It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration, compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era. The Hellenistic period saw the rise of New Comedy, Alexandrian poetry, the Septuagint, Greek science was advanced by the works of the mathematician Euclid and the polymath Archimedes. The religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, eastern deities such as Attis and Cybele, the Hellenistic period was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization which established Greek cities and kingdoms in Asia and Africa. This resulted in the export of Greek culture and language to new realms. Equally, these new kingdoms were influenced by the cultures, adopting local practices where beneficial, necessary. Hellenistic culture thus represents a fusion of the Ancient Greek world with that of the Near East, Middle East and this mixture gave rise to a common Attic-based Greek dialect, known as Koine Greek, which became the lingua franca through the Hellenistic world.
Scholars and historians are divided as to what event signals the end of the Hellenistic era, Hellenistic is distinguished from Hellenic in that the first encompasses the entire sphere of direct ancient Greek influence, while the latter refers to Greece itself. The word originated from the German term hellenistisch, from Ancient Greek Ἑλληνιστής, from Ἑλλάς, Hellenistic is a modern word and a 19th-century concept, the idea of a Hellenistic period did not exist in Ancient Greece. Although words related in form or meaning, e. g, the major issue with the term Hellenistic lies in its convenience, as the spread of Greek culture was not the generalized phenomenon that the term implies. Some areas of the world were more affected by Greek influences than others. The Greek population and the population did not always mix, the Greeks moved and brought their own culture. While a few fragments exist, there is no surviving historical work which dates to the hundred years following Alexanders death. The works of the major Hellenistic historians Hieronymus of Cardia, Duris of Samos, the earliest and most credible surviving source for the Hellenistic period is Polybius of Megalopolis, a statesman of the Achaean League until 168 BC when he was forced to go to Rome as a hostage.
His Histories eventually grew to a length of forty books, covering the years 220 to 167 BC, another important source, Plutarchs Parallel Lives though more preoccupied with issues of personal character and morality, outlines the history of important Hellenistic figures. Appian of Alexandria wrote a history of the Roman empire that includes information of some Hellenistic kingdoms, other sources include Justins epitome of Pompeius Trogus Historiae Philipicae and a summary of Arrians Events after Alexander, by Photios I of Constantinople. Lesser supplementary sources include Curtius Rufus, Pliny, in the field of philosophy, Diogenes Laertius Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers is the main source. Ancient Greece had traditionally been a collection of fiercely independent city-states. After the Peloponnesian War, Greece had fallen under a Spartan hegemony, in which Sparta was pre-eminent but not all-powerful
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia. Bactria was located between the Hindu Kush mountain range and the Amu Darya river, covering the region that straddles modern-day Afghanistan and Tajikistan. The English name Bactria is derived from the Ancient Greek, Βακτριανή, analogous names include the Pashto and Persian, باختر, translit. Bākhtar, Uzbek, Балх, Tajik, Бохтар, Chinese, 大夏, pinyin, Dàxià and this region played a major role in Central Asian history. At certain times the political limits of Bactria stretched far beyond the frame of the Bactrian plain. The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex is the modern designation for a Bronze Age culture of Central Asia. 2200–1700 BC, located in present-day eastern Turkmenistan, northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centred on the upper Amu Darya and its sites were discovered and named by the Soviet archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi. The early Greek historian Ctesias, c.400 BC, alleged that the legendary Assyrian king Ninus had defeated a Bactrian king named Oxyartes in ca.2140 BC, or some 1000 years before the Trojan War.
Since the decipherment of cuneiform in the 19th century, according to some writers, Bactria was the homeland of Indo-Iranian tribes who moved south-west into Iran and into north-western India around 2500–2000 BC. Later, it became the province of the Persian Empire in Central Asia. It was in these regions, where the soil of the mountainous country is surrounded by the Turanian desert. After Darius III had been defeated by Alexander the Great, the satrap of Bactria, Bessus attempted to organise a resistance but was captured by other warlords. He was tortured and killed, however, in the south, beyond the Oxus, he met strong resistance. After two years of war and an insurgency campaign, Alexander managed to establish little control over Bactria. After Alexanders death, Diodorus Siculus tells us that Philip received dominion over Bactria, at the Treaty of Triparadisus, both Diodorus Siculus and Arrian agree that the satrap Stasanor gained control over Bactria. Eventually, Alexanders empire was divided up among the generals in Alexanders army, Bactria became a part of the Seleucid Empire, named after its founder, Seleucus I.
The Macedonians, especially Seleucus I and his son Antiochus I, established the Seleucid Empire, the Greek language became dominant for some time there. The paradox that Greek presence was more prominent in Bactria than in areas far closer to Greece can possibly be explained by past deportations of Greeks to Bactria
In ancient Greek religion, Nike was a goddess who personified victory. She was variously described as the daughter of the Titan Pallas and the goddess Styx, and the sister of Kratos, the word νίκη nikē is of uncertain etymology. R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin and her siblings were close companions of Zeus, the dominant deity of the Greek pantheon. According to classical myth, Styx brought them to Zeus when the god was assembling allies for the Titanomachy against the older deities, Nike assumed the role of the divine charioteer, a role in which she often is portrayed in Classical Greek art. Nike flew around rewarding the victors with glory and fame. Nike is seen with wings in most statues and paintings, with one of the most famous being the Winged Victory of Samothrace, most other winged deities in the Greek pantheon had shed their wings by Classical times. Nike is the goddess of strength and victory, Nike was a very close acquaintance of Athena, and is thought to have stood in Athenas outstretched hand in the statue of Athena located in the Parthenon.
Nike is one of the most commonly portrayed figures on Greek coins, the sports equipment company Nike, Inc. is named after the Greek goddess Nike. Project Nike, an American anti-aircraft missile system is named after the goddess Nike, a figure of Nike with a vessel was the design of the first FIFA World Cup trophy, known as the Jules Rimet trophy. Since Giuseppe Cassiolis design for the 1928 Summer Olympics, the face of every Olympic medal bears Nikes figure holding a palm frond in her right hand. The goddess appears on the emblem of the University of Melbourne, spirit of Ecstasy, the hood ornament used by the automobile manufacturer Rolls-Royce was inspired by Nike. The Titanic Engineers Memorial, Southampton depicts Nike blessing the engineers of the RMS Titanic for staying at their post as the ship sank, the Honda motorcycle companys logo is inspired by the goddess Nike. Winged Victory of Samothrace Altar of Victory Nike of Paeonius Ángel de la Independencia Smith, William, A Dictionary of Greek, online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
Media related to Nike at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of Nike at Wiktionary Theoi Project, Nike Goddess Nike
The Kushan Empire was a syncretic empire, formed by Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century. Emperor Kanishka was a patron of Buddhism, however, as Kushans expanded southward. The Kushans were one of five branches of the Yuezhi confederation, the Kushans possibly used the Greek language initially for administrative purposes, but soon began to use Bactrian language. Kanishka sent his armies north of the Karakoram mountains, capturing territories as far as Kashgar and Yarkant, in the Tarim Basin of modern-day Xinjiang, China. A direct road from Gandhara to China remained under Kushan control for more than a century, encouraging travel across the Karakoram, the Kushan dynasty had diplomatic contacts with the Roman Empire, Sasanian Persia, Aksumite Empire and Han China. The Kushan empire fragmented into semi-independent kingdoms in the 3rd century AD, in the 4th century, the Guptas, an Indian dynasty pressed from the east. The last of the Kushan and Sasanian kingdoms were overwhelmed by invaders from the north.
Historian H. G. Rawlinson states that the Kushana Period is a prelude to the age of Guptas. Chinese sources describe the Guishuang, i. e, as the historian John E. Hill has put it, For well over a century. There have been arguments about the ethnic and linguistic origins of the Da Yuezhi and the Tochari. The five tribes constituting the Yuezhi are known in Chinese history as Xiūmì, Guìshuāng, Shuāngmǐ, Xìdùn, the Yuezhi reached the Hellenic kingdom of Greco-Bactria around 135 BC. The displaced Greek dynasties resettled to the southeast in areas of the Hindu Kush, some traces remain of the presence of the Kushans in the area of Bactria and Sogdiana. Archaeological structures are known in Takht-I-Sangin, Surkh Kotal, and in the palace of Khalchayan, various sculptures and friezes are known, representing horse-riding archers, and significantly men with artificially deformed skulls, such as the Kushan prince of Khalchayan. The Chinese first referred to people as the Yuezhi and said they established the Kushan Empire.
On the ruins of ancient Hellenistic cities such as Ai-Khanoum, the Kushans are known to have built fortresses, the earliest documented ruler, and the first one to proclaim himself as a Kushan ruler, was Heraios. He calls himself a tyrant on his coins, and exhibits skull deformation and he may have been an ally of the Greeks, and he shared the same style of coinage. Heraios may have been the father of the first Kushan emperor Kujula Kadphises, Ban Gus Book of Han tells us the Kushans divided up Bactria in 128 BC. He invaded Anxi, and took the Gaofu region and he defeated the whole of the kingdoms of Puda and Jibin
Joe Cribb is a numismatist, specialising in Asian coinages, and in particular on coins of the Kushan Empire. His catalogues of Chinese silver currency ingots, and of ritual coins of Southeast Asia were the first detailed works on subjects in English. Cribb joined the Department of Coins and Medals, British Museum, in the early 1970s, Cribb has specialist knowledge of all Asian coinages. He is particularly renowned for his research on the coins of the Kushan kings of ancient South, in addition to his work at the British Museum, Cribb was President of the Royal Numismatic Society and is Secretary General of the Oriental Numismatic Society. He is a Trustee of the Ditchling Museum, where his grandfather Joseph Cribb was a sculptor, Cribb was presented with the Award of the Hirayama Silk Road Institute, the Medal of the Royal Numismatic Society, and the Huntington Medal of the American Numismatic Society. A volume of papers in his honour was presented to him upon his retirement from the British Museum, a selection of his publications are given below, from Cowrie Shells to Credit Cards, BM Press, London,1986.
Money Fun Book, BM Press, London,1986, the Coin Atlas, Macdonald, London,1990. Eyewitness Guide, Dorling Kindersley, London,1990, 83–96,4, Money is Power, Numismatic Chronicle pp. 461–529, pl. 49–56. Money in the Bank, an Illustrated Introduction to the Money Collection of The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, a Catalogue of Sycee in the British Museum, Chinese Silver Currency Ingots, c. 1750–1933, British Museum Press, London 1992. Metallurgical Analysis of Chinese Coins at the British Museum, British Museum Research Publication 152,2005, crossroads of Asia, Transformation in Image and Symbol in the Art of Ancient Afghanistan and Pakistan, Ancient India and Iran Trust, Cambridge,1992. Studies in Silk Road Coins and Culture, Papers in Honour of Professor Ikuo Hirayama on his 65th Birthday, Institute of Silk Road Studies, Kamakura,1997. The end of Greek coinage in Bactria and India and its evidence for the Kushan coinage system, in R. Ashton and S. Hurter Studies in Greek Numismatics in Memory of Martin Jessop Price, London,1998, pp. 83–98, plates 21–23.
The early Kushan kings, new evidence for chronology – Evidence from the Rabatak inscription of Kanishka I, in M. Alram, klimburg-Salter Coins and Chronology, Essays on the pre-Islamic History of the Indo-Iranian Borderlands, Vienna 1999, pp. 177–205. Kanishka I’s Buddha image coins revisited, in Silk Road Art and Archaeology, Coins from Kashmir Smast – New Numismatic Evidence, Peshawar,2008. Eric Gill and Ditchling, The Workshop Tradition, Ditchling,2007, dating and locating Mujatria and the two Kharahostes, Journal of the Oriental Numismatics Society,2015, p. 26-47
Artificial cranial deformation
Artificial cranial deformation, head flattening, or head binding is a form of body alteration in which the skull of a human being is deformed intentionally. It is done by distorting the normal growth of a skull by applying force. Flat shapes, elongated ones, rounded ones, and conical ones are among those chosen, typically, it is carried out on an infant, as the skull is most pliable at this time. In a typical case, headbinding begins approximately a month after birth, the earliest suggested examples were once thought to include the Proto-Neolithic Homo sapiens component from Shanidar Cave in Iraq, and among Neolithic peoples in Southwest Asia. The earliest written record of cranial deformation—by Hippocrates, of the Macrocephali or Long-heads, in the Old World, Huns are known to have practised similar cranial deformation. As were the known as the Alans. In Late Antiquity, the East Germanic tribes who were ruled by the Huns, the Gepids, Heruli, Rugii, in western Germanic tribes, artificial skull deformations rarely have been found.
In the Americas, the Maya and certain tribes of North American natives performed the custom, in North America the practice was known, especially among the Chinookan tribes of the Northwest and the Choctaw of the Southeast. Other tribes, including the Choctaw and Nooksack Indians, the practice of cranial deformation was practiced by the Lucayan people of the Bahamas, and it was known among the Aboriginal Australians. Deformation usually begins just after birth for the couple of years until the desired shape has been reached or the child rejects the apparatus. An example of a system is that of E. V. Zhirov, who described three types of artificial cranial deformation—round, fronto-occipital, and sagittal—for occurrences in Europe and Asia. One modern theory is cranial deformation was likely performed to signify group affiliation, such motivations may have played a key role in Maya society, aimed at creating a skull shape that is aesthetically more pleasing or associated with desirable attributes.
Historically, there have been a number of theories regarding the motivations for these practices. For example and Tschudi describe a mummy containing a foetus with an elongated skull, professor D’Outrepont, of great Celebrity in the department of obstetrics, has assured us that the foetus is one of seven months’ age. It belongs, according to a clearly defined formation of the cranium. According to Bellamy, these belonged to two infants and male, one of which was not more than a few months old. There is no significant difference in cranial capacity between artificially deformed skulls and normal skulls in Peruvian samples
95–80 BCE but concedes that Bopearachchis date could be correct. Hermaeus seems to have been successor of Philoxenus or Diomedes, according to Bopearachchi, these nomads were the Yuezhi, the ancestors of the Kushans, whereas Senior considers them Sakas. Following his reign, it is considered that Greek communities remained under the rule of these Hellenized nomads. Some parts of his kingdom may have taken over by kings. The coinage of Hermaeus was copied widely, in increasingly barbarized form by the new nomad rulers down to around 40 CE, in any case, the Yuezhi-Kushan preserved a close cultural interaction with the Greeks as late as the 3rd century CE. Given the importance of Hermaeus to the rulers, it is possible that Hermaeus himself was partially of nomad origin. Hermaeus issued Indian silver coins of three types, the first type has diademed or sometimes helmeted portrait, with reverse of sitting Zeus making benediction gesture. Hermaeus issued a series of Attic silver tetradrachms of this type.
The second type was a joint series of Hermaeus with his queen Kalliope, the reverse departs from the traditional Hermaeus format, in that it shows the king on a prancing horse. The horseman on Hermaeus version is portrayed somewhat different, being equipped with a typic Scythian longbow. The third series combined the reverses of the first series, without portrait, Hermaeus issued bronze coins with head of Zeus-Mithras and a prancing horse on the reverse. A Chinese historical record from the Hanshu Chap, 96A could possible be related to Hermaeus, even though this is very speculative and the record more likely refers to Saka kings. The Chinese records would put Hermaeuss dates later, with his reign ending around 40 BCE, 96A, king of Jibin, killed some Chinese envoys. After the death of the king, his son sent an envoy to China with gifts, the Chinese general Wen Zhong, commander of the border area in western Gansu, accompanied the escort back. Wutoulaos son plotted to kill Wen Zhong, when Wen Zhong discovered the plot, he allied himself with Yinmofu, son of the king of Rongqu.
They attacked Jibin and killed Wutoulaos son, Yinmofu was installed as king of Jibin, as a vassal of the Chinese Empire, and receiving the Chinese seal and ribbon of investiture. Later Yinmofu himself is recorded to have killed Chinese envoys in the reign of Emperor Yuandi, sent envoys to apologize to the Chinese court, during the reign of Emperor Chengdi other envoys were sent, but they were rejected as simple traders. Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Seleucid Empire Greco-Buddhism Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthian Kingdom Kushan Empire The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press
Kujula Kadphises was a Kushan prince who united the Yuezhi confederation during the 1st century CE, and became the first Kushan emperor. According to the Rabatak inscription, he was the grandfather of the great Kushan king Kanishka I. He is considered as the founder of the Kushan Empire, the origins of Kujula Kadphises are quite obscure, and it is usually considered he was a descendant of the Kushan ruler Heraios, or possibly identical with him. Interestingly however, Kujula shares his name some of the last Indo-Scythian rulers, such as Liaka Kusulaka, or his son Patika Kusulaka. He established himself as king, and his dynasty was called that of the Guishuang King and he invaded Anxi, and took the Gaofu region. He defeated the whole of the kingdoms of Puda and Jibin, qiujiuque was more than eighty years old when he died. He defeated Tianzhu and installed Generals to supervise and lead it, the Yuezhi became extremely rich. All the kingdoms call the Guishuang king, but the Han call them by their original name and this invasion of Kujula Kadphises is thought to have occurred during the reign of Abdagases and Sases, the successors of Gondophares, after 45 CE.
The connection of Kujula with other Kushan rulers is described in the Rabatak inscription, discovered in Rbatak, Afghanistan some years ago, most of Kujulas coins were Hellenic or Roman in inspiration. Some coins used the portrait and title of the Indo-Greek king Hermaeus on the obverse, indicating Kujulas wish to relate himself to the Indo-Greek king. These coins bear the name of Kujula Kadphises in Kharoṣṭhī, with representations of the Greek demi-god Heracles on the back, and titles presenting Kujula as a ruler, Later coins, possibly posthumous, did describe Kujula as Maharajasa, or Great King. The Greek script on the coins of Kujula is barbarized, for example, ΣΤΗΡΟΣΣΥ on his Hermaeus coins is thought to be a deformation of ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ, the traditional title of Hermaeus on his coins. The Greek word for king is written ΒΑϹΙΛΕΩΣ, with both a lunate sigma and a normal sigma in the same word, the Kushans added one character to the Greek script, it is the letter Ϸ, corresponding to the sound Sh, as in Kushan.
Some coins of Kujula represent a seated figure, formerly said to be one of the first known representations of the Buddha on a coin. Unfortunately, Whiteheads attribution of this coin to Kujula, and the claim that the figure on the obverse represents the Buddha, is now known to be incorrect. The correct attribution of this coin is to the Kushan king Huvishka, the obverse shows Huvishka seated on a couch. The first known coins carrying a representation of the Buddha were issued by Kujulas Great-grandson Kanishka I, some fewer coins of Kujula Kadphises adopted a Roman style, with effigies closely resembling Caesar Augustus, although all the legends were associated with Kujula himself. Such influences are linked to exchanges with the Roman Empire around that date, catalogue of coins in the Panjab Museum, Lahore
Sapadbizes, was a ruler of western Bactria, sometimes linked to the Yuezhi. He is known only from his coins, two clues provide an approximate date for this ruler. He is believed to have overstruck the coins of Phraates IV of Parthia and this places him after Phraates and before the debasement of coinage in Northwest India. He is not the ruler of his dynasty known. Several other coins imply that Sapadbizes was preceded by at least one and it is likely that Sapadbizes and these other rulers were descendants of tribes who had invade Bactria and imitated the coins of the last Greco-Bactrian kings. Though it is clear from the coins and the evidence of Chinese chroniclers that at this time Sapadbizes was an ally or dependent of Parthia, More on Sapadbizes More coins of Sapalbizes
After a major defeat by the Xiongnu, during the 2nd century BCE, the Yuezhi split into two groups, the Greater Yuezhi and Lesser Yuezhi. Following their defeat, the Greater Yuezhi initially migrated northwest into the Ili Valley and they were driven from the Ili Valley by the Wusun and migrated southward to Sogdia and settled in Bactria, where they the defeated the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. The Greater Yuezhi have consequently often been identified with Bactrian peoples mentioned in classical European sources, like the Tókharioi, during the 1st century BCE, one of the five major Greater Yuezhi tribes in Bactria, the Kushanas, began to subsume the other tribes and neighbouring peoples. The subsequent Kushan Empire, at its peak in the 3rd century CE, the Kushanas played an important role in the development of trade on the Silk Road and the introduction of Buddhism to China. Most of the Lesser Yuezhi appear to have migrated southward into Tibet, some are reported to have settled among the Qiang people in Qinghai, and to have been involved in the Liangzhou Rebellion.
Others are said to have founded the city state of Cumuḍa in the eastern Tarim, a fourth group of Lesser Yuezhi may have become part of the Jie people of Shanxi, who established the 4th Century CE Later Zhao state. The philosophical tract Guanzi is now believed to have been compiled around 26 BCE, based on older texts. In the Guanzi, nomadic pastoralists known as the Yúzhī 禺氏 or Niúzhī 牛氏 and they are described as supplying jade to the Chinese. The export of jade from the Tarim Basin, since at least the late 2nd Millennium BCE, is well-documented archaeologically, for example, hundreds of jade pieces found in the Tomb of Fu Hao originated from the Khotan area, on the southern rim of the Tarim Basin. According to the Guanzi, the Yúzhī/Niúzhī, unlike the neighbouring Xiongnu, in the early 4th Century BCE, the Tale of King Mu, Son of Heaven mentions the Yúzhī 禺知. The Yi Zhou Shu makes separate references to the Yúzhī 禺氏 and Yuèdī 月氐, trading the jade and horses for Chinese silk, the Wūzhī were selling these goods to other neighbours.
The earliest detailed account of the Yuezhi is found in chapter 123 of the Records of the Great Historian by Sima Qian, essentially the same text appears in chapter 61 of the Book of Han, though Sima Qian has added occasional words and phrases to clarify the meaning. Both texts use the Chinese name Yuezhi, written with the characters yuè moon and shì clan, some scholars have argued that Dunhuang should be Dunhong, a mountain in the Tian Shan, and have placed the original homeland of the Yuezhi 1,000 km further west. The Yuezhi were so powerful that the Xiongnu monarch Touman even sent his eldest son Modu as a hostage to the Yuezhi, the Yuezhi often attacked their neighbour the Wusun to acquire slaves and pasture lands. Wusun originally lived together with the Yuezhi in the region between Dunhuang and Qilian Mountain, the Yuezhi attacked the Wusuns, killed their monarch Nandoumi and took his territory. The son of Nandoumi, Kunmo fled to the Xiongnu and was brought up by the Xiongnu monarch, gradually the Xiongnu grew stronger and war broke out between them and the Yuezhi.
There were at least four wars between the Yuezhi and Xiongnu according to the Chinese accounts, the first war broke out during the reign of the Xiongnu monarch Touman who suddenly attacked the Yuezhi. The Yuezhi wanted to kill Modu, the son of the Xiongnu king Touman kept as a hostage to them and he subsequently killed his father and became ruler of the Xiongnu
It was a part of the religion in ancient Greece. Greek mythology is explicitly embodied in a collection of narratives. Greek myth attempts to explain the origins of the world, and details the lives and adventures of a variety of gods, heroes, heroines. These accounts initially were disseminated in a tradition, today the Greek myths are known primarily from ancient Greek literature. The oldest known Greek literary sources, Homers epic poems Iliad and Odyssey, focus on the Trojan War, archaeological findings provide a principal source of detail about Greek mythology, with gods and heroes featured prominently in the decoration of many artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles, in the succeeding Archaic and Hellenistic periods and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an influence on the culture, arts. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes, Greek mythology is known today primarily from Greek literature and representations on visual media dating from the Geometric period from c.
Mythical narration plays an important role in every genre of Greek literature. Nevertheless, the only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus and this work attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. Apollodorus of Athens lived from c, 180–125 BC and wrote on many of these topics. His writings may have formed the basis for the collection, however the Library discusses events that occurred long after his death, among the earliest literary sources are Homers two epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the cycle, but these and lesser poems now are lost almost entirely. Despite their traditional name, the Homeric Hymns have no connection with Homer. They are choral hymns from the part of the so-called Lyric age. Hesiods Works and Days, a poem about farming life, includes the myths of Prometheus, Pandora. The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world, lyrical poets often took their subjects from myth, but their treatment became gradually less narrative and more allusive.
Greek lyric poets, including Pindar and Simonides, and bucolic poets such as Theocritus and Bion, myth was central to classical Athenian drama