The term public domain has two senses of meaning. Anything published is out in the domain in the sense that it is available to the public. Once published and information in books is in the public domain, in the sense of intellectual property, works in the public domain are those whose exclusive intellectual property rights have expired, have been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Examples for works not covered by copyright which are therefore in the domain, are the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes. Examples for works actively dedicated into public domain by their authors are reference implementations of algorithms, NIHs ImageJ. The term is not normally applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, as rights are country-based and vary, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another. Some rights depend on registrations on a basis, and the absence of registration in a particular country, if required. Although the term public domain did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined many things that cannot be privately owned as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis.
The term res nullius was defined as not yet appropriated. The term res communes was defined as things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air, sunlight. The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, when the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by British and French jurists in the eighteenth century, instead of public domain they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law. The phrase fall in the domain can be traced to mid-nineteenth century France to describe the end of copyright term. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain. Because copyright law is different from country to country, Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being different sizes at different times in different countries.
According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the public domain and equates the public domain to public property. However, the usage of the public domain can be more granular. Such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair use rights, the materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival
A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The title landscape architect was first used by Frederick Law Olmsted and this definition of the profession of landscape architect is based on the International Standard Classification of Occupations, International Labour Office, Geneva. Some notable Australian landscape architects include William Guilfoyle, Ina Higgins, Edna Walling, after at least two years of recognised professional practice, graduates may submit for further assessment to obtain full professional recognition by the AILA. The Landscape Institute is the recognised body relating to the field of Landscape architecture throughout the UK, to become a recognised landscape architect in the UK takes approximately 7 years. To begin the process, one has to study a course by the Landscape Institute to obtain a bachelors degree in Landscape Architecture or a similar field. Following this one must progress onto a Postgraduate Diploma in the field of Landscape Architecture covering the subject in far greater detail such as urban planning, construction.
Following this, the trainee must complete the Pathway to Chartership and those in this field work both to create an aesthetically pleasing setting and to protect and preserve the environment in an area. The actual activities however are common to most human cultures around the globe for several millennia, in the U. S. a need to formalize the practice and name were resolved in 1899 with the formation of the American Society of Landscape Architects. Developing policies and plans and implementing and monitoring proposals for conservation and recreation such as national parks. Contributing to the planning and functional design, location and maintenance of such as roads, wind farms and other energy. Undertaking landscape assessments including environmental and visual impact assessments to prepare policies or inform new developments, monitoring the realisation and inspecting the construction of proposals to ensure compliance with plans, specifications of work, cost estimates and time schedules. Project management of large scale landscape planning and design projects including management of other such as engineers, architects.
Acting as a witness in Development and Environment Courts Kerb 15. Launched by Charles Waldheim, April 2007, content includes articles and interviews from Charles Waldheim, Mohsen Mostafavi, Alejandro Zaera-Polo, Kathryn Gustafson, Bart Brands and Richard Weller. Landscape design software List of landscape architects Job Description at the U. S. Department of Labor
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States, the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C. it maintains the Packard Campus in Culpeper, which houses the National Audio-Visual Conservation Center. The Library of Congress claims to be the largest library in the world and its collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, and include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages. Two-thirds of the books it acquires each year are in other than English. The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800, after sitting for years in the temporary national capitals of New York. John J. Beckley, who became the first Librarian of Congress, was two dollars per day and was required to serve as the Clerk of the House of Representatives.
The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s, most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814, during the War of 1812. To restore its collection in 1815, the bought from former president Thomas Jefferson his entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection. The Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to have two copies deposited of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections of British and other European works and it included several stories built underground of steel and cast iron stacks. Although the Library is open to the public, only high-ranking government officials may check out books, the Library promotes literacy and American literature through projects such as the American Folklife Center, American Memory, Center for the Book, and Poet Laureate.
James Madison is credited with the idea for creating a congressional library, part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress. And for fitting up an apartment for containing them. Books were ordered from London and the collection, consisting of 740 books and 3 maps, was housed in the new Capitol, as president, Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. The new law extended to the president and vice president the ability to borrow books and these volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the only congressional volumes to have survived was a government account book of receipts and it was taken as a souvenir by a British Commander whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, former president Jefferson offered to sell his library as a replacement
The term tends to refer specifically to the preservation of the built environment, and not to preservation of, for example, primeval forests or wilderness. In England, antiquarian interests were a familiar gentlemans pursuit since the mid 17th century, Fellows of the Royal Society were often Fellows of the Society of Antiquaries. Another early preservation event occurred at Berkhamsted, in 1866, Lord Brownlow who lived at Ashridge, tried to enclose the adjoining Berkhamsted Common with 5-foot steel fences in an attempt to claim it as part of his estate. In England from early Anglo-Saxon times, Common land was an area of land which the community could use as a resource. Across England between 1660 and 1845,7 million acres of Common land had been enclosed by land owners by application to parliament. In 1870, Sir Robert Hunter and the Commons Preservation Society succeed in legal action that ensured protection of Berkhamsted Common, in 1926 the common was acquired by the National Trust. By the mid 19th century, much of Britains unprotected cultural heritage was being slowly destroyed, even well-meaning archaeologists like William Greenwell excavated sites with virtually no attempt at their preservation, Stonehenge came under increasing threat by the 1870s.
Tourists were chipping off parts of the stones or carving their initials into the rock, the private owners of the monument decided to sell the land to the London and South-Western Railway as the monument was not the slightest use to anyone now. John Lubbock, an MP and botanist emerged as the champion of the national heritage. Soon, he began campaigning in Parliament for legislation to protect monuments from destruction and this finally led to the legislative milestone under the Liberal government of William Gladstone of the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882. The first government appointed inspector for this job was the archaeologist Augustus Pitt-Rivers, the Act only covered ancient monuments and explicitly did not cover historic buildings or structures. The Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882 had only given legal protection to prehistoric sites, the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1900 took this further by empowering the governments Commissioners of Work and local County Councils to protect a wider range of properties.
Further updates were made in 1910, Tattershall Castle, Lincolnshire, a medieval manor house had been put up for sale in 1910 with its greatest treasures, the huge medieval fireplaces, still intact. However, when an American bought the house they were ripped out, the former viceroy of India, George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, was outraged at this cultural destruction and stepped in to buy back the castle and reinstall the fireplaces. After a nationwide hunt for them they were found in London. He restored the castle and left it to the National Trust on his death in 1925 and his experience at Tattershall influenced Lord Curzon to push for tougher heritage protection laws in Britain, which saw passage as the Ancient Monuments Consolidation and Amendment Act 1913. The new structure involved the creation of the Ancient Monuments Board to oversee the protection of such monuments, powers were given for the board, with Parliamentary approval, to issue preservation orders to protect monuments, and extended the public right of access to these.
The term monument was extended to include the lands around it, the National Trust was founded in 1894 by Octavia Hill, Sir Robert Hunter and Hardwicke Canon Rawnsley as the first organisation of its type in the world
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
Cultural heritage includes tangible culture, intangible culture, and natural heritage. Objects are a part of the study of history because they provide a concrete basis for ideas. Their preservation demonstrates a recognition of the necessity of the past, in The Past is a Foreign Country, David Lowenthal observes that preserved objects validate memories. This unfortunately poses a danger as places and things are damaged by the hands of tourists, the required to display them. Similarly changing is the value each generation may place on the past, classical civilizations, and especially the Indian, have attributed supreme importance to the preservation of tradition. Its central idea was that institutions, scientific knowledge and technological applications need to use a heritage as a resource. Using contemporary language, we could say that ancient Indians considered, as social resources, ethics considered that what had been inherited should not be consumed, but should be handed over, possibly enriched, to successive generations.
This was an imperative for all, except in the final life stage of sannyasa. What one generation considers cultural heritage may be rejected by the next generation, Cultural property includes the physical, or tangible cultural heritage, such as artworks. These are generally split into two groups of movable and immovable heritage, immovable heritage includes buildings, large industrial installations or other historic places and monuments. Moveable heritage includes books, moveable artworks, machines and other artifacts and these include objects significant to the archaeology, science or technology of a specified culture. The concept includes the ways and means of behavior in a society, and these include social values and traditions and practices, aesthetic and spiritual beliefs, artistic expression and other aspects of human activity. The significance of artifacts can be interpreted against the backdrop of socioeconomic, ethnic, religious. Naturally, intangible heritage is more difficult to preserve than physical objects.
These kind of heritage sites often serve as an important component in a countrys tourist industry, Heritage can include cultural landscapes. As of 2011, there are 936 World Heritage Sites,725 cultural,183 natural, each of these sites is considered important to the international community. The underwater cultural heritage is protected by the UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage and this convention is a legal instrument helping states parties to improve the protection of their underwater cultural heritage. In additional, UNESCO has begun designating masterpieces of the Oral, international Institute for Conservation Much of heritage preservation work is done at the national, regional, or local levels of society
White Pine Series of Architectural Monographs
Architect Russell F. Whitehead was hired to supervise the series with Julian Buckly as photographer. During the first ten years, the series was limited to the details of residences constructed with Eastern white pine. Often the notable structures of a village would be documented together in one issue. In 1924 the White Pine Bureau ceased its advertising campaign and Whitehead determined to continue the series independently, in 1932 the Monograph series became absorbed into the Pencil Points architectural journal as a regular feature. The documentation of historic structures with photographs and measured drawings complemented the Comparative Details feature which published construction details for contemporary projects, the Monograph series was ended abruptly in June 1940. Many of its contributors became involved in the Historic American Buildings Survey, eagerly collected by architects and historians, the monographs have been re-issued in bound editions several times. They reorganized the individual editions into geographic regions and re-set all the type in order to produce a consistent presentation and they were able, in many cases, to make use of the original photographs which had been given to Weyerhauser by Whiteheads widow.
In 2006 the Northeastern Lumber Manufacturers Association revived the title for a new series of publications documenting the production, “The White Pine Monograph Series. “ The Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 22, pp. 39–41 Davis, William C, Survey of Early American Design, Vol.1 of Lisa C. Mullins, ed. Architectural Treasures of Early America
American Society of Civil Engineers
The American Society of Civil Engineers is a tax-exempt professional body founded in 1852 to represent members of the civil engineering profession worldwide. Headquartered in Reston, Virginia, it is the oldest national engineering society in the United States and it was the first national engineering society created in the United States. In 1999, the ASCE elected the top-ten civil engineering achievements that had the greatest positive impact on life in the 20th century in broad categories. Monuments of the Millennium were a combination of technical engineering achievement and inspiration, and it publishes conference proceedings, manuals of practice, technical reports, and monographs. The ASCE corporate website hosts the society’s bookstore, the access to all journal articles published since 1983, all conference proceedings since 2000. Each year, more than 55,000 engineers earn continuing education units and/or professional development hours by participating in ASCE’s continuing education programs, ASCE hosts more than 15 annual and specialty conferences, over 200 continuing education seminars and more than 300 live Web seminars.
The Societys Committee on Technical Advancement has 10 divisions, each year, more than 6,000 civil engineering professionals contribute volunteer technical expertise through participation on ASCE technical committees. These committees are housed in the divisions of the Committee on Technical Activities or in the Society’s institutes, the efforts of these volunteers advance the profession in many ways including the numerous conferences held each year, manuals of practice and standards. Certification is the recognition of attaining advanced knowledge and skills in a specialty area of civil engineering, ASCE offers certifications for engineers who demonstrate advanced knowledge and skills in their area of engineering. American Academy of Water Resources Engineers Academy of Geo-Professionals Academy of Coastal, michel Award for Industry Advancement of Research and the Charles Pankow Award for innovation,11 scholarships and fellowships for student members. Special consideration is given to private practice engineering work that is recognized as a contribution to the field of environmental engineering.
The Lifetime Achievement Award has been presented annually since 1999 and recognizes five different individual leaders, one award is present in each category of design, government and management. ASCE designates national and international Historic Civil Engineering Landmarks, on February 12,2007 Lt. Gen Strock gave all expert review panel members an Outstanding Civilian Service Medals. On June 1,2007, the ASCE issued its expert review panel report, the report stated that had levees and pump stations not failed, far less property loss would have occurred and nearly two-thirds of deaths could have been avoided. The ASCE administration was criticized by the Times-Picayune for an attempt to minimize, the Corps acknowledged receiving a copy of the letter and refused to comment until the ASCEs Committee on Professional Conduct had commented on the complaint. It took over a year for the ASCE to announce the results of the CPC, the ASCE self-study panel did not file charges of ethical misconduct and blamed errors on staff and not review panel members having created the June press release.
On November 14,2007, ASCE announced that U. S, congressman Sherwood Boehlert, R‑N. Y. would lead an independent task force of outside experts to review how ASCE participated in engineering studies of national significance. ASCE President David Mongan said the review was to address criticism of ASCE´s role in assisting the Army Corps of Engineers-sponsored investigation of Katrina failures
Thomas Jefferson was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and served as the third President of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he was elected the second Vice President of the United States, Jefferson was primarily of English ancestry and educated in colonial Virginia. He graduated from the College of William & Mary and briefly practiced law and he became the United States Minister to France in May 1785, and subsequently the nations first Secretary of State in 1790–1793 under President George Washington. Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party to oppose the Federalist Party during the formation of the First Party System, as President, Jefferson pursued the nations shipping and trade interests against Barbary pirates and aggressive British trade policies. He organized the Louisiana Purchase, almost doubling the countrys territory, as a result of peace negotiations with France, his administration reduced military forces.
Jeffersons second term was beset with difficulties at home, including the trial of former Vice President Aaron Burr, American foreign trade was diminished when Jefferson implemented the Embargo Act of 1807, responding to British threats to U. S. shipping. In 1803, Jefferson began a process of Indian tribe removal to the newly organized Louisiana Territory. Jefferson mastered many disciplines, which ranged from surveying and mathematics to horticulture and he was a proven architect in the classical tradition. Jeffersons keen interest in religion and philosophy earned him the presidency of the American Philosophical Society and he shunned organized religion, but was influenced by both Christianity and deism. He was well versed in linguistics and spoke several languages and he founded the University of Virginia after retiring from public office. He was a letter writer and corresponded with many prominent and important people throughout his adult life. His only full-length book is Notes on the State of Virginia, Jefferson owned several plantations which were worked by hundreds of slaves.
Most historians now believe that, after the death of his wife in 1782, he had a relationship with his slave Sally Hemings and fathered at least one of her children. Various modern scholars are more critical of Jeffersons private life, pointing out the discrepancy between his ownership of slaves and his political principles, for example. Presidential scholars, consistently rank Jefferson among the greatest presidents, Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13,1743, at the family home in Shadwell in the Colony of Virginia, the third of ten children. He was of English and possibly Welsh descent and was born a British subject and his father Peter Jefferson was a planter and surveyor who died when Jefferson was fourteen, his mother was Jane Randolph. Peter Jefferson moved his family to Tuckahoe Plantation in 1745 upon the death of a friend who had named him guardian of his children, the Jeffersons returned to Shadwell in 1752, where Peter died in 1757, his estate was divided between his sons Thomas and Randolph.
Thomas inherited approximately 5,000 acres of land, including Monticello and he assumed full authority over his property at age 21
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, in most countries it started in 1929 and it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the economy can decline. The depression originated in the United States, after a fall in stock prices that began around September 4,1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide GDP fell by an estimated 15%, by comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s, however, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II. The Great Depression had devastating effects in both rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%, unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%.
Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries, farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Even after the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time, john D. Rockefeller said These are days when many are discouraged. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have come, prosperity has always returned and will again. The stock market turned upward in early 1930, returning to early 1929 levels by April and this was still almost 30% below the peak of September 1929. Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered losses in the stock market the previous year. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S, by mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed.
By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928, prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930
Federal government of the United States
The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government.
Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government.
It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year terms
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service