SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Henry Walter Bates

Henry Walter Bates was an English naturalist and explorer who gave the first scientific account of mimicry in animals. He was most famous for his expedition to the rainforests of the Amazon with Alfred Russel Wallace, starting in 1848. Wallace lost his collection on the return voyage when his ship caught fire; when Bates arrived home in 1859 after a full eleven years, he had sent back over 14,712 species of which 8,000 were new to science. Bates wrote up his findings in The Naturalist on the River Amazons. Bates was born in Leicester to a literate middle-class family. However, like Wallace, T. H. Huxley and Herbert Spencer, he had a normal education to the age of about 13 when he became apprenticed to a hosiery manufacturer, he joined the Mechanics' Institute, studied in his spare time and collected insects in Charnwood Forest. In 1843 he had a short paper on beetles published in the journal Zoologist. Bates became friends with Wallace when the latter took a teaching post in the Leicester Collegiate School.

Wallace became a keen entomologist, he read the same kind of books as Bates and as Darwin, Huxley and no doubt many others had. These included Thomas Robert Malthus on population, James Hutton and Charles Lyell on geology, Darwin's The Voyage of the Beagle, above all, the anonymous Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, which put evolution into everyday discussion amongst literate folk, they read William H. Edwards's Voyage Up the River Amazons on his Amazon expedition, this started them thinking that a visit to the region would be exciting, might launch their careers. In 1847 Wallace and Bates discussed the idea of an expedition to the Amazon rainforest, the plan being to cover expenses by sending specimens back to London. There an agent would sell them for a commission; the two friends, who were both by now experienced amateur entomologists, met in London to prepare themselves. They did this by viewing South American animals in the main collections, they collected "wants lists" of the desires of museums and collectors.

All known letters exchanged between Wallace and Bates are available in Wallace Letters Online. Bates and Wallace sailed from Liverpool in April 1848. For the first year they settled in a villa near the city, collecting insects. After that they agreed to collect independently, Bates travelling to Cametá on the Tocantins River, he moved up the Amazon, to Óbidos, Manaus and to the Upper Amazon. Tefé was his base camp for four and a half years, his health deteriorated and he returned to Britain in 1859, after spending nearly eleven years on the Amazon. He sent his collection on three different ships to avoid the fate of his colleague Wallace, who lost his entire collection when his ship sank. Bates spent the next three years writing his account of the trip, The Naturalist on the River Amazons regarded as one of the finest reports of natural history travels. In 1863 he married Sarah Ann Mason. From 1864 onwards, he worked as assistant secretary of the Royal Geographical Society, he sold his personal Lepidoptera collection to Frederick DuCane Godman and Osbert Salvin and began to work on beetles.

From 1868 to 1869 and in 1878 he was president of the Entomological Society of London. In 1871 he was elected a fellow of the Linnaean Society, in 1881 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, he died of bronchitis in 1892. A large part of his collections are in the Natural History Museum. Specimens he collected went to the Natural History Museum, at that time called the British Museum, to private collectors. This, the disposal of the collection after his death, are mentioned in Edward Clodd's Memories. Wallace wrote an obituary of Bates in Nature, he describes Bates's 1861 paper on mimicry in Heliconiidae butterflies as "remarkable and epoch-making", with "a clear and intelligible explanation" addressing its attackers as "persons who are more or less ignorant of the facts". He praises Bates's contributions to entomology, before regretting, in remarkably bitter words for an official obituary, that the "confinement and constant strain" of "mere drudgery of office work" for the Royal Geographical Society had with "little doubt... weakened his constitution and shortened a valuable life".

Henry Bates was one of a group of outstanding naturalist-explorers who were supporters of the theory of evolution by natural selection. Other members of this group included J. D. Hooker, Fritz Müller, Richard Spruce and Thomas Henry Huxley. Bates' work on Amazonian butterflies led him to develop the first scientific account of mimicry the kind of mimicry which bears his name: Batesian mimicry; this is the mimicry by a palatable species of an noxious species. A common example seen in temperate gardens is the hover-fly, many of which – though beari

Dutton Cars

Dutton Cars, based in Worthing, England, was a maker of kit cars between 1970 and 1989. In terms of numbers of kits produced, it was the largest kit car manufacturer in the world; the company was founded by Tim Dutton-Woolley and run from a small workshop in which a series of cars named P1 were built. In October 1971 the B-Type appeared with a more or less standard specification and based on Triumph Herald components. A move was made to a larger factory in Tangmere, Chichester. Most Duttons depended on a ladder frame chassis built from steel profiles, which held the various parts taken from the donor car. After using Triumph Herald parts, Most Duttons built used Ford Escort Mk 1 or Mk 2 components; the B-Type evolved into the Dutton Phaeton. Versions of the Phaeton were based on Ford Escort components and were produced until 1989; these were available as built-up cars, in which case they received a 1.6 litre Ford Crossflow engine with 84 hp. In 1979 Dutton launched an Escort-based estate car with off-road looks.

Three years the Ford Motor Company decided to use the Sierra name on their Cortina/Taunus replacement and served Dutton with a legal writ demanding that they stop using the name. But at a case in the High Court in London, Dutton won the right to continue with the name on kit cars, as the judge ruled that they were a separate category from assembled cars; the case was popularly portrayed as a "gritty David and Goliath battle", provided Dutton with some welcome publicity. The Sierra was Dutton's best seller for many years; the model was withdrawn in 1989. A further move to larger premises back in Worthing was made in 1982 with glass-fibre body making at a separate works in Lancing. On the usual rear-wheel drive Ford Escort underpinnings, it made its debut at the Birmingham Motor Show. It used the mechanical parts and doors from a two-door Escort but had a Dutton-developed glassfibre body over a steel tubular frame; the Rico was a compact and aerodynamic two-door saloon, 3,911 mm long and much lighter than the donor car.

By 1984, 80 people were employed spread over four factories and a large showroom in Worthing – production topped 1,000 a year. By 1989 Tim Dutton had got bored with the kit-car scene and all the designs were sold. A new model had been developed called the Maroc, a modified Ford Fiesta with a convertible body, it was available as a factory-finished car but prices became too high and from 1993 kit versions were made available. The design has been sold on to Novus of Sussex. After leaving the kit car business Tim Dutton operated as a consultant but returned to the automobile-making business in 1995 with the Dutton Mariner and Dutton Commander, amphibious cars based on the Ford Fiesta and Suzuki Samurai; the Dutton Surf, based on the current Suzuki Jimny, was introduced in 2005. Tim Dutton is now a record holder as the only person to have crossed the English Channel twice in an amphibious car. Early Dutton kits are now hard to come by. Most Duttons have been assembled and are only available to purchase as second-hand cars in need of some restoration.

When a Dutton is purchased in kit form the person building it will require a donor car. The donor car is used to provide the engine and many other essential components. Fords make perfect donor cars. Most people use donor cars that would no longer be roadworthy and use the spares to create a new kit car. Citations Bibliography Dutton Owners' club Dutton Amphibian Tim Dutton

Joe Hill Louis

Joe Hill Louis, born Lester Hill, was an American singer, harmonica player and one-man band. He was one of a small number of one-man blues bands to have recorded commercially in the 1950s, he was a session musician for Sun Records. He recorded as Chicago Sunny Boy for Meteor Records in 1953. Louis was born Lester Hill on September 23, 1921, in Tennessee, his nickname "Joe Louis" arose as a result of a childhood fight with another youth. At the age of 14 he left home to work as a servant for a wealthy Memphis family, he worked at the Peabody Hotel in Memphis in the late 1930s. From the early 1940s onwards he worked as one-man band. Louis made his recording debut on Columbia Records in 1949, his music was released on a variety of labels through the 1950s, such as Modern, Checker and Big Town. Louis most notably recording for Sam Phillips' Sun Records, for whom he recorded extensively as a backing musician for a wide variety of other singers as well as under his own name, his most notable electric blues single, "Boogie in the Park", featured Louis performing "one of the loudest, most overdriven, distorted guitar stomps recorded" while playing a rudimentary drum kit.

It was the only record released on Sam Phillips's early Phillips label before he founded Sun Records. Louis's electric guitar playing is considered a predecessor of heavy metal music, his most notable recording at Sun Records was as guitarist on Rufus Thomas's "Bear Cat", an answer record to Big Mama Thornton's "Hound Dog", which reached number 3 on the R&B chart and resulted in legal action for copyright infringement. He shared writing credit for the song "Tiger Man", recorded by Elvis Presley, among others. Around 1950 he took over the Pepticon Boy radio program on WDIA from B. B. King, he was known as "The Pepticon Boy" and "The Be-Bop Boy". Louis died on August 5, 1957, in John Gaston Hospital, in Memphis, at the age of 35, of tetanus contracted as a result of an infected cut on his thumb, sustained while he was working as an odd job man. Harris, S.. Blues Who's Who, 5th paperback edition. New York: Da Capo Press. Turner, B.. "The Blues in Memphis". Album booklet for Sun Records: The Blues Years 1950–1956.

London: Sun Records. Joe Hill Louis discography Joe Hill Louis on AllMusic