jamison's son-in-law, William John Gibbes, the manager of Regentville and the son of Colonel John George Nathaniel Gibbes who led the Customs Department. Parkes' financial position improved due to his stable new government job though he was still burdened with a backlog of undischarged debts.

Parkes continued to write poetry. A volume entitled Stolen Moments was published in Sydney in 1842, he met William Augustine Duncan, the editor of a local newspaper. In early 1846, he left the Customs Department after a disagreement with Colonel Gibbes over a press leak that concerned the alleged behaviour of one of Parkes' co-workers. Despite this, Parkes would continue to remain on friendly terms with Gibbes and his family for the rest of his life. Gibbes' grandson, Frederick Jamison Gibbes, was a member of the Parliament of New South Wales in the 1880s and like Parkes became a supporter of federation. After his departure from the Customs Service, Parkes worked in the private sector, he worked as an ivory and bone turner and ran a shop of his own in Hunter Street. At one stage, he owned several newspapers, including The People's Advocate and New South Wales Vindicator and Empire, he was not successful as a businessman and went bankrupt after running up debts totaling £48,500. He continued to support published poetry in his newspapers.

During Parkes' early years in Australia, Parkes took an interest in political issues. Most notably, he joined the growing movement in the colony for self-governance; this was a major political issue. He became an opponent of the transportation of convicts to Australia and a supporter of land reform, he voiced his opinions on political issues in the People's Advocate. He first became involved in politics in 1848 when he worked for Robert Lowe in his successful campaign in the Legislative Council elections; the following year, he supported a petition to the Parliament of the United Kingdom for fewer restrictions on voting. He spoke in favour of universal suffrage for the first time. Parkes thought his own speech a weak performance; the petition succeeded in securing less restrictive voting requirements. On 8 June 1849, Parkes attended a protest in Circular Quay against the arrival of a convict ship in Sydney, he continued to support the anti-transportation cause with writings and speeches, until the British Governm

Warren Keith Urbom

Warren Keith Urbom was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Nebraska. Born in Atlanta, Urbom was a Technical Sergeant in the United States Army during World War II, from 1944 to 1946, he received an Artium Baccalaureus from Nebraska Wesleyan University in 1950 and a Juris Doctor from the University of Michigan Law School in 1953. He was in private practice in Lincoln, Nebraska from 1953 to 1970. On March 11, 1970, Urbom was nominated by President Richard Nixon to a seat on the United States District Court for the District of Nebraska vacated by Robert Van Pelt. Urbom was confirmed by the United States Senate on April 23, 1970, received his commission on April 24, 1970, he served as chief judge from 1972 to 1986. He was an adjunct instructor at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln College of Law from 1979 to 1990, he assumed senior status on December 31, 1990. Urbom assumed inactive status on April 25, 2014, meaning that while he remained a Federal Judge, he no longer heard cases or participated in court business.

Urbom died in Lincoln, Nebraska on July 28, 2017, at the age of 91. Warren Keith Urbom at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center

Lairdland Farm House

The Lairdland Farm House is a historic farmhouse in Giles County, Tennessee, U. S.. The land belonged to Thomas J. Lane when it was purchased by Robert Henderson Laird in the 1830. Shortly after, Laird built the farmhouse, he designed it in the Greek Revival architectural style. During the American Civil War of 1861–1865, it served as a hospital for the Confederate States Army. In 1867, it was passed on to her husband, James Knox Polk Blackburn, it was subsequently inherited by Dr. James K. P. Blackburn. By the 1990s, the house belonged to James T. Blackburn IV. In 2002, it was purchased by Donald Rouleau; the house has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since September 7, 1995. It has a Civil War museum open to the public. Lairdland Farm House - official site

122 mm gun M1931/37 (A-19)

122 mm corps gun M1931/37 was a Soviet field gun developed in late 1930s by combining the barrel of the 122 mm gun M1931 and the carriage of the 152 mm howitzer-gun M1937. The gun was in production from 1939 until 1946, it remained in service for a long time after the end of the war. Vehicle-mounted variants of the gun were fitted to the IS-2 and IS-3 tanks of the Iosif Stalin series of tanks and the ISU-122 self-propelled gun. In 1936 the Red Army adopted the 122 mm gun M1931 known as A-19. Unlike earlier ordnance pieces used by the Red Army, it had split trail carriage with suspension, improved mobility and traverse; the carriage of M1931 had a number of shortcomings though. The elevation mechanism was unreliable. Soon after the M1931, the Red Army received another artillery piece in form of the 152 mm howitzer-gun M1937, developed at the No. 172 Plant, under F. F. Petrov; this led to an upgrade of the M1931, handled by Petrov's design bureau. The barrel of the M1931 was placed on the carriage of a ML-20.

The improved gun underwent trials in September–October 1938 and on 29 April 1939 was adopted as 122 mm corps gun M1931/37. Unusually, the new variant, like the old one, was referred to as A-19; the M1931/37 was manufactured by the Barrikady Plant in No. 172 Plant. The number of M1931/37s manufactured can be estimated at about 2,450, not including vehicle-mounted barrels. Like barrel of late production M1931, the barrel of the M1931/37 was of loose liner construction, consisted of liner and screwed-upon breech; the breechblock was of interrupted screw type, similar in construction to that of the 152 mm howitzer M1910/37. Recoil system consisted of hydraulic recoil buffer and hydro-pneumatic recuperator, both located inside the cradle under the barrel; the gun had split trail carriage adapted from the 152 mm howitzer-gun M1937. The carriage was fitted with leaf spring metal wheels with pneumatic tires; the carriage featured an equilibrator. The shield gave the crew some protection from small arms and shell fragments.

The M1931/37 was transported with barrel pulled back. It was permitted to tow the gun with barrel in its normal position, but for short distances only and with speed of no more than 4–5 km/h. Several types of artillery tractors were used: S-2 Stalinets-2, Komintern and, from 1943, Ya-12. Both variants, M1931 and M1931/37, had the same place in army organizations, were used alongside each other and combat reports differentiate between them; the A-19 was intended for corps artillery. Together with ML-20 it formed a so-called "corps duplex". In 1940–41 there were three types of corps artillery regiments: With two battalions of ML-20 and one of either A-19 or 107-mm guns. With two battalions of ML-20 and two of either A-19 or 107-mm guns. With three battalions of ML-20. Soon after the outbreak of the Great Patriotic War the corps artillery was eliminated and was only reintroduced late in the war; those new artillery regiments were issued 122 mm guns along with other pieces 107 mm guns and 152 mm howitzers, in total 16-20 pieces per regiment.

On 1 June 1944, RKKA corps artillery possessed 387 A-19s, on 1 May 1945—289 A-19s. The gun was used by artillery units of the Reserve of the Main Command. In mid-1941 a cannon regiment of the RVGK had 48 A-19. From 1942 cannon brigades were introduced, with 36 A-19s each; such brigade could be a part of an artillery division—a huge formation, with up to four brigades of A-19 or ML-20. The first combat use of the A-19 was in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, it saw combat in the Winter War. On 1 March 1940 there were 130 A-19 guns at the frontline. Three pieces were lost. By June 1941 the RKKA possessed, according to 1257 or 1300 A-19s; the gun proceeded to be used throughout the Great Patriotic War. The A-19 was used for indirect fire against enemy personnel and key objects in the near rear, it was equipped with armour-piercing shells for direct fire against armoured targets. Although not an ideal anti-tank gun because of its large size, slow traverse and slow rate of fire, in 1943 the A-19 was one of only a few Soviet guns effective against the new German tanks, such as the Tiger and Elefant.

An A-19 No. 501 was the first gun to open fire on 20 April 1945 at the Battle of Berlin. In the early stage of the Great Patriotic War hundreds of A-19s fell into the hands of Wehrmacht. Both variants were adopted - M1931 as 12,2 cm K.390/1 and M1931/37 as 12,2 cm K.390/2. Germans used a total of 424 of these guns in field and coastal artillery and manufactured ammunition for them. Germany sold 150 of the captured A-19s to Spain in 1943; this transaction was part of the "Bär Program", a program to complete and modernize the equipment of the Spanish Armed Forces using armament delivered by Germany. Most of these A-19 were assigned to the Corps Field Artillery Regiments of the Spanish Army, each regiment receiving 12 pieces to equip a group; the model wa

John Gilbert (bushranger)

Johnny Gilbert was an Australian bushranger shot dead by the police at the age of 23 near Binalong, New South Wales on 13 May 1865. Gilbert was a member of Ben Hall's gang. Hall and Gilbert were both shot by police within a week of each other. Hall was shot dead on 5 May 1865 near New South Wales. After Hall was killed his gang split up and Gilbert and John Dunn travelled to Binalong where Dunn had relatives, he was born in Hamilton, Canada in 1842. His mother Eleanor died shortly after his birth, his father William subsequently married Eliza Cord, a girl only older than his eldest surviving daughter, Eleanor. In 1852 John accompanied his family to the Victorian goldfields. Nine members of the Gilbert family arrived in Port Phillip on board the Revenue in October 1852, they included William and Eliza, Frank, Charles, Thomas Charbonnelle and Nicholas Wiseman. A contemporary of Hall and Gardiner, Johnny Gilbert, alias Roberts, was one of the gang charged with the robbery of the gold escort at Eugowra Rocks, but had not been captured.

His uncle, John Davis, was found shot in April 1854 Gilbert was charged with murder. He was acquitted but jailed for horse stealing; some suggest Gilbert accompanied John Davis, to the Victorian goldfields. However, there is no mention of Davis on the passenger list for the Revenue, though there is a ten-year-old John Gilbert. Roy Mendham, in his book, The Dictionary of Australian Bushrangers, asserts that Gilbert was responsible for the murder of his uncle. In 1854, Davis was found shot dead, a Joseph Roberts, an alias of John Gilbert, was tried for Davis's murder but acquitted. Roberts was tried for horsestealing. Roberts however was said to be about seventeen, Davis's murder occurred at the Waverley Arms at Bondi Junction, New South Wales, it would seem that Roberts, although an alias for a John Gilbert, is not the same John Gilbert. The Gilbert family history does not include the names Roberts or Davis in Australia, although Wilson was used as an alias by Charles, his older brother who fled first to New Zealand's gold fields to California to avoid arrest.

When he was only twelve, Gilbert worked as a stablehand at Kilmore, Victoria for his sister Eleanor and her new husband, John Stafford, for a time before moving on to the Kiandra goldfields in New South Wales. John was described as quite a smart man who could read and write, a jolly fellow, always laughing, it was because of his happy disposition. He was of thin slight build, an excellent horseman. At eighteen he fell under the influence of the bushranger. In 1862, John Gilbert was first named as an accomplice of Gardiner when they and two others held up a storekeeper. Just over a month John Gilbert was involved in another robbery, this time with Gardiner, Ben Hall. From on John Gilbert was identified as being involved in several hold-ups between Lambing Flat and Lachlan. Frank Gardiner enlisted the assistance of John Gilbert, Ben Hall, John O'Meally, Dan Charters, Henry Manns, Alexander Fordyce and Johnny Bow, to rob the Forbes gold escort at a place called Eugowra Rocks. On 15 November 1864 the gang robbed the Gundagai Mail near Jugiong and Gilbert shot Sergeant Parry dead.

Senior Constable Charles Hales of the Binalong police station received information at 8:00 PM on 12 May 1865 that the two bushrangers had "stuck up" the Woolshed near Murrumburah. He suspected, he thought they might visit Dunn's grandfather. Senior Constable Hale gathered constables John Bright and Michael King and headed out to watch Kelly's house, they watched most of the night, but saw no one enter, so returned to the police station about half a mile away. The next morning at 8:00 AM, John Kelly informed Senior Constable Hales that Gilbert and Dunn were at his hut. Hales headed to Kelly's place. Two parties were formed and Hall went to the back of the hut and were stationed in the creek. Hales and King were stationed at the front of the hut; the troopers watched for about an hour in the rain. At some stage Kelly's son, approached the stockyard. Hales called him over to ask if there were strangers in the house, to which he said "No." Hales and King approached the dogs started barking. John Kelly and his wife came to the door of the hut, seeing Trooper Hales, Kelly called out "Look out, the hut is surrounded by bloody troopers."

As Hales entered the hut two shots were fired, Hales looked through the slabs of the bedroom wall to see the shadows of two men. Hales fired and ran to the front room of the hut, he called out "Men, surround the hut—the bushrangers are inside". Hales warned Kelly if he did not turn out, they would burn the hut. Hales heard firing in the paddock at the end of the hut, he saw the bushrangers firing at Constables King and Hall. The bushrangers kept up the fire as they got through a bush fence that led to the creek and took up position behind a large tree. Gilbert used his revolving rifle on Hales and Bright but it misfired. Meanwhile and Hall took up positions. Dunn and Gilbert started firing their revolvers at Hall and King, ran down to the creek. Hales and Bright fired at the bushrangers, at which time Gilbert dropped. Hales ordered his men to chase Dunn. King was left to guard Gilbert's body; the three constables chased Dunn for about a mile and a half, they were exhausted and h

Columbia State Community College

Columbia State Community College is a public community college in Columbia, Tennessee. Founded in 1966, it serves nine counties in southern Middle Tennessee through five campuses, it is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges to award Associate of Arts, Associate of Science, Associate of Science in Teaching, Associate of Fine Arts, Associate of Applied Science degrees, technical certificates. Columbia State grants Associate of Arts, Associate of Science, Associate of Science in Teaching, Associate of Fine Arts, Associate of Applied Science degrees, technical certificates; the college is organized into the following academic divisions: Health Sciences. The college offers more than 70 programs of study. Students entering a community college in Tennessee who select a major within the Tennessee Transfer Pathways complete required courses and earn an associate degree can transition seamlessly as a junior to any Tennessee public university, or at participating Tennessee independent colleges and universities.

All earned. Columbia State has partnerships with area universities to offer bachelor's and master's degree programs on a Columbia State campus; the schools and programs offered are: Middle Tennessee State University Bachelor's degree in Agribusiness Bachelor's degree in Interdisciplinary Studies Master's degree in Education Education Specialist, Ed. S. Tennessee Tech University Bachelor's degree in Interdisciplinary Studies The average student age is 22.4 years old. In Fall 2018, 60% of students were female; the number of students enrolled in Fall 2018 was 6,221. The college employs more than 520 people, consisting of 362 faculty members. 81% Caucasian 7% African-American 6% Hispanic 2% Asian American or Pacific Islander 0.09% Native American The school is a TCCAA and National Junior College Athletic Association member and fields baseball, women's soccer, men's and women's basketball teams in intercollegiate competition. Scholarships are offered for those sports; the men's basketball team won the 2015 TCCAA championship and have competed in the 2012, 2014 and 2015 NJCAA Men's National Basketball Tournament.

The baseball team was named the 2012 TCCAA champions, 2011 and 2013 NJCAA Region VII champions and has competed in the NJCAA Junior College Baseball World Series 13 times, most in 2014. Columbia State offers intramural sports in basketball, flag football, ultimate frisbee and more. Columbia State has a variety of student groups including the Student Government Association, President's Leadership Society, Charger Student Radiographer Organization, North American Veterinary Technician Association, Phi Theta Kappa, Respiratory Care Crew, Sigma Kappa Delta, Student Nursing Association, the STEM Club, study abroad, more. Official website 35.616527°N 87.099709°W / 35.616527.