Bernicia was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom established by Anglian settlers of the 6th century in what is now southeastern Scotland and North East England. The Anglian territory of Bernicia was equivalent to the modern English counties of Northumberland and Durham, the Scottish counties of Berwickshire and East Lothian, stretching from the Forth to the Tees. In the early 7th century, it merged with its southern neighbour, Deira, to form the kingdom of Northumbria and its borders subsequently expanded considerably. Bernicia occurs in Old Welsh poetry as Bryneich or Brynaich and in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum, as Berneich or Birneich; this was most the name of the native Brittonic kingdom, whose name was adopted by the Anglian settlers who rendered it in Old English as Bernice or Beornice. The counter hypothesis suggesting these names represent a Brythonic adaption of an earlier English form is considered less probable. Local linguistic evidence suggests continued political activity in the area before the arrival of the Angles.
Important Anglian centres in Bernicia bear names of British origin, or are known by British names elsewhere: Bamburgh is called Din Guaire in the Historia Brittonum. Analysis of a potential derivation has not produced a consensus; the most cited etymology gives the meaning as "Land of the Mountain Passes" or "Land of the Gaps". An earlier derivation from the tribal name of the Brigantes has been dismissed as linguistically unsound. In 1997 John T. Koch suggested the conflation of a probable primary form *Bernech with the native form *Brïγent for the old civitas Brigantum as a result of Anglian expansion in that territory during the 7th century; the Brythonic kingdom of the area was formed from what had once been the southern lands of the Votadini as part of the division of a supposed'great northern realm' of Coel Hen in c. AD 420; this northern realm is referred to by Welsh scholars as Yr Hen Ogledd or "The Old North". The kingdom may have been ruled from the site that became the English Bamburgh, which features in Welsh sources as Din Guardi.
Near this high-status residence lay the island of Lindisfarne, which became the seat of the Bernician bishops. It is unknown when the Angles conquered the whole region, but around 604 is likely. There are several Old Welsh pedigrees of princely "Men of the North" that may represent the kings of the British kingdom in the area, which may have been called Bryneich. John Morris surmised that the line of a certain Morcant Bulc referred to these monarchs, chiefly because he identified this man as the murderer of Urien Rheged who was, at the time, besieging Lindisfarne; some of the Angles of Bernicia may have been employed as mercenaries along Hadrian's Wall during the late Roman period. Others are thought to have migrated north from Deira in the early 6th century; the first Anglian king in the historical record is Ida, said to have obtained the throne and the kingdom about 547. His sons spent many years fighting a united force from the surrounding Brythonic kingdoms until their alliance collapsed into civil war.
Ida's grandson, Æthelfrith, united Deira with his own kingdom by force around the year 604. He ruled the two kingdoms until he was defeated and killed by Rædwald of East Anglia around the year 616. Edwin became king; the early part of Edwin's reign was spent finishing off the remaining resistance coming from the Brythonic exiles of the old British kingdom, operating out of Gododdin. After he had defeated the remaining Brythonic population of the area, he was drawn towards a similar subjugation of Elmet, which drew him into direct conflict with Wales proper. Following the disastrous Battle of Hatfield Chase on 12 October 633, in which Edwin was defeated and killed by Cadwallon ap Cadfan of Gwynedd and Penda of Mercia, Northumbria was divided back into Bernicia and Deira. Bernicia was briefly ruled by Eanfrith, son of Æthelfrith, but after about a year he went to Cadwallon to sue for peace and was killed. Eanfrith's brother Oswald raised an army and defeated Cadwallon at the Battle of Heavenfield in 634.
After this victory, Oswald appears to have been recognised by both Bernicians and Deirans as king of a properly united Northumbria. The kings of Bernicia were thereafter supreme in that kingdom, although Deira had its own sub-kings at times during the reigns of Oswiu and his son Ecgfrith. Ida son of Eoppa Glappa Ida's brother Adda son of Ida Æthelric son of Ida Theodric son of Ida Frithuwald Adda's son Hussa Adda's son Æthelfrith, son of Æthelric Under Deiran rule 616–633) Eanfrith of Bernicia son of Æthelfrith Under Oswald son of Æthelfrith, Bernicia was united with Deira to form Northumbria from 634 onward until the Viking invasion of the 9th Century. Bede, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum. Jackson, Kenneth H.. Language and History in Early Britain. Edinburgh University Press. Jackson, Kenneth H.. The Gododdin: The Oldest Scottish poem. Edinburgh: Edinburg
An organist is a musician who plays any type of organ. An organist may play solo organ works, play with an ensemble or orchestra, or accompany one or more singers or instrumental soloists. In addition, an organist may play liturgical music; the majority of organists and professional, are principally involved in church music, playing in churches and cathedrals. The pipe organ still plays a large part in the leading of traditional western Christian worship, with roles including the accompaniment of hymns, choral anthems and other parts of the worship; the degree to which the organ is involved varies depending on the denomination. It may depend on the standard of the organist. In more provincial settings, organists may be more described as pianists obliged to play the organ for worship services; as most churches can afford to employ only one musician, the organist is also responsible for directing and rehearsing the choir. In the twentieth-century, many pipe organs were replaced by pipe-less electronic and digital organs as a low-cost alternative to rebuilding older pipe organs.
In the English cathedral tradition the organist is now called "Director of Music", although their function is in the training and direction of music rather than actual playing. Sometimes the organist will be assisted by an organ scholar; the post of organist at most of the great cathedrals includes choral training. Another function of an organist is as teacher to future players. Few organists hold special positions such as Carol Williams, the Civic Organist of San Diego, the last true Civic Organist position still active in the USA. Since the strengths and weaknesses of the organ are difficult to understand without a good deal of playing experience, most music composed for organ has been written by organists. Since the majority of pre-twentieth-century organs were installed in churches, classical organ literature was exclusively written for liturgical use. Many composers, are known for their performance talents, some historical examples being Johann Sebastian Bach, Dieterich Buxtehude, Felix Mendelssohn, Franz Liszt, César Franck, Camille Saint-Saëns, Charles-Marie Widor, Louis Vierne, Marcel Dupré.
In Europe, the historical importance of churches as employers of musicians meant that many composers who now are seldom remembered for their association with the organ were engaged as professional organists: for example, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Edward Elgar. In English churches and cathedrals the Organist may be known as Master of the Choristers, Choirmaster or Director of Music. A few carry on the tradition today. There are many organists employed in the production of jazz music. In the United States most of them play the Hammond organ, many are classically trained in piano rather than organ. In England and Japan, one of the most popular series of instruments is the Yamaha Electone; the Royal College of Organists in the United Kingdom is the oldest institution of organ studies. From that sprang the American Guild of Organists, the Gesellschaft der Orgelfreunde in Germany, the Royal Canadian College of Organists; the Incorporated Association of Organists is an international society fulfilling a similar role.
All these institutions are oriented toward the organist involved in classical music rather than popular music. There is the American Theatre Organ Society. List of organists List of jazz organists Organ recital Organ shoes Organ playing and teaching in the Encyclopedia of Music in Canada American Guild of Organists American Theatre Organ Society The Royal College of Organists Royal Canadian College of Organists Gesellschaft der Orgelfreunde Incorporated Association of Organists in the UK
The Victorian restoration was the widespread and extensive refurbishment and rebuilding of Church of England churches and cathedrals that took place in England and Wales during the 19th-century reign of Queen Victoria. It was not the same process. Against a background of poorly maintained church buildings; the change was embraced by the Church of England which saw it as a means of reversing the decline in church attendance. The principle was to "restore" a church to how it might have looked during the "Decorated" style of architecture which existed between 1260 and 1360, many famous architects such as George Gilbert Scott and Ewan Christian enthusiastically accepted commissions for restorations, it is estimated that around 80% of all Church of England churches were affected in some way by the movement, varying from minor changes to complete demolition and rebuilding. Influential people like John Ruskin and William Morris were opposed to such large-scale restoration, their activities led to the formation of societies dedicated to building preservation, such as the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings.
In retrospect, the period of Victorian restoration has been viewed in a unfavourable light. A number of factors working together led to the spate of Victorian restoration. From the time of the English Reformation onwards, apart from necessary repairs so that buildings might remain in use, the addition of occasional internal commemorative adornments, English churches and cathedrals were subjected to little building work and only piecemeal restoration; this situation lasted for about 250 years with the fabric of many churches and cathedrals suffering from neglect. The severity of the problem was demonstrated when the spire of Chichester Cathedral telescoped in on itself in 1861. In addition since the mid-17th century Puritan reforms which were typified by a minimum of ritual and decoration and by an unambiguous emphasis on preaching there had been an ongoing removal of any emotion or colour from English religious services as a means of distancing itself from what was seen as the excesses of Catholicism.
But towards the end of the 18th century the burgeoning Gothic Revival and interest in medievalism encouraged people to seek more interest in their religious services. The popularity of the Gothic Revival was seen by Church officials as a way to reverse the decline in church attendance, thereby start to reassert the Church's power and influence, they therefore pushed for massive restoration programs. As a third factor, the industrial revolution had resulted in many people living in cities that had few churches to cater for their religious needs—for instance Stockport had a population of nearly 34,000 but church seating for only 2,500; the rise in dissenter denominations, such as Methodism and the Religious Society of Friends, was seen as further evidence of this shortfall. To fulfil this need, between 1818 and 1824 the Government had granted £1.5 million for building new churches. Known as Commissioners' churches, most of them cost only £4,000 to £5,000 each to build, dissatisfaction with their indifferent design and cheap construction provoked a strong reaction.
Equivalent movements existed in most of Europe northern Europe, with the French architect and architectural historian Eugène Viollet-le-Duc associated with the French manifestation. One of the main driving forces for the restoration of churches was the Cambridge Camden Society, founded in 1839 by two Cambridge undergraduates, John Mason Neale and Benjamin Webb, as a club for those who shared a common interest in Gothic church design, it became popular: its membership increased from 8 to 180 in its first 12 months. Although a society for recording and discussing medieval church features, the members of the CCS soon began to expostulate in their journal The Ecclesiologist and in their Few Words to Church-builders of 1844 that the only "correct" form for a church building was the "middle pointed" or "Decorated" style, in which churches had been built during the hundred years centred on 1300. Ecclesiology struck a chord in society: it was linked with the ongoing interest in medievalism and the Gothic Revival.
The CCS's firm insistence on one style being correct proved to be a beacon for those who were no longer able to judge for themselves what was "good" in architecture—the certainties of the Vitruvian rules having lost their power during the Romantic movement, in vogue since the middle of the 18th century. The CCS stated; as Kenneth Clark put it, they said that one could "either restore each of the various alterations and additions in its own style, or restore the whole church to the best and purest style of which traces remain". The Society wholeheartedly recommended the second option and since every medieval church had at least some small remnant of decorated style, maybe a porch or just a window, the whole church would be "restored" to match it, and if the earliest portions were too late it was a candidate for a complete rebuild in the "correct" style."To restore," The Ecclesiologist declared, "is to revive the original appearance... lost by decay, accident or ill-judged alteration". They did admit, that such "restoration" might create an ideal state that the building had never been in.
Church restorations were strongly influenced by the Oxford Movement
Bede known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, Bede the Venerable, was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria of the Angles. Born on lands belonging to the Monkwearmouth monastery in present-day Sunderland, Bede was sent there at the age of seven and joined Abbot Ceolfrith at the Jarrow monastery, both of whom survived a plague that struck in 686, an outbreak that killed a majority of the population there. While he spent most of his life in the monastery, Bede travelled to several abbeys and monasteries across the British Isles visiting the archbishop of York and King Ceolwulf of Northumbria, he is well known as an author and scholar, his most famous work, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, gained him the title "The Father of English History". His ecumenical writings were extensive and included a number of Biblical commentaries and other theological works of exegetical erudition. Another important area of study for Bede was the academic discipline of computus, otherwise known to his contemporaries as the science of calculating calendar dates.
One of the more important dates Bede tried to compute was Easter, an effort, mired with controversy. He helped establish the practice of dating forward from the birth of Christ, a practice which became commonplace in medieval Europe. Bede was one of the greatest teachers and writers of the Early Middle Ages and is considered by many historians to be the single most important scholar of antiquity for the period between the death of Pope Gregory I in 604 and the coronation of Charlemagne in 800. In 1899, Pope Leo XIII declared him a Doctor of the Church, he is the only native of Great Britain to achieve this designation. Bede was moreover a skilled linguist and translator, his work made the Latin and Greek writings of the early Church Fathers much more accessible to his fellow Anglo-Saxons, which contributed to English Christianity. Bede's monastery had access to an impressive library which included works by Eusebius and many others. Everything, known of Bede's life is contained in the last chapter of his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, a history of the church in England.
It was completed in about 731, Bede implies that he was in his fifty-ninth year, which would give a birth date in 672 or 673. A minor source of information is the letter by his disciple Cuthbert. Bede, in the Historia, gives his birthplace as "on the lands of this monastery", he is referring to the twinned monasteries of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow, in modern-day Wearside and Tyneside respectively. Bede says nothing of his origins, but his connections with men of noble ancestry suggest that his own family was well-to-do. Bede's first abbot was Benedict Biscop, the names "Biscop" and "Beda" both appear in a king list of the kings of Lindsey from around 800, further suggesting that Bede came from a noble family. Bede's name reflects West Saxon Bīeda, it is an Anglo-Saxon short name formed on the root of bēodan "to bid, command". The name occurs in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s.a. 501, as Bieda, one of the sons of the Saxon founder of Portsmouth. The Liber Vitae of Durham Cathedral names two priests with this name, one of whom is Bede himself.
Some manuscripts of the Life of Cuthbert, one of Bede's works, mention that Cuthbert's own priest was named Bede. At the age of seven, Bede was sent, as a puer oblatus, to the monastery of Monkwearmouth by his family to be educated by Benedict Biscop and by Ceolfrith. Bede does not say whether it was intended at that point that he would be a monk, it was common in Ireland at this time for young boys those of noble birth, to be fostered out as an oblate. Monkwearmouth's sister monastery at Jarrow was founded by Ceolfrith in 682, Bede transferred to Jarrow with Ceolfrith that year; the dedication stone for the church has survived to the present day. In 686, plague broke out at Jarrow; the Life of Ceolfrith, written in about 710, records that only two surviving monks were capable of singing the full offices. The two managed to do the entire service of the liturgy; the young boy was certainly Bede, who would have been about 14. When Bede was about 17 years old, Adomnán, the abbot of Iona Abbey, visited Monkwearmouth and Jarrow.
Bede would have met the abbot during this visit, it may be that Adomnan sparked Bede's interest in the Easter dating controversy. In about 692, in Bede's nineteenth year, Bede was ordained a deacon by his diocesan bishop, bishop of Hexham; the canonical age for the ordination of a deacon was 25.
A cathedra or bishop's throne is the seat of a bishop. It is a symbol of the bishop's teaching authority in the Catholic Church, the Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion churches. Cathedra is the Latin word for a chair with armrests, it appears in early Christian literature in the phrase "cathedrae apostolorum", indicating authority derived directly from the apostles. A church into which a bishop's official cathedra is installed is called a cathedral; the Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue Between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church makes use of the term cathedral to point out the existence of a bishop in each local church, in the heart of ecclesial apostolicity. The definitive example of a cathedra is that encased within the Triumph of the cathedra Petri designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1657, completed and installed in St Peter's Rome in 1666; as early as the 8th century, an ancient wooden chair overlaid with ivory plaques depicting The Twelve Labours of Heracles and some of the constellations was venerated as the episcopal chair of St. Peter.
It is a Byzantine throne with framed fragments of acacia wood encased in the oak carcass and reinforced with iron bands. It was long believed to have been used by the Apostle Saint Peter, but the Vatican recognises that the chair was a gift from Holy Roman Emperor Charles the Bald to Pope John VIII in 875. Several rings facilitated its transportation during processions. Pope Alexander VII commissioned Bernini to build a monument to display this relic in a triumphant manner. Bernini's gilded bronze throne, richly ornamented with bas-reliefs, encloses the relic. On January 17, 1666 it was solemnly set above the altar of Saint Peter's Basilica in Vatican City. Greater than life-sized sculptures of four Doctors of the Church form an honor guard: St. Ambrose and St. Athanasius on the left, St. John Chrysostom and St. Augustine on the right. Celebrated on February 22 in accordance with the calendar of saints, the Feast of Cathedra Petri honours the founding of the church in Rome and gives thanks for the work of Saint Peter.
The Chair of St. Augustine represents one of the most ancient extant cathedrae in use. Named after the first Archbishop of Canterbury, St. Augustine of Canterbury, it is made of Purbeck Marble or Bethesda marble and dates to sometime between the 6th and 12th centuries; those who argue for an older date suggest. Canterbury Cathedral, in which the cathedra is housed, maintains that the chair was once part of the furnishings of the shrine of St. Thomas Becket, since dismantled. Since the Middle Ages, it has always been used in the triple enthronement of an Archbishop of Canterbury, he is seated on the throne in the quire as Diocesan Bishop, in the chapter house as titular abbot, in St. Augustine's chair as Primate of All England; this is the only occasion. A second cathedra is used for other occasions; the term ex cathedra, meaning "from the chair", is used to designate official pronouncements of the pope intended for a world audience. The cathedra symbolizes the bishop's apostolic authority to teach.
In the case of the pope, the expression "ex cathedra" has special canonical meaning within the context of the Roman Catholic Church, which attributes infallible teaching authority over the whole church rather than his local Church of Rome. According to Catholic dogma, the pope's statements ex cathedra are infallible in matters of faith and morals; the traditional position of the cathedra was behind the high altar. It had been the position of the magistrate in the apse of the Roman basilica which provided the model type—and sometimes were adapted as the structures—for early Christian basilicas. In the Middle Ages, as altars came to be placed against the wall of the apse, the practice of placing the cathedra to one side became standard. In the Roman Catholic Church since the Second Vatican Council, the altar is free-standing; the cathedra in cathedrals built or renovated after Vatican II is sometimes placed behind the altar, as in ancient Roman basilicas. In Anglican practice, the cathedra tends to be placed to one side in the choir, although in more contemporary practice, it is placed on the gospel side of the chancel.
Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Rite Catholic churches have a throne for the bishop in the apse behind the holy table, with seats for the priests arranged to either side. This location is referred to as the "high place" and represents the presence of Christ presiding over the services when the bishop is not present and therefore an icon of Christ is placed above the bishop's throne; the bishop ascends to the high place only at the Trisagion. For this reason, the consecration of a bishop takes place at the Trisagion, so that he may ascend to the high place for the first time as a bishop during the liturgy at which he is consecrated. Another throne is provided for the bishop in the nave of the church: In the Greek Orthodox Church practice, this is located along the southern wall of the church, on the kliros. In this style, it is one of the monastic choir stalls, only more elaborately carved at the top of three steps, with a canopy above it. During the divine liturgy, the deacon ascends to this throne facing west.
In the Russian Orthodox Church practice, the kafedra is a large square platfo
Caracalla, formally known as Antoninus, ruled as Roman emperor from 198 to 217 AD. He was a member of the elder son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. Co-ruler with his father from 198, he continued to rule with his brother Geta, emperor from 209, after their father's death in 211, he had his brother killed that year, reigned afterwards as sole ruler of the Roman Empire. Caracalla's reign featured domestic instability and external invasions by the Germanic peoples. Caracalla's reign became notable for the Antonine Constitution known as the Edict of Caracalla, which granted Roman citizenship to nearly all free men throughout the Roman Empire; the edict gave all the enfranchised men Caracalla's adopted praenomen and nomen: "Marcus Aurelius". Domestically, Caracalla became known for the construction of the Baths of Caracalla, which became the second-largest baths in Rome. In 216, Caracalla began a campaign against the Parthian Empire, he did not see this campaign through to completion due to his assassination by a disaffected soldier in 217.
Macrinus succeeded him as emperor three days later. The ancient sources portray Caracalla as a tyrant and as a cruel leader, an image that has survived into modernity. Dio Cassius and Herodian present Caracalla as a soldier first and as an emperor second. In the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth started the legend of Caracalla's role as the king of Britain. In the 18th century, the works of French painters revived images of Caracalla due to apparent parallels between Caracalla's tyranny and that ascribed to Louis XVI of France. Modern works continue to portray Caracalla as a psychopathic and evil ruler, painting him as one of the most tyrannical of all Roman emperors. Caracalla was born Lucius Septimius Bassianus, he was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus at the age of seven as part of his father's attempt at union with the families of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. According to the 4th century historian Aurelius Victor in his Epitome de Caesaribus, he became known by the agnomen "Caracalla" after a Gallic hooded tunic that he habitually wore and made fashionable.
He may have begun wearing it during his campaigns on the Danube. Dio referred to him as Tarautas, after a famously diminutive and violent gladiator of the time. Caracalla was born in Lugdunum, Gaul, on 4 April 188 to Julia Domna, he had a younger brother, who would rule as co-emperor alongside him. Caracalla's father appointed full emperor from the year 198 onwards, his brother Geta was granted the same title around 209 or 210. In 202 Caracalla was forced to marry the daughter of Gaius Fulvius Plautianus, Fulvia Plautilla, a woman whom he hated, though for what reason is unknown. By 205 Caracalla had succeeded in having Plautianus executed for treason, though he had fabricated the evidence of the plot himself, it was that he banished his wife, whose killing might have been carried out under Caracalla's orders. Caracalla's father, Septimius Severus, died on 4 February 211 at Eboracum while on campaign in Caledonia, north of Roman Britannia. Caracalla and his brother, jointly inherited the throne upon their father's death.
Caracalla and Geta ended the campaign in Caledonia after concluding a peace with the Caledonians that returned the border of Roman Britain to the line demarcated by Hadrian's Wall. During the journey back to Rome with their father's ashes and his brother continuously argued with one another, making relations between them hostile. Caracalla and Geta considered dividing the empire in half along the Bosphorus to make their co-rule less hostile. Caracalla was to rule in the west and Geta was to rule in the east, they were persuaded not to do this by their mother. On 26 December 211, at a reconciliation meeting arranged by their mother, Caracalla had Geta assassinated by members of the Praetorian Guard loyal to himself, Geta dying in his mother's arms. Caracalla persecuted and executed most of Geta's supporters and ordered a damnatio memoriae pronounced by the Senate against his brother's memory. Geta's image was removed from all paintings, coins were melted down, statues were destroyed, his name was struck from papyrus records, it became a capital offence to speak or write Geta's name.
In the aftermath of the damnatio memoriae, an estimated 20,000 people were massacred. Those killed were Geta's inner circle of guards and advisers and other military staff under his employ. In 213, about a year after Geta's death, Caracalla left Rome never to return, he went north to the German frontier to deal with the Alamanni, a confederation of Germanic tribes who had broken through the limes in Raetia. During the campaign of 213–214, Caracalla defeated some of the Germanic tribes while settling other difficulties through diplomacy, though with whom these treaties were made remains unknown. While there, Caracalla strengthened the frontier fortifications of Raetia and Germania Superior, collectively known as the Agri Decumates, so that it was able to withstand any further barbarian invasions for another twenty years. Historian Edward Gibbon compares Caracalla to emperors such as Hadrian who spent their careers campaigning in the provinces and to tyrants such as Nero and Domitian whose entire reigns were confined to Rome and whose actions only impacted upon the senatoria