Heydar Aliyev

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Heydar Aliyev
Heydər Əliyev
Гейдар Алийев
Heydar Aliyev 1997.jpg
3rd President of Azerbaijan
In office
10 October 1993 – 31 October 2003
(Acting: 24 June – 10 October 1993)
Prime Minister Surat Huseynov
Fuad Guliyev
Artur Rasizade
Ilham Aliyev
Preceded by Abulfaz Elchibey
Succeeded by Ilham Aliyev
Speaker of the National Assembly
In office
15 June 1993 – 5 November 1993
President Abulfaz Elchibey
Himself
Prime Minister Surat Huseynov
Fuad Guliyev
Preceded by Isa Gambar
Succeeded by Rasul Guliyev
First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union
In office
24 November 1982 – 23 October 1987
President Vasili Kuznetsov (acting)
Yuri Andropov
Vasili Kuznetsov (acting)
Konstantin Chernenko
Vasili Kuznetsov (acting)
Andrei Gromyko
Premier Nikolai Tikhonov
Nikolai Ryzhkov
Preceded by Ivan Arkhipov
Succeeded by Andrei Gromyko
Full member of the 26th, 27th Politburo
In office
22 November 1982 – 21 October 1987
First Secretary of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan
In office
14 July 1969 – 3 December 1982
Preceded by Veli Akhundov
Succeeded by Kamran Baghirov
Candidate member of the 25th, 26th Politburo
In office
5 March 1976 – 22 November 1982
Personal details
Born Heydar Alirza oghlu Aliyev
(1923-05-10)10 May 1923
Nakhchivan ASSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Transcaucasian SFSR, Soviet Union
Died 12 December 2003(2003-12-12) (aged 80)
Cleveland, Ohio, United States
Nationality Azerbaijani
Political party

Communist Party of the Soviet Union

New Azerbaijan Party
Spouse(s) Zarifa Aliyeva
Children Sevil Aliyeva
Ilham Aliyev
Awards Hero of Socialist Labor medal.png Hero of Socialist Labor medal.png
Signature
Military service
Allegiance  Soviet Union
Service/branch KGB of Azerbaijan SSR
Years of service 1941–1969
Rank Major General

Heydar Alirza oghlu Aliyev (Azerbaijani: Heydər Əlirza oğlu Əliyev, Һејдар Әлирза оғлу Әлијәв; Russian: Гейда́р Али́евич Али́ев, Gejdar Alijevič Alijev; 10 May 1923[1] – 12 December 2003), also spelled Gaidar or Gaydar Aliev, was the third President of Azerbaijan who served from October 1993 to October 2003. As national president he held constitutional powers, but his influence on Azerbaijani politics had begun years earlier, as a young man he had joined the Azerbaijan SSR People's Commissariat for State Security (NKGB) and quickly rose to the rank of Major-General.

The regime established by Heydar Aliyev in Azerbaijan is described as dictatorial[2][3][4][5][6][7] or authoritarian [8][9][10][11] and repressive.[12] Some political commentators highlight that Aliyev ran a heavy-handed police state, that he rigged elections and muzzled the media[13][14] whereas others emphasize that his balanced policy brought stability to Azerbaijan.[15][16]

Career in the Soviet era[edit]

Early life[edit]

According to his website, he was born in Nakhchivan City, after graduating from Nakhchivan Pedagogical School, from 1939 to 1941 Aliyev attended the Azerbaijan Industrial Institute (now the Azerbaijan State Oil Academy), where he studied architecture. In 1949 and 1950, he studied at the USSR MGB Officer Corps Qualifications-Raising School. Aliyev's official biography also stated that he studied at Baku State University, graduating with a degree in history in 1957.[17] According to American journalist Pete Earley, Aliyev first attended the Ministry of State Security Academy in Leningrad, graduating in 1944.[18]

In 1948, he married Zarifa Aliyeva, on 12 October 1955, their daughter Sevil was born. On 24 December 1961, their son Ilham was born. Zarifa died of cancer in 1985.

Leadership of Soviet Azerbaijan[edit]

Aliyev joined the Azerbaijan SSR People's Commissariat for State Security (NKGB) in 1944. In 1954, as part of a government reform, NKGB became known as Committee for State Security, or the KGB. Aliyev rose quickly within the agency to the rank of Major-General,[19] became a deputy chairman of Azerbaijani KGB in 1964, its chairman in 1967 and rose to the rank of a major general.[20]

In 1969, Aliyev was appointed by Leonid Brezhnev to the post of First Secretary of the Central Committee of Azerbaijan Communist Party amidst a Soviet anti-corruption campaign,[21][22] Aliyev made some progress in the fight against corruption: a number of people were sentenced to prison terms; and in 1975, five factory and collective farm managers were sentenced to death for gross corruption.[23] In the early 1980s, Aliyev barred the offspring of certain legal personnel from attending the Republic's law school, in a purported effort to curb a self-perpetuating elite based on corruption; in 1977, he visited Iran: Mashhad twice and Kerbala once.[24]

During the period of his leadership of Soviet Azerbaijan, Aliyev's efforts led to considerably increased economic, social and cultural growth rates in Azerbaijan SSR.[25] Aliyev became perhaps the most successful republican leader, raising the profile of the underprivileged republic and consistently promoting Azerbaijanis to senior posts.[26][27]

On 22 November 1982, Yuri Andropov promoted Aliyev from candidate to full member of Soviet Politburo[28] and appointed him to the post of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR,[29] responsible for transportation and social services. Aliyev thus attained the highest position ever reached by an Azerbaijani in the Soviet Union.[30]

Aliyev was forced to resign from this position in 1987 amidst allegations of corruption made against him by Mikhail Gorbachev,[30] despite that, CIA report states that, Heydar Aliyev became First Deputy Chairman of USSR Council of Ministers and a full Politburo Member who publicly pledged to fight against corruption, free key state personnel and the economy of the Soviet Union from bribery.[31] It is noted in the report that his colleagues understood his intention to deal harshly with corruption was serious and his committment to the anti-corruption became his trademark within the Soviet Union.[31]

From KGB to leader of Azerbaijan SSR[edit]

As head of the KGB's branch in Azerbaijan, Aliyev ran an anti-corruption campaign.[32][33][34] Following the campaign, he became the undisputed leader of Azerbaijan. Aliyev became a candidate (non-voting) member of the Soviet Politburo in 1976, he ran this position until December 1982, when Yuri Andropov promoted him to the office of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers.[32]

A meeting between Heydar Aliyev with Vladimir Putin in Kremlin on 25 January 2002.

His star waned following his appointment in 1985 under Mikhail Gorbachev, his political views became something of a liability to him in the era of perestroika, but he still exerted tremendous power in Azerbaijan.[35][36]

Fall and re-invention[edit]

After his forced retirement in 1987, Aliyev remained in Moscow until 1990, he suffered a heart attack during this time. Aliyev appeared in the Permanent Mission of Azerbaijan SSR in Moscow, demanded that the organizers and executors of the crime committed against the people of Azerbaijan be punished for[37] a military action which resulted in violent Black January events amidst the brewing Nagorno-Karabakh War.

Almost immediately after this public appearance in Moscow, Aliyev officially resigned his membership in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and left Moscow for his native Nakhchivan. Here, Aliyev reinvented himself as a moderate nationalist and was subsequently elected deputy to the Supreme Soviet of Azerbaijan SSR in Baku. Under the pressure and criticism from the groups connected to his nemesis, the then-leader of Soviet Azerbaijan Ayaz Mutallibov, Aliyev again returned to Nakhchivan, where he was elected Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic in 1991.

By December 1991, when the Soviet Union ceased to exist and Azerbaijan formally became an independent state, despite Mutallibov's presidency Aliyev independently governed Nakhchivan. Early 1992 was marked by increased violence in Nagorno-Karabakh War with the fall of Shusha, the last Azerbaijani-populated town in Nagorno-Karabakh, these events resulted in the resignation of Mutallibov and the subsequent rise to power of the Azerbaijan Popular Front led by Abulfaz Elchibey. During Elchibey's one year in power, Aliyev continued to govern Nakhchivan without any subordination to the official government in Baku, the attempt by the Popular Front's Minister of Interior Isgandar Hamidov to forcibly overthrow Aliyev in Nakhchivan was thwarted by local militia at the regional airport. During the same period, Aliyev independently negotiated a cease-fire agreement in Nakhchivan with the then-President of Armenia, Levon Ter-Petrossian.

In May–June 1993, when, as a result of a crisis in the government, the country was on the verge of a civil war and faced the peril of losing independence, the people of Azerbaijan demanded to bring Heydar Aliyev to power, and the then leaders of Azerbaijan were obliged to officially invite Heydar Aliyev to Baku, on 24 June 1993, amidst the advancement of insurgent forces under Huseynov's control towards Baku, Elchibey fled from the city to his native village of Keleki in Nakhchivan. Earlier, on 15 June 1993, Aliyev had been elected Chairman of the National Assembly of Azerbaijan, and after Elchibey's flight he also assumed temporary presidential powers;[38] in August 1993, Elchibey was stripped of his presidency by the nationwide referendum, and in October 1993, Aliyev was elected President of Azerbaijan. In May 1994, Aliyev entered into a ceasefire agreement that still remains in force to this very day. However, the conflict remained unresolved, with Armenian control over Nagorno-Karabakh.

On October 3, 1993, as a result of nationwide voting, Heydar Aliyev was elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, on October 11, 1998, having garnered at the elections, passed in high activeness of the population, 76,1 percent of the votes, he was re-elected President of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Heydar Aliyev, giving his consent to be nominated as a candidate at the 15 October 2003 presidential elections, relinquished to run at the elections in connection with health problems.

The Government under Aliyev's leadership carried out legal, political and economical measures between 1993-2003.[39]

Further, Commission for Legal Reforms was established, in 1998 capital punishment was abolished,[40] the institute of the Human Rights Ombudsman was established, amnesty and pardon mechanisms were introduced.[41] Simultaneously, the comprehensive economic reforms including the agrarian reform were carried out; the state property privatization was initiated; the industrial and agricultural crises were lifted.[42][43]

Death and successor[edit]

Aliyev's health began to fail in 1999, when he had a major heart bypass operation in the United States at the Cleveland Clinic, he later had prostate surgery and a hernia operation. He suffered a collapse while giving a speech on live television in April 2003, on 6 August Aliyev returned to the United States for treatment of congestive heart failure and kidney problems. He stood down from the presidency at the start of October 2003 and appointed his son Ilham as his party's sole presidential candidate, on 12 December 2003, President Heydar Aliyev died at the Cleveland Clinic.[44] He was buried at the Fakhri Khiyaban (The Alley of Honor) cemetery in Baku.

Ilham Aliyev duly won the presidential election of 15 October 2003 but international observers again criticized the contest as falling well below expected standards,[45] this transfer of power became the first case of top-level succession in the former Soviet Union.[46]

Honors[edit]

Throughout his life, Heydar Aliyev was awarded a number of state orders and medals, international awards, elected honorable doctor of universities in many countries, including the Order of Lenin four times, the Order of the Red Star once and Hero of the Socialist Labor twice. On 27 March 1997 in Kiev, Ukraine, Aliyev received Ukraine's highest award, the Yaroslav Mudry Order, and on 13 April 1999, Turkey's highest honor, the Peace Premium of Atatürk Order. On 3 April 2003, he was elected a professor and authorized member of the Academy of Safety of the Russian Federation, and was subsequently awarded the Premium of Y.V.Andropov, on 10 May 2003, he was decorated with the order of Saint Apostle Andrey Pervozvanny—Russia's supreme award.[1][47]

Honours and awards[edit]

Soviet Union
Other

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Heydar Aliyev biography". Archived from the original on 2007-09-13. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  2. ^ The Two Faces of Azerbaijan’s Mr. Aliyev // The New York Times, JAN. 11, 2015
  3. ^ Hans Slomp. Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO, 2011. ISBN 0-313-39181-5, 9780313391811. P.672
  4. ^ FranCoise Companjen, Laszlo Maracz, Lia Versteegh. Exploring the Caucasus in the 21st Century: Essays on Culture, History and Politics in a Dynamic Context. Amsterdam University Press, 2011. ISBN 90-8964-183-1, 9789089641830. P.121
  5. ^ Thomas Goltz. Azerbaijan Diary: A Rogue Reporter’s Adventures in an Oil-Rich, War-Torn, Post-Soviet Republic. M.E. Sharpe, 1999. ISBN 0-7656-0244-X, 9780765602442. P.66
  6. ^ Elisabeth Precht. Azerbaijan In the Shadow of a Dictatorship //Jarl Hjalmarson Foundation, 2012
  7. ^ В турецком учебнике Гейдар Алиев представлен как диктатор // Сontact.az. 2013 Февраль 09 «В изданной в Турции учебнике „Конституционное права“ для студентов университетов бывший президент Азербайджана Гейдар Алиев назван „диктатором“» (copy)
  8. ^ Rise of Leader's Son Sharpens Azerbaijan's Identity Crisis // Washington Post. August 9, 2003
  9. ^ David J. Kramer and Richard Kauzlarich. It’s time for the United States to act on Azerbaijan // Washington Post, September 8, 2016
  10. ^ Svante E. Cornell Democratization Falters in Azerbaijan // Journal of Democracy 12.2 (2001) 118—131
  11. ^ Борисов Николай Александрович. Институционализация института президентства и перспективы консолидации политических режимов на постсоветском пространстве // «Полития».-2011.-№ 4(63).-С.93-103. «И хотя эта гипотеза ещё нуждается в дополнительной проверке, уместно предположить, что в этих государствах состоялась авторитарная консолидация, причем важнейшим её фактором был институт президентства и сами личности президентов (Сапармурат Ниязов, Эмомали Рахмон, Нурсултан Назарбаев, Гейдар Алиев)»
  12. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Heydar Aliyev.

    Azerbaijani politician who, was one of the most powerful men in Azerbaijan for more than 30 years, as deputy chairman (1964-67) and chairman (1967-69) of the regional KGB, as secretary (1969-87) of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan, and from 1993 as the repressive and autocratic president of independent Azerbaijan.

  13. ^ "Heidar Aliev, maestro of the Caucasus". The Economist. 2000-08-31. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2017-09-03.  "There is stability, because Mr Aliev is an acute tactician who runs a heavy-handed police state. Opposition leaders who decline to be co-opted are in jail, in exile or bullied. Elections are rigged, the media muzzled."
  14. ^ Kucera, Joshua (2008-05-20). "Travels in the Former Soviet Union". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved 2017-09-03. 
  15. ^ Aslanli, Araz. "AZERBAIJAN-RUSSIA RELATIONS: IS THE FOREIGN POLICY STRATEGY OF AZERBAIJAN CHANGING?" (PDF). 
  16. ^ "why-so-much-stability-an-overview-of-the-azerbaijani-political-system" (PDF). 
  17. ^ "Biography". Heydar Aliyev Center. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  18. ^ Earley, Pete (2008). Comrade J: The Untold Secrets of Russia's Master Spy in America After the End of the Cold War. Penguin Books. p. 200. 
  19. ^ Nikolaij Nor-Mesek, Wolfgang Rieper. The Defense Council of the USSR, Institut für Sowjet-Studien, 1984, p. 9
  20. ^ "Heydar Aliyev Foundation - Biography". heydar-aliyev-foundation.org. Retrieved 2017-04-01. 
  21. ^ Richard Sakwa. Soviet Politics in Perspective, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-16992-5, p. 71
  22. ^ There is no such source, nor any evidence cited that Akhundov was corrupt! Please be a bit respectful! Bernard Anthony Cook. Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, 2001, ISBN 0-8153-4057-5, p. 70
  23. ^ James Stuart Olson. An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires, Greenwood Press, 1994, ISBN 0-313-27497-5, p. 71
  24. ^ Louise I. Shelley. Policing Soviet Society: The Evolution of State Control, Routledge, 1996, ISBN 0-415-10469-6, p. 88
  25. ^ Christian Schmidt-Häuer. Gorbachev: The Path to Power, I. B. Tauris, 1986, ISBN 1-85043-015-2, p. 205
  26. ^ Thomas De Waal. Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War, NYU Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8147-1945-7, p. 134
  27. ^ Harold James Perkin. The Third Revolution: Professional Elites in the Modern World, Routledge, 1996, ISBN 0-415-14337-3, p. 134
  28. ^ Alexander Hopkins McDannald. The Americana Annual: An Encyclopedia of Current Events, Americana Corporation, 1983, p. 524
  29. ^ Martin McCauley. Who's Who in Russia Since 1900, Routledge, 1997, ISBN 0-415-13898-1, p. 13
  30. ^ a b Roger East, Richard Thomas, Alan John Day. A Political and Economic Dictionary of Eastern Europe, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 1-85743-063-8, p. 34
  31. ^ a b "CIA report on Geydar Aliev: His new role in the USSR Council of Ministers" (PDF). 24 January 2011. 
  32. ^ a b Perkin, Harold James (1996). The Third Revolution: Professional Elites in the Modern World. Routledge. p. 204. ISBN 0415143373. 
  33. ^ Block, Alan A. (1997). Masters of Paradise: A Postscript. Transaction Publishers. p. 325. ISBN 1560009713. 
  34. ^ Azadian, Edmond Y. (2000). History on the Move: Views, Interviews and Essays on Armenian Issues. Wayne State University Press. p. 67. ISBN 0814329160. 
  35. ^ EurasiaNet Eurasia Insight - Azerbaijan: Biography Of Deceased Former President Heidar Aliyev
  36. ^ The Gorbachev Prospect, by George Soros, Volume 36, Number 9, 1 June 1989,The New York Review of Books
  37. ^ Roger East, Richard J. Thomas. Profiles of People in Power: The World's Government Leaders, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 1-85743-126-X, p. 32
  38. ^ United States Library of Congress Country Studies Azerbaijan - The Coup of June 1993.
  39. ^ "legal reforms" (PDF). 
  40. ^ "The abolition of the death penalty and its alternative sanction in South Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia" (PDF). 
  41. ^ @Nasir. "The Commissioner for Human Rights". /. Retrieved 2017-09-04. 
  42. ^ "Azerbaijan". www.azerbaijan.az. Retrieved 2017-09-04. 
  43. ^ "Land reforms". 
  44. ^ China Daily News Azerbaijan's Geidar Aliev dies at 80. Published 16 December 2003
  45. ^ Human Rights Watch Azerbaijan: Presidential Elections 2003
  46. ^ Radio Free Europe Azerbaijan: Ilham Aliev's Confirmation As Premier Will Keep Presidency In The Family. Written by Askold Krushelnycky. Published 4 August 2003.
  47. ^ Mexico City Removes Aliyev Statue
  48. ^ "Dostluk İlişkilerine Katkının Altın Sembolü: Devlet ve Cumhuriyet Nişanları (Turkish) - The Gold Symbol Contribution of Friendly Relations : State and Republic Orders". Haberler.com. February 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2015. 

External links[edit]

Party political offices
Preceded by
Vali Akhundov
First Secretary of the Azerbaijan Communist Party
1969–1982
Succeeded by
Kamran Bagirov
Political offices
Preceded by
none
Parliamentary Chairman of Nakhchivan
1991–1993
Succeeded by
Vasif Talibov
Preceded by
Abulfaz Elchibey
President of Azerbaijan
1993–2003
Succeeded by
Ilham Aliyev