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Hetman is a political title from Central and Eastern Europe assigned to military commanders. It was the title of the second-highest military commander in the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the 16th to 18th centuries. A hetman was the highest military officer in the hetmanates of Ukraine, the Zaporizhian Host, the Ukrainian State; the title was used by Ukrainian Cossacks from the 16th century. Used by the Czechs in Bohemia since the 15th century, in the modern Czech Republic the title is used for regional governors. Throughout much of the history of Romania and the Moldavia, hetmans were the second-highest army rank. According to some historians like Mykhailo Maksymovych, Hetman is derived from name of the Grand Prince of Lithuania Gedimin, in much the same manner as the titles Caesar and Kaiser are derived from the name Julius Caesar. According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term hetman has Polish origin and derived from German Hauptmann – captain), it has been suggested that the Czech language may have served as an intermediary, Polish has been suggested.

Alternatively, it could be a variant of the comparable Turkic title ataman. The Polish title Grand Crown Hetman dates from 1505; the title of Hetman was given to the leader of the Polish Army and until 1581 the hetman position existed only during specific campaigns and wars. After that, it became a permanent title, as were all the titles in the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. At any given time the Commonwealth had four hetmans – a Great Hetman and Field Hetman for each of both Poland and Lithuania. From 1585, the title could not be taken away without a proven charge of treachery, thus most hetmans served for life, as illustrated by the case of Jan Karol Chodkiewicz commanding the army from his deathbed. Hetmans were not paid for their job by the royal treasury. Hetmans were the main commanders of the military forces, second only to the monarch in the army's chain of command; the fact that they could not be removed by the monarch made them independent, thus able to pursue independent policies.

This system worked well when a hetman had great ability and the monarch was weak, but sometimes produced disastrous results in the opposite case. The security of the position notably contrasted with that of military leaders in states bordering the commonwealth, where sovereigns could dismiss their army commanders at any time. In 1648 the Zaporizhian Host elected a hetman of their own, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, igniting the Ukrainian struggle for independence; the military reform of 1776 limited the powers of the hetmans. The Hetman office was abolished after the third partition of Poland in 1795. At the end of the sixteenth century, the commanders of the Zaporizhian Cossacks were titled Koshovyi Otaman or Hetman. In 1572, a hetman was a commander of the Registered Cossack Army of the Rzeczpospolita, too. From 1648, the start of Bohdan Khmelnytsky's uprising, a hetman was the head of the whole Ukrainian State — Hetmanshchyna. Although they were elected, Ukrainian hetmans had broad powers and acted as heads of the Cossack state, their supreme military commanders, top legislators.

After the split of Ukraine along the Dnieper River by the 1667 Polish–Russian Treaty of Andrusovo, Ukrainian Cossacks became known as Left-bank Cossacks and Right-bank Cossacks. In the Russian Empire, the office of Cossack Hetman was abolished by Catherine II of Russia in 1764; the last Hetman of the Zaporozhian Army was Kyrylo Rozumovsky, who reigned from 1751 until 1764. The title was revived in Ukraine during the revolution of 1917 to 1920. In early 1918, a conservative German-supported coup overthrew the radical socialist Ukrainian Central Rada and its Ukrainian People's Republic, establishing a hetmanate monarchy headed by Pavlo Skoropadskyi, who claimed the title Hetman of Ukraine; this regime lasted until late 1918, when it was overthrown by a new Directorate of Ukraine, of a re-established Ukrainian People's Republic. Used by the Czechs in Bohemia from the Hussite Wars onward, hejtman is today the term for the elected governor of a Czech region. For much of the history of Romania and the Principality of Moldavia, hetmans were second in rank in the army, after the ruling prince, who held the position of Voivode.

Hetman has been used figuratively to mean'commander' or simply'leader'. Examples: "They say there was a whole band of them, that this bearded man was their elder, the hetman." — Maxim Gorky, Mother "Once I was a hetman on the Zaporoska. — Robert E. Howard, A Witch Shall Be Born Appointed Hetman Ataman Bulawa Hetman's sign Media related to Hetmans at Wikimedia Commons "Hetman". Encyclopædia Britannica. 13. 1911

Madge Tyrone

Madge Tyrone was an American actress, film editor, screenwriter active during Hollywood's silent era. Born in New York, Tyrone began her career as a stage actress, appearing in plays touring around the East Coast as early as 1911, her first known credit was in a Broadway play from 1911 called The Wife Decides. She worked as a newspaperwoman and magazine writer before beginning her career in Hollywood. By 1914, she was living in Los Angeles, where she appeared in a number of Our Mutual Girl serials produced by Reliance Film Company. She'd appear in a few more films as an actress before taking up editing. In 1920, Louis B. Mayer added her to First National's story department, she worked with director Edwin Carewe on a number of projects—from Rio Grande to The Lady Who Lied—and was considered one of his proteges. In 1922, she was involved in a bad car accident in Los Angeles. Little is known about her life after 1925; as a writer: The Lady Who Lied Rose o' the Sea The Invisible Fear Habit The Woman in His House Rio Grande As an editor: One Clear Call The Child Thou Gavest Me As an actress: One Day The House of Tears Our Mutual Girl Madge Tyrone on IMDb Madge Tyrone at the Internet Broadway Database

SS Nicholas Cuneo

SS Nicholas Cuneo was a Honduran Cargo ship, shelled and sunk by U-571, 47 nautical miles North of Havana in the Gulf of Mexico, while travelling from New Orleans, United States to Havana, Cuba. SS Nicholas Cuneo was constructed in 1907 at the Framnæs Mekaniske Værksted - FMV - A/S shipyard in Sandefjord, Norway, she was named Nicholas Cuneo. The ship was 65.8 metres long, with a depth of 6.1 metres. She had one 3-cyl. Triple expansion engine driving a single screw propeller; the engine was rated at 132 nhp. Nicholas Cuneo changed owners a number of times during her service years, she was first owned by the Norwegian company Avance D/S from April 1907 to February 1934, after that she was transferred to another Norwegian company Skibs-A/S Aramis where she served until March 1936 when she was sold to the Norwegian company L. A. Larsen. In December 1939 the ship was sold to Empresa Hondurena de Vapores, where she remained until her demise in 1942. Nicholas Cuneo was travelling from New Orleans, United States to Havana, Cuba on 9 July 1942.

At 16:01, the German submarine U-571 surfaced to investigate the ship according to the prize rules after spotting a blue-white-blue flag. The U-boat tried to stop the unescorted and unarmed Nicholas Cuneo by firing three rounds from her 20mm AA deck gun over the ship; the vessel however turned away at full speed and sent distress signals whereupon the next rounds were fired directly at the hull of Nicholas Cuneo. The crew stopped the engines and abandoned ship in one of the ships lifeboats, but one Cuban crew member named Ernesto Balara Lobo was lost. U-571 fired 43 shells from the deck gun at Nicholas Cuneo; the ship soon caught fire and the submarine submerged and left the area due to an aircraft arriving at the scene. The 19 survivors were picked up a few hours by the Nicaraguan steam merchant Corinto and were taken to Havana; the destroyer USS Noa investigated the still burning Nicholas Cuneo that day and reported her being beyond salvage with 26 shell holes visible and a list of 30° to port.

The ship subsequently sank at 20.44pm that same day. The wreck lies 47 nautical miles north of Havana in the Gulf of Mexico at

Alexander Birnie

Alexander Birnie was a Scottish merchant and shipowner. He was one of five sons born to Elizabeth Shepherd Birnie of Aberdeen, Scotland. Alexander made his way to London in the 1780s to establish himself as a general merchant, his office was located at Lyme Street, Bishopsgate, in the heart of the City of London, in Mount Street, near Grosvenor Square, in the fashionable West End. He lived at 10 Alpha Cottages, overlooking Regents Park, he and his family were at 10-12 Great Helen's Street by 1803. Birnie sent consignments of goods to South Britain's Australian colonies, he imported whale oil and other commodities from the colonies in his own and other vessels. His extensive dealings with Australia saw him become the London agent for Sydney merchant Robert Campbell, the Rev Samuel Marsden and the Governor of New South Wales, Lachlan Macquarie, his brother, James Birnie, a former sea captain, joined the firm and from about that time the partnership began to engage in sealing and South Sea whaling.

James went to Australia in 1812 and established himself in Sydney where he acted as the local agent for Birnie & Co. Alexander's son George Birnie joined the partnership and was sent to Prince Edward Island, Canada, as the firm's agent there between 1809 and 1813. Birnie & Co had at least ten whaling ships in operation in the 30 years between 1796 and 1826; these vessels took passengers and cargo to ports in the southern hemisphere before engaging in sealing and whaling. Alexander Birnie was active in London as a supporter of worthy causes, he was one of the directors of the Royal Highland School Society. He was an elder of the Scotch Church in Swallow Street. For many years he was a director of the London Missionary Society and supplied missionaries and their families with free transport on his ships to the South Sea islands, he died at his home in Great Helen's Street on 15 February 1835, aged 72. He had married Ann Bayley in 1784 and they had at least nine children, his son, took over as the principal in the firm.

Alexander Birnie at Find a Grave

William A. Tiller

William A. Tiller is a professor emeritus of materials engineering at Stanford University, he is the author of Science and Human Transformation, a book about concepts such as subtle energies beyond the four fundamental forces, which he believes act in concert with human consciousness. Tiller appeared in the 2004 film What the Bleep Do We Know!?. Tiller gained his academic reputation for his scientific work in the field of crystallization, he studied at the University of Toronto and obtained his B. A. Sc. in 1952 with a degree in Engineering Physics. He obtained M. A. Sc. and a Ph. D. degrees from the same university. Altogether, he worked nine years as an advisory physicist with the Westinghouse Research Laboratories and 34 years in academia. From 1964 to 1992 William A. Tiller was a professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Stanford University, during this time he held the position of department chairman from 1966 to 1971. In 1970, he was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship grant in Natural Sciences - Engineering.

In 1992 he became professor emeritus. Tiller is a Physics Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In his 1982 book, James Randi identified Tiller as the 1979 "scientist who had said the silliest thing" relating to parapsychology in that year. After his retirement in 1998, he pursued esoteric concepts in psychoenergetics, he has published several books, over 250 conventional scientific papers and further 100 topics on psychoenergetics. The Science of Crystallization: Macroscopic Phenomena and Defect Generation, Cambridge University Press, 1991, ISBN 978-0-521-38828-3 The Science of Crystallization: Microscopic Interfacial Phenomena, Cambridge University Press, 1991, ISBN 978-0-521-38827-6 Psychoenergetic Science: A Second Copernican-Scale Revolution, Pavior Publishers, 2007, ISBN 978-1-4243-3863-4 Some Science Adventures with Real Magic, Pavior Publishers, 2005, ISBN 1-929331-11-8 Conscious Acts of Creation: The Emergence of a New Physics, Pavior Publishers, 2001, ISBN 1-929331-05-3 Science and Human Transformation: Subtle Energies and Consciousness, Pavior Publishers, 1997, ISBN 0-9642637-4-2 Foreword to Matrix Energetics: The Science and Art of Transformation, Atria Books, 2007, Richard Bartlett ISBN 978-1-58270-163-9 The effects of emotions on short-term power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability.

McCraty R, Atkinson M, Tiller WA, Rein G, Watkins AD. - American Journal of Cardiology, 1996 Feb. Laplace-transform technique for deriving thermodynamic equations from the classical microcanonical ensemble. Eric M. Pearson, Timur Halicioglu, William A. Tiller - Physical Review, 1985 Nov. DOI 10.1103/PhysRevA.32.3030 Corona discharge photography. DG Boyers, WA Tiller - Journal of Applied Physics, 1973. What are subtle energies? WA Tiller - Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1993. Electronic device-mediated pH changes in water. WE Dibble Jr, WA Tiller - Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1999. - the Tiller Foundation Biography of William A. Tiller, the Tiller Foundation William A. Tiller on IMDb The Life and Career of Professor William A. Tiller Interviewed by David William Gibbons William Tiller Emeritus

Boarding House Reach

Boarding House Reach is the third studio album by American rock musician Jack White, released on March 23, 2018 through Third Man Records, Columbia Records, XL Recordings. It is his first solo studio album following Lazaretto. After recording independently in Nashville, White recorded parts of the album throughout 2017 in New York City and Los Angeles. "Connected by Love" and "Respect Commander" were released together as the album's lead single on January 10. "Corporation", "Over and Over and Over", "Ice Station Zebra" were released as singles afterward. Boarding House Reach received positive reviews, with its unorthodox production and style noted as a departure from White's previous studio albums and projects. While critics praised the album for its ambition and artistic approach, its criticisms focused on its inconsistency and production; the album performed well commercially, topping the US Billboard 200 upon release, making it White's third number-one album on that chart. Elsewhere, it was a number-one album in Canada and reached number five in Scotland and the United Kingdom.

In March 2017, in an interview with The New Yorker, White revealed that he was in the process of writing new music. He had set up shop in a small apartment in Nashville, where he recorded on a reel-to-reel tape recorder which he purchased when he was fourteen, his goal was "to try to write songs. And I want to write like Michael Jackson would write — instead of writing parts on the instruments or humming melodies, you think of them. To do everything in my head and to do it in silence and use only one room." He spent several hours each day crafting in this space. On July 27, White announced that he was working on his third solo album, with recording sessions taking place in New York City and Los Angeles. In November, during a keynote speech at the Making Vinyl conference in Detroit, he offered an update on the album, saying that it was nearly completed and required only a few more additions for completion, he noted it as a "bizarre" record. I need to listen to it by myself. I haven't been able to listen to it by myself for awhile."Boarding House Reach was recorded throughout 2017 at Third Man Studio in Nashville, Sear Sound in New York City, Capitol Studios in Los Angeles.

White produced and co-mixed the album and played guitars, drums and synthesizers, while acting as the vocalist. He performed alongside a brand new group of session musicians who had worked with several notable musical talents in the past. "Connected by Love" was the first song to be written for the album. It was titled "Infected by Love", but White renamed the track after realizing that not everyone would understand the metaphor of the title; the track "Over and Over and Over" was written in 2005 as a possible song for the White Stripes, one of White's former bands. It was nearly recorded in collaboration with American rapper Jay-Z and recorded with another one of White's bands, the Raconteurs. On December 12, 2017, White released a teaser video for the album titled "Servings and Portions from My Boarding House Reach", it was a sound collage of tracks from Boarding House Reach, displaying the many sounds and styles the album contained. A teaser for the song "Connected by Love" was released on January 9, 2018.

The next day, "Connected by Love" was premiered on Zane Lowe's radio show on Beats 1, with a music video for the song being released on the same day. The album track "Respect Commander" was released as the b-side to the song. Both songs were released together on a 7" vinyl single through Third Man Records on the same day. A tri-color version of the single was made available on January 13 at the Third Man record stores in Detroit and Nashville for that day only. White released "Corporation" as a promotional single on January 26. "Over and Over and Over" was released as the album's second non-promotional single on March 1. Boarding House Reach was released on March 23, 2018 through White's own Third Man Records as well as Columbia Records and XL Recordings. A limited edition vinyl version was made available to customers of the Third Man Records Vault service; the package features a different cover art, light-up vinyl record, 7" colored vinyl single of demos for the tracks "Connected by Love" and "Why Walk a Dog?", photographs taken during the recording sessions of the album.

Boarding House Reach debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200 with 124,000 album-equivalent units—121,000 of that figure being pure album sales. It is White's third US number-one album as a solo artist. All tracks are written by Jack White III, except "Humoresque", music by Antonín Dvořák, lyrics by Howard Johnson, arranged by Jack White III. Personnel adapted from album liner notes. Primary artist Jack White – vocals, electric guitar, acoustic drums, acoustic guitar, electronic drums, piano, organ