SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Heraklion

Heraklion or Iraklion is the largest city and the administrative capital of the island of Crete and capital of Heraklion regional unit. It is the fourth largest city in Greece with a population of 140,730 according to the 2011 census; the population of the municipality was 173,993. The Bronze Age palace of Knossos known as the Palace of Minos, is located nearby. Heraklion was Europe’s fastest growing tourism destination for 2017, according to Euromonitor, with an 11.2% growth in international arrivals. According to the ranking, Heraklion was ranked as the 20th most visited region in Europe, as the 66th area on the Planet and as the 2nd in Greece for the year 2017, with 3.2 million visitors and the 19th in Europe for 2018, with 3,4 million visitors. The Arab traders from al-Andalus who founded the Emirate of Crete moved the island's capital from Gortyna to a new castle they called rabḍ al-ḫandaq in the 820s; this was hellenized as Χάνδαξ or Χάνδακας and Latinized as Candia, taken into other European languages: in Italian and Latin as Candia, in French as Candie, in English as Candy, all of which could refer to the island of Crete as a whole as well as to the city alone.

After the Byzantine reconquest of Crete, the city was locally known as Megalo Kastro and its inhabitants were called Kastrinoi. The ancient name Ηράκλειον was revived in the 19th century and comes from the nearby Roman port of Heracleum, whose exact location is unknown. English usage preferred the classicizing transliterations "Heraklion" or "Heraclion", but the form "Iraklion" is becoming more common. Heraklion is close to the ruins of the palace of Knossos, which in Minoan times was the largest centre of population on Crete. Knossos had a port at the site of Heraklion from the beginning of Early Minoan period. Around 1500 BC, the port was destroyed by a volcanic tsunami from nearby Santorini, leveling the region and covering it with ash. After the fall of the Minoans, Heraklion, as well as the rest of Crete in general, fared poorly, with little development in the area. Only with the arrival of the Romans did some construction in the area begin, yet early into Byzantine times the area was abound with pirates and bandits.

The present city of Heraklion was founded in 824 by the Arabs under Abu Hafs Umar, expelled from Al-Andalus by Emir Al-Hakam I and had taken over the island from the Eastern Roman Empire. They built a moat around the city for protection, named the city ربض الخندق, rabḍ al-ḫandaq, it became the capital of the Emirate of Crete. The Saracens allowed the port to be used as a safe haven for pirates who operated against Imperial shipping and raided Imperial territory around the Aegean. In 960, Byzantine forces under the command of Nikephoros Phokas to become Emperor, landed in Crete and attacked the city. After a prolonged siege, the city fell in March 961; the Saracen inhabitants were slaughtered, the city burned to the ground. Soon rebuilt, the town was renamed Χάνδαξ, remained under Byzantine control for the next 243 years. In 1204, the city was bought by the Republic of Venice as part of a complicated political deal which involved, among other things, the Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade restoring the deposed Eastern Roman Emperor Isaac II Angelus to his throne.

The Venetians improved on the ditch of the city by building enormous fortifications, most of which are still in place, including a giant wall, in places up to 40 m thick, with 7 bastions, a fortress in the harbour. Chandax was renamed Candia and became the seat of the Duke of Candia, the Venetian administrative district of Crete became known as "Regno di Candia"; the city retained the name of Candia for centuries and the same name was used to refer to the whole island of Crete as well. To secure their rule, Venetians began in 1212 to settle families from Venice on Crete; the coexistence of two different cultures and the stimulus of Italian Renaissance led to a flourishing of letters and the arts in Candia and Crete in general, today known as the Cretan Renaissance. During the Cretan War, the Ottomans besieged the city for 21 years, from 1648 to 1669 the longest siege in history. In its final phase, which lasted for 22 months, 70,000 Turks, 38,000 Cretans and slaves and 29,088 of the city's Christian defenders perished.

The Ottoman army under an Albanian grand vizier, Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Pasha conquered the city in 1669. Under the Ottomans, Kandiye was the capital of Crete until 1849, when Chania became the capital, Kandiye became a sancak. In Greek, it was called Megalo Castro. During the Ottoman period, the harbour silted up, so most shipping shifted to Chania in the west of the island. In 1898, the autonomous Cretan State was created, under Ottoman suzerainty, with Prince George of Greece as its High Commissioner and under international supervision. During the period of direct occupation of the island by the Great Powers, Candia was part of the British zone. At this time, the city was renamed "Heraklion", after the Roman port of Heracleum, whose exact location is unknown. In 1913, with the rest of Crete, Heraklion was incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece. Heraklion became again capital of Crete in 1971. Venetian constructions such as the Koules Fortress, the ramparts and the arsenal dominate the po

Prostitution in Macau

Prostitution is legal in Macau unlike in mainland China, because the city is a special administrative region of the country. However, operating a brothel and procuring are both illegal in Macau, with the latter punishable by a maximum jail sentence of 8 years. Street prostitution is illegal but sex work in a massage parlor is considered to be de facto legal; the city has a large sex trade despite there being no official red-light district. In addition to street prostitution, prostitutes work in low-rent buildings, massage parlours and illegal brothels, the casinos, nightclubs and some of the larger hotels. Most hotels, have suspected prostitutes removed from the premises. Many of the city's sidewalks and underpasses are littered with prostitutes' calling cards. Macau's economy is based on tourism with significant input from gambling casinos and prostitution which has led to the city being called a Sin City; as the Macau administration relies on taxes from prostitution and gambling, the authorities have traditionally been reluctant to reduce the size of the sex industry.

The trade is said to be controlled by Chinese organized crime groups with different gangs made up of people from different provinces in China, a system which has led to violent clashes. Prostitution was recorded in Macau during the 20th centuries. In the nineteenth century, in addition to conventional brothels, Macau had floating brothels known as "flower boats" which serviced foreign ships. After 1851 prostitution was regulated, in the 1930s the government attempted to end the exploitation and abuse of prostitutes. In the late 1930s there were 120 brothels in the city with 1500 prostitutes. In the 1990s there were reports alleging that Chinese triad members were arranging marriages of convenience with Portuguese prostitutes in order to secure Portuguese citizenship. In early 2015 there were tabloid reports of popular Japanese pornographic film actresses coming to Macau to work as prostitutes. A subsequent Chinese national anti-corruption drive has reduced prostitution-related advertising and increased the number of inspections of illegal brothels.

Some underground brothels have been shut down and over 100 people were arrested in connection with criminal involvement in prostitution at a Macau hotel. Syndicates from China are said to lure women from mainland China to work as prostitutes in Macau with false advertisements for casino jobs, work as dancers, or other types of legitimate employment. There are allegations that women are trafficked to Macau for prostitution from Mongolia, Philippines, Vietnam, Central Asia and South Africa. A gang bringing South Korean prostitutes to Macau to serve Chinese men was arrested in 2015. According to the United States embassy in Ulaan Bator, estimates of Mongolian sex workers in Macau vary from 200-300 women. Macau has been put on a U. S. State Department watch list for human trafficking, ranked at Tier 2. Human trafficking is illegal in Macau, with a maximum jail sentence of 12 years; the United States Department of State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons ranks Macau as a'Tier 2 Watch List' territory.

Prostitution in China Prostitution in Hong Kong Prostitution in Tibet

Banshee Peak

Banshee Peak is a 7,400+ ft summit located in Mount Rainier National Park in Pierce County of Washington state. As part of the Cascade Range, Banshee Peak is situated west of the Cowlitz Chimneys and east of Panhandle Gap, with the Sarvant Glacier set below its north cliff. Banshee Peak is a high remnant of bedded Ohanapecosh Formation lava flows. Access is from Panhandle Gap via the Wonderland Trail; the broad summit has alpine tundra similar to that found on Burroughs Mountain. The Sunrise Historic District provides a viewpoint from which to see Banshee Peak when weather permits; the road to Sunrise is only open seasonally in the summer due to closure from snowpack. Banshee Peak is located in the marine west coast climate zone of western North America. Most weather fronts originate in the Pacific Ocean, travel northeast toward the Cascade Mountains; as fronts approach, they are forced upward by the peaks of the Cascade Range, causing them to drop their moisture in the form of rain or snowfall onto the Cascades.

As a result, the west side of the Cascades experiences high precipitation during the winter months in the form of snowfall. During winter months, weather is cloudy, due to high pressure systems over the Pacific Ocean that intensify during summer months, there is little or no cloud cover during the summer; because of maritime influence, snow tends resulting in high avalanche danger. Precipitation runoff from Banshee Peak drains into tributaries of the White River and the Cowlitz River. National Park Service web site: Mount Rainier National Park