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Hephthalites

The Hephthalites, sometimes called the White Huns, were a people who lived in Central Asia during the 5th to 8th centuries. Militarily important during 450 to 560, they were based in Bactria and expanded east to the Tarim Basin, west to Sogdia and south through Afghanistan to northern India, they included both nomadic and settled urban communities. They were part of the four major states known collectively as Xyon or Huna, being preceded by the Kidarites, succeeded by the Alkhon and lastly the Nezak. All of these peoples have been linked to the Huns who invaded Eastern Europe during the same period, and/or have been referred to as "Huns", but there is no consensus among scholars about such a connection; the stronghold of the Hephthalites was Tokharistan on the northern slopes of the Hindu Kush, in what is present-day northeastern Afghanistan. By 479, the Hephthalites had conquered Sogdia and driven the Kidarites westwards, by 493 they had captured parts of present-day Dzungaria and the Tarim Basin in what is now Northwest China.

They expanded into northwestern India as well. The sources for Hephthalite history are poor and historians' opinions differ. There is no king-list and historians are not sure how they arose or what language they spoke; the Sveta Huna who invaded northern India are the Hephthalites, but the exact relation is not clear. They seem to have called themselves Ebodalo abbreviated Eb, a name they wrote in the Bactrian script on some of their coins; the origin of the name "Hephthalites" is unknown from either a Khotanese word *Hitala meaning "Strong" or from postulated Middle Persian *haft āl "the Seven". The name Hephthalites originated with Ancient Greek sources, which referred to them as Ephthalite, Abdel or Avdel. To the Armenians, the Hephthalites were Haital, to the Persians and Arabs, they were Haytal or Hayatila, while their Bactrian name was Ebodalo. In Chinese chronicles, the Hephthalites are called Ye-tha-i-li-to 厌带夷栗陁, or the more usual modern and abbreviated form Yada 嚈噠; the latter name has been given various Latinised renderings, including Ye-ta, Ye-tha.

The corresponding Cantonese and Korean names Yipdaat and Yeoptal, which preserve aspects of the Middle Chinese pronunciation better than the modern Mandarin pronunciation, are more consistent with the Greek Hephthalite. Some Chinese chroniclers suggest that the root Hephtha- was technically a title equivalent to "emperor", while Hua was the name of the dominant tribe. In Ancient India, names such as Hephthalite were unknown; the Hephthalites were part of, or offshoots of, people known in India as Hunas or Turushkas, although these names may have referred to broader groups or neighbouring peoples. There are several theories regarding the origins of the Hephthalites, with the Iranian and Turkic theories being the most prominent. According to most specialist scholars, the spoken language of the Hephthalites was an Eastern Iranian language, but different from the Bactrian language written in the Greek alphabet, used as their "official language" and minted on coins, as was done under the preceding Kushan Empire.

According to Xavier Tremblay, one of the Hephthalite rulers was named "Khingila", which has the same root as the Sogdian word xnγr and the Wakhi word xiŋgār, meaning "sword". The name Mihirakula is thought to be derived from mithra-kula, Iranian for "the Sun family". Toramāna, Mihirakula's father, is considered to have an Iranian origin. In Sanskrit, mihira-kula would mean the kul "family" of mihira "Sun", although mihira is not purely Sanskrit but is a borrowing from Middle Iranian mihr. Janos Harmatta gives the translation "Mithra's Begotten" and supports the Iranian theory. For many years scholars suggested; some have claimed. Today, the Hephthalites are held to have been an Eastern Iranian people speaking an East Iranian language; the Hephthalites inscribed their coins in the Bactrian script, held Iranian titles, the names of Hephthalite rulers given in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh are Iranian, gem inscriptions and other evidence shows that the official language of the Hephthalite elite was East Iranian.

In 1959, Kazuo Enoki proposed that the Hephthalites were Indo-European Iranians as some sources indicated that they were from Bactria, known to have been inhabited by Indo-Iranian people in antiquity. Richard Frye is cautiously accepting of Enoki's hypothesis, while at the same time stressing that the Hephthalites "were a mixed horde". More Xavier Tremblay's detailed examination of surviving Hephthalite personal names has indicated that Enoki's hypothesis that they were East Iranian may well be correct, but the matter remains unresolved in academic circles. According to the Encyclopaedia Iranica and Encyclopaedia of Islam, the Hephthalites originated in what is today Afghanistan, they had no direct connection with the European Huns, but may have been causally related with their movement. The tribes in question deliberately called themselves "Huns"; some Hephthalites may have been a prominent clan of the Chionites. According to Richard Nelson Frye: Just as nomadic empires were confederations of many peoples, we may tentatively propose that the ruling groups of these invaders were, or at least included, Turkic-speaking tribesmen from the east and north.

Although most the bulk of the people in the confederation of Chionites and then

Fiat 500X

The Fiat 500X is a subcompact crossover SUV manufactured and marketed by Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, since its debut at the 2014 Paris Motor Show. As Fiat's second four door hatchback, following the 500L, the 500X is related to the Jeep Renegade. Both are manufactured at FCA's SATA Plant in Italy; the 500X is based on the Small Wide 4×4 architecture, a platform evolved from the GM Fiat Small platform used for the Fiat Grande Punto and Fiat 500L. The Fiat 500X is available with several engines with optional all wheel drive with most. At launch, engines available outside of North America included: one gasoline, the turbocharged 1.4 MultiAir2, two MultiJet turbodiesels displacing 1.6 and 2.0 litres. In North America, the Fiat 500X features: A 1.4 litre turbocharged four cylinder engine, with a six speed manual transmission available only with front wheel drive. A aspirated 2.4 litre four cylinder engine, with a nine speed automatic with standard front wheel drive and optional with all wheel drive.

In the United States, FCA offered the Fiat 500X in Pop, Lounge and Trekking Plus trim levels — with optional all wheel drive on all but Pop trim level. In Europe, it comes in Pop, Pop Star, Lounge and Cross Plus trims, with the all wheel drive available only on the 2.0L Multijet diesel, the higher powered gasoline versions with automatic gearboxes. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety named the 2016 Fiat 500X small crossover a 2015 Top Safety Pick+, its highest rating. IIHS testing simulates: a side impact with a large SUV or pickup truck a moderate offset frontal impact a small offset frontal impact roof crush consistent with a rollover a rear collision capable of inducing whiplashIn each test, the all new Fiat 500X recorded the highest possible score of “good”. Official website

Aspermia

Aspermia is the complete lack of semen with ejaculation. It is associated with infertility. One of the causes of aspermia is retrograde ejaculation, which can be brought on by excessive drug use, or as a result of prostate surgery, it can be caused by alpha blockers such as tamsulosin and silodosin. Another cause of aspermia is ejaculatory duct obstruction, which may result in a complete lack of or a low-concentration semen, in which the semen contains only the secretion of accessory prostate glands downstream to the orifice of the ejaculatory ducts. Aspermia can be caused by androgen deficiency; this can be the result of absence of puberty, in which the prostate gland and seminal vesicles remain small due to lack of androgen exposure and do not produce seminal fluid, or of treatment for prostate cancer, such as maximal androgen blockade. Retrograde ejaculation Ejaculatory duct obstruction