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Herd immunity

Herd immunity is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune. In a population in which a large number of individuals are immune, chains of infection are to be disrupted, which stops or slows the spread of disease; the greater the proportion of individuals in a community who are immune, the smaller the probability that those who are not immune will come into contact with an infectious individual. Individual immunity can be gained by recovering through vaccination; some individuals cannot become immune due to medical reasons and in this group herd immunity is an important method of protection. Once a certain threshold has been reached, herd immunity eliminates a disease from a population; this elimination, if achieved worldwide, may result in the permanent reduction in the number of infections to zero, called eradication. This method was used for the eradication of smallpox in 1977 and for the regional elimination of other diseases.

Herd immunity does not apply to all diseases, just those that are contagious, meaning that they can be transmitted from one individual to another. Tetanus, for example, is infectious but not contagious, so herd immunity does not apply; the term herd immunity was first used in 1923. It was recognized as a occurring phenomenon in the 1930s when it was observed that after a significant number of children had become immune to measles, the number of new infections temporarily decreased, including among susceptible children. Mass vaccination to induce herd immunity has since become common and proved successful in preventing the spread of many infectious diseases. Opposition to vaccination has posed a challenge to herd immunity, allowing preventable diseases to persist in or return to communities that have inadequate vaccination rates; some individuals either cannot develop immunity after vaccination or for medical reasons cannot be vaccinated. Newborn infants are too young to receive many vaccines, either for safety reasons or because passive immunity renders the vaccine ineffective.

Individuals who are immunodeficient due to HIV/AIDS, leukemia, bone marrow cancer, an impaired spleen, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy may have lost any immunity that they had and vaccines may not be of any use for them because of their immunodeficiency. Vaccines are imperfect as some individuals' immune systems may not generate an adequate immune response to vaccines to confer long-term immunity, so a portion of those who are vaccinated may lack immunity. Lastly, vaccine contraindications may prevent certain individuals from becoming immune. In addition to not being immune, individuals in one of these groups may be at a greater risk of developing complications from infection because of their medical status, but they may still be protected if a large enough percentage of the population is immune. High levels of immunity in one age group can create herd immunity for other age groups. Vaccinating adults against pertussis reduces pertussis incidence in infants too young to be vaccinated, who are at the greatest risk of complications from the disease.

This is important for close family members, who account for most of the transmissions to young infants. In the same manner, children receiving vaccines against pneumococcus reduces pneumococcal disease incidence among younger, unvaccinated siblings. Vaccinating children against pneumococcus and rotavirus has had the effect of reducing pneumococcus- and rotavirus-attributable hospitalizations for older children and adults, who do not receive these vaccines. Influenza is more severe in the elderly than in younger age groups, but influenza vaccines lack effectiveness in this demographic due to a waning of the immune system with age; the prioritization of school-age children for seasonal flu immunization, more effective than vaccinating the elderly, has shown to create a certain degree of protection for the elderly. For sexually transmitted infections, high levels of immunity in one sex induces herd immunity for both sexes. Vaccines against STIs that are targeted at one sex result in significant declines in STIs in both sexes if vaccine uptake in the target sex is high.

Herd immunity from female vaccination does not, extend to homosexual males. If vaccine uptake among the target sex is low the other sex may need to be immunized so that that sex can be sufficiently protected. High-risk behaviors make eliminating STIs difficult since though most infections occur among individuals with moderate risk, the majority of transmissions occur because of individuals who engage in high-risk behaviors. For these reasons, in certain populations it may be necessary to immunize high-risk persons or individuals of both sexes to establish herd immunity. Herd immunity itself acts as an evolutionary pressure on certain viruses, influencing viral evolution by encouraging the production of novel strains, in this case referred to as escape mutants, that are able to "escape" from herd immunity and spread more easily. At the molecular level, viruses escape from herd immunity through antigenic drift, when mutations accumulate in the portion of the viral genome that encodes for the virus's surface antigen a protein of the virus capsid, producing a change in the viral epitope.

Alternatively, the reassortment of separate viral genome segments, or antigenic shift, more common when there are more strains in circulation, can produce new serotypes. When either of these occur, memory T cells no longer recognize the virus, so people are not immune to t

Nasha Russia

Nasha Russia or Nussia Russia is a Russian sketch show based on the British comedy show Little Britain, created by Comedy Club Production. It was written by producers Semyon Slepakov and Garik Martirosyan. A 2010 film was made based on the characters in the show titled Our Russia; the Balls of Fate. The name of the show references the fact that while the name of the country is pronounced "Rossiya" in Russian, foreigners pronounce it "Russia," or as the show emphasizes, "RASHA." Thus to native Russian speakers the name of the show is, "OUR RASHA." The shows offers political satire of everyday life in modern-day Russia. The premise is that although Russian people recognize that many aspects of their society are in a poor state ripe for comedy, they are still proud to live in their country, hence the title of the show; each episode features a unique introductory monologue. The following was used in the first episode: We live in the most wonderful country in the world, while all other countries are envious of us.

We were the first to fly to outer space and we were the first to return. We invented the hydrogen bomb, the Zhiguli automobile, many other horrifying things. We were the ones who cultivated the virgin lands of abandoned Georgian mineral water. We were the ones who reversed the flow of women. We proudly call our country Rossiya, while envious foreigners call it Russia! But still, it is ours, it is NASHA RUSSIA! Ravshan and Jumshud, the most popular characters of the sketch show, are gastarbeiters from Central Asia, they work for their boss Leonid in Moscow and call him "nasyalnika". Ravshan does all the talking in bad Russian while Jumshud is silent for the most part because he does not understand Russian; the workers' job is to make building repairs in typical Russian apartments, but something goes wrong every time because they're terrible at their jobs, satirizing the current state of general disrepair in many Soviet-era buildings throughout Russia. They act like buffoons in front of their boss, who always gets so frustrated that he calls them idiots before storming out.

As soon as their boss is gone, they discuss some serious philosophic questions in their invented "native language". Ivan Dulin is the first homosexual milling-machine operator in Russia, he works at the Chelyabinsk steel factory number 69. Ivan Dulin is in love with his boss Mikhalych, heterosexual and refuses to sleep with Dulin; the gay miller comes up with clever plots to seduce Mikhalych, but fails. At the end of most sketches, some factory workers walk in on Dulin and Mikhalych's quarrels and assume they are having sexual intercourse. Sergey Yurievich Belyakov likes to argue with his TV every evening, he is critical of the shows he watches and always makes fun of celebrities and news reports. On nights when his wife is not at home, Belyakov sometimes watches pornography, which he makes fun of. In the third season, he watches TV with his son, to whom he attempts to explain the shows they watch. Football club "Gazmyas" from Omsk plays in the Fourth Division and badly loses every one of their games.

Their coach Evgeny Mikhailovich Kishelsky is a sadist. He enjoys beating the players up after every game, coming close to killing their goalkeeper Gatalsky and forward Prokopenko. "Gazmyas" is a parody of Russian football, but after the Russia national football team's EURO-2008 success, the "Gazmyas" part of the show was removed and jokes about Russian football in general became less common. In the third season, the team gets kicked out from the Fourth Division and becomes "Omskaya Gazmyasochka" when Kishelsky dresses his players up like women in the hopes of playing against women's teams and thus winning. However, this plan does not work either and the team still loses all of their games; the concierge Ludwig Aristarkhovich lives in Saint Petersburg. Unlike all other Petersburgians, who are considered polite and civilized, Ludwig Aristarkhovich is an elderly security guard at an apartment building who plays nasty tricks on the tenants; these tricks include leaving excrement at people's doorsteps and writing inappropriate graffiti on the walls.

It's his way of avenging petty injustices, such as people not wiping their shoes before entering the building. Teenagers Slavik and Dimon live in Krasnodar, where they make several unsuccessful attempts at hooking up with hot girls. Slavik is always coming up with not-so-clever plans to lure the girls in, but he is too scared to act these plans out himself and instead encourages Dimon to put them to life; when Dimon fails, Slavik calls him "loshara" to prove that the plan was perfect, was just poorly executed. Some of their memorable sketches include the time when the boys were too shy to buy condoms, try buying pornography at a local video store, in the fourth season try their luck at the girls vacationing in Anapa. Politicians Yuri Venediktovich Pronin and Victor Kharitonovich Mamonov live in the fictional city of Nefteskvazhinsk (Нефтескважинск, o

Stephen Grossberg

Stephen Grossberg is a cognitive scientist and computational psychologist, mathematician, biomedical engineer, neuromorphic technologist. He is the Wang Professor of Cognitive and Neural Systems and a Professor Emeritus of Mathematics & Statistics, Psychological & Brain Sciences, Biomedical Engineering at Boston University. Grossberg first lived in Queens, in New York City, his father died from Hodgkin's lymphoma. He moved with older brother, Mitchell, to Jackson Heights, Queens, he attend Stuyvesant High School in lower Manhattan after passing its competitive entrance exam. He graduated first in his class from Stuyvesant in 1957, he began undergraduate studies at Dartmouth College in 1957, where he first conceived of the paradigm of using nonlinear differential equations with which to describe neural networks that model brain dynamics, as well as the basic equations that many scientists use for this purpose today. He continued to study both psychology and neuroscience, he received a B. A. in 1961 from Dartmouth as its first joint major in mathematics and psychology.

Grossberg went to Stanford University, from which he graduated in 1964 with an MS in mathematics and transferred to The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in Manhattan. Grossberg received a PhD in mathematics from Rockefeller in 1967 for a thesis that proved the first global content addressable memory theorems about the neural learning models that he had discovered at Dartmouth, his PhD thesis advisor was Gian-Carlo Rota. Grossberg was hired as an assistant professor of applied mathematics at MIT following strong recommendations from Kac and Rota. In 1969, Grossberg was promoted to associate professor after publishing a stream of conceptual and mathematical results about many aspects of neural networks. Grossberg was hired as a full professor at Boston University in 1975, where he is still on the faculty today. While at Boston University, he founded the Department of Cognitive and Neural Systems, several interdisciplinary research centers, various international institutions. Grossberg is a founder of the fields of computational neuroscience, connectionist cognitive science, neuromorphic technology.

His work focuses upon the design principles and mechanisms that enable the behavior of individuals, or machines, to adapt autonomously in real time to unexpected environmental challenges. This research has included neural models of image processing. Grossberg collaborates with experimentalists to design experiments that test theoretical predictions and fill in conceptually important gaps in the experimental literature, carries out analyses of the mathematical dynamics of neural systems, transfers biological neural models to applications in engineering and technology, he has published seventeen books or journal special issues, over 500 research articles, has seven patents. Grossberg has studied how brains give rise to minds since he took the introductory psychology course as a freshman at Dartmouth College in 1957. At that time, Grossberg introduced the paradigm of using nonlinear systems of differential equations to show how brain mechanisms can give rise to behavioral functions; this paradigm is helping to solve the classical mind/body problem, is the basic mathematical formalism, used in biological neural network research today.

In particular, in 1957-1958, Grossberg discovered used equations for short-term memory, or neuronal activation. One variant of these learning equations, called Instar Learning, was introduced by Grossberg in 1976 into Adaptive Resonance Theory and Self-Organizing Maps for the learning of adaptive filters in these models; this learning equation was used by Kohonen in his applications of Self-Organizing Maps starting in 1984. Another variant of these learning equations, called Outstar Learning, was used by Grossberg starting in 1967 for spatial pattern learning. Outstar and Instar learning were combined by Grossberg in 1976 in a three-layer network for the learning of multi-dimensional maps from any m-dimensional input space to any n-dimensional output space; this application was called Counter-propagation by Hecht-Nielsen in 1987. Building on his 1964 Rockefeller PhD thesis, in the 1960s and 1970s, Grossberg generalized the Additive and Shunting models to a class of dynamical systems that included these models as well as non-neural biological models, proved content addressable memory theorems for this more general class of models.

As part of this analysis, he introduced a Liapunov functional method to help classify the limiting and oscillatory dynamics of competitive systems by keeping track of which population is winning through time. This Liapunov method led him and Michael Cohen to discover in 1981 and publish in 1982 and 1983 a Liapunov function that they used to prove that global limits exist in a class of dynamical systems with symmetric interaction coefficients that includes the Additive and Shunting models. John Hopfield p

Columbus Square Mall

Columbus Square Mall was an American indoor shopping mall in Columbus, Georgia. It was one of the first indoor shopping malls to open in the state of Georgia. Columbus Square Mall opened in 1965; the style of the mall was typical for that time period, a single-level with anchor stores on each end of the primary corridor. The two original anchors were JCPenney. One interesting fact was that the Sears store was independently owned by the Sears and Company; the store was attached to the separately owned mall. In the late 1970s, Columbus Square expanded, adding another wing which extended from the rear of the main corridor and terminated with a third anchor, local department store Kirven's, which continued to operate a large downtown store for many years after opening the Columbus Square location. Another famous local store at Columbus Square was a women's clothing store. In early 1993, with attendance declining, Kirven's went out of business, leaving one of the mall's three primary stores vacant and beginning a slow but steady process of store closings in the rear wing of the building.

The entire rear wing was closed off, the few remaining tenants were relocated to the front of the mall. The mall soon began to fall into a state of disrepair, the facility began to be perceived as a place of crime and violence among local residents, further reducing attendance. JCPenney relocated to Peachtree Mall the following year, leaving the mall with only a single anchor store. In 1999, the city exercised the option to buy the mall after voters approved the building of a new library at the location with a 1% sales tax; the Sears building was not included in the purchase. The mall was soon demolished. Sears remained open as a stand-alone store, its former mall entrance walled in, until the mid-2000s when a new Sears store opened in Columbus Park Crossing in North Columbus. At that time, the school district bought the Sears property; the site is now home to the Columbus Public Library, which opened January 3, 2005. In January 2008, the Sears building was demolished to make room for a new Muscogee County School District administration building.

This event put an end to the final chapter of the mall's history


Moodtapes are a series of nature/relaxation videos and audio collectibles produced and filmed by award winning producer and director Ron Roy. They were some of the first of the New Age nature documentary/music genre in the 1980s and 1990s along with Windham Hill and Narada Productions, they include Roy's original cinematography of natural scenery edited in perfect harmony to soothing original instrumental music by Ron Roy and various other professional composers. Sixteen videos including Serenity, Ocean Reflections, Whispering Waters, Nature's Bouquet, Autumn Whispers... Winter Dreams, Pacific Surf, Contemporary Christmas etc, eight audio CD's, 6 Singles and numerous specialty music videos were released by Moodtapes and Ron Roy from 1986 to 2019. Ron Roy served as the producer and cinematographer on all the video productions and the producer/composer of original music on Pacific Surf, Whispering Waters, Contemporary Christmas, Sizzlin' Christmas and others, he designed all the productions album covers and artwork utilizing the original photos he took while on location for each project.

While filming one production, Ocean Reflections, Roy joined the San Diego State University Marine Mammal Research and Conservation team capturing bottlenose dolphin images with R. H. Defran, the director of the Cetacean Behavior Laboratory for his Moodtape Ocean Reflections. Moodtapes musical presentations have been played in heavy rotation on Musical Starstreams, Los Angeles smooth jazz station KTWV - The Wave and numerous radio networks coast to coast, they charted Top Twenty on the national Adult Contemporary Music charts and Moodtapes iTunes podcast Relax with Moodtapes achieved top ten status in their Fitness & Nutrition category. Moodtapes only solo CD release Energy was produced by Ray Colcord, an ASCAP, BMI, Drama-Logue Award winner. Colcord produced Aerosmith's second album Get Your Wings as well as numerous TV themes such as The Simpsons, Big Brother, The Facts of Life, Silver Spoons, Boy Meets World. Most Ron Roy has become involved in Americana music as a composer and singer/songwriter.

His recent releases Now It's All Just Stuff, Bible Belted, You Could Hear The Sound of Panties Drop and You'll Never Ever Be Alone At Christmas have received worldwide airplay on numerous terrestrial and streaming stations including Renegade Radio Nashville, Trucker Radio Nashville, The BandWagon Network Radio, Jango Radio, ReverbNation and more. Roy’s Yuletide song "You’ll Never Ever Be Alone At Christmas" charted #1 on RadioAirplay’s popularity charts and was named one of the Best New Holiday Songs four years in a row in their international Independent Songwriters Holiday Contest, it was featured as the “Premiere Christmas Song” on Nashville’s Worldwide Trucker Radio Network whose Radio icon DJ Stan Campbell proclaimed: “The song is so relatable... I recommend it for radio station for Christmas!” Roy’s Americana songs landed him at #1 in his hometown on ReverbNation’s Americana Regional Charts and are featured continuously on iTunes and more. The Moodtapes videos and music received national critical acclaim in Billboard, the Los Angeles Times The New York Times and numerous others.

They have been featured on leading national entertainment television shows such as Entertainment Tonight, The 700 Club, Live with Regis, The Oprah Winfrey Show as well as various other regional talk shows. Various authors have recommended Moodtapes in their publications to use for relaxation and to treat insomnia. Moodtapes reached their greatest commercial success during the 1980s, 1990s, early 2000s by becoming bestsellers in thousands of specialty stores in the United States, most notably The Nature Company outlets, Natural Wonders specialty stores, reaching an audience of millions via the Reader's Digest Video Catalogs. Bloomingdale's department stores featured Moodtapes as A Best Bet Gift Idea in 1988. Official website Moodtapes' channel on YouTube Moodtapes at iTunes Moodtapes at CD Baby Moodtapes at AllMusic Moodtapes’ stream at Rdio Moodtapes’ discography at Discogs

Penny Pinchers

Penny Pinchers is a 2011 South Korean romantic comedy film written and directed Kim Jung-hwan, starring Han Ye-seul and Song Joong-ki. Kim received a Best New Director nomination at the 48th Baeksang Arts Awards in 2012. Chun Ji-woong is an unemployed college graduate who continually fails job interviews and lives off an allowance from his mother, who runs a small restaurant in the countryside. Ji-woong is an eternal optimist, but having no money is cramping his dating life when he can't afford to buy a pack of condoms, yet despite living in a tiny, dingy apartment in a low-income neighborhood, he's about to get evicted when his mother abruptly cuts him off and he can't pay the rent. Gu Hong-sil lives in the apartment opposite Ji-woong's. Hong-sil is frugal, she denounces all activities that involve wasting money, such as going to church and the hospital, dating. Romance is the last thing on Hong-sil's mind, she considers it a luxury and an unnecessary frivolity. Hong-sil's favorite hobby is depositing her savings at the bank, but her plans are brought to a screeching halt when she learns that she needs a separate bank account under someone else's name to reach her goal of ₩200 million.

So she tells Ji-woong that she'll teach him the art of penny-pinching and include him in a short-term moneymaking scheme if he follows whatever she tells him to do for the next two months. Han Ye-seul as Gu Hong-sil Song Joong-ki as Chun Ji-woong Shin So-yul as Ha Kyung-joo Lee Sang-yeob as Yang Gwan-woo Lee Jae-won as Tae-woo Lee Yong-joo as Chang-geun Kim Dong-hyun as Hong-sil's father Moon Se-yoon as Sysop Ra Mi-ran as Ji-woong's landlady Penny Pinchers was released in theaters on November 10, 2011, it was not a big commercial success, grossing US$2,707,761 on 424,002 admissions. It screened at the 4th Okinawa International Movie Festival in 2012. Official website Penny Pinchers at Naver Penny Pinchers at CJ Entertainment Penny Pinchers at the Korean Movie Database Penny Pinchers on IMDb Penny Pinchers at HanCinema