click links in text for more info


A hi-hat is a combination of two cymbals and a foot pedal, all mounted on a metal stand. It is a part of the standard drum kit used by drummers in many styles of music including rock, pop and blues. Hi-hats consist of a matching pair of small to medium-sized cymbals mounted on a stand, with the two cymbals facing each other; the bottom cymbal is fixed and the top is mounted on a rod which moves the top cymbal towards the bottom one when the pedal is depressed. The hi-hat evolved from a "sock cymbal", a pair of similar cymbals mounted at ground level on a hinged, spring-loaded foot apparatus. Drummers invented the first sock cymbals to enable one drummer to play multiple percussion instruments at the same time. Over time these became mounted on short stands - known as "low-boys" - and activated by foot pedals similar to those used in the 2010s; when extended upwards 3' they were known as "high sock" cymbals, which evolved over time to the familiar "high-hat" term. The cymbals may be played by closing them together with the foot pedal, which creates a "chck" sound or striking them with a stick, which may be done with them open, closed and closed after striking to dampen the ring, or closed and opened to create a shimmering effect at the end of the note.

Depending on how hard a hi-hat is struck and whether it is "open", a hi-hat can produce a range of dynamics, from quiet "chck" sounds, done with gently pressing the pedal. While the term hi-hat refers to the entire setup, in some cases, drummers use it to refer to the two cymbals themselves. Initial versions of the hi-hat were called clangers, which were small cymbals mounted onto a bass drum rim and struck with an arm on the bass drum pedal. Came shoes, which were two hinged boards with cymbals on the ends that were clashed together. Next was the low-sock, low-boy or low-hat, pedal-activated cymbals employing an ankle-high apparatus similar to a modern hi-hat stand. A standard size was some with heavy bells up to 5 inches wide. Hi-hats that were raised and could be played by hand as well as foot may have been developed around 1926 by Barney Walberg of the drum accessory company Walberg and Auge; the first recognized master of the new instrument was "Papa" Jo Jones, whose playing of timekeeping "ride" rhythms while striking the hi-hat as it opened and closed inspired the innovation of the ride cymbal.

Another claim, published in Jazz Profiles Blogspot on August 8, 2008, to the invention of the hi-hat is attributed to drummer William "O'Neil" Spencer. Legendary Jazz drummer, "Philly Joe Jones", was quoted describing his understanding about the hi-hat history. Jones said, "I dug O'Neil, he came to club in Philadelphia where I was working in 1943, I think it was, talked to me about the hi-hat. I was using the low-hat. O'Neil was the one. I believe man, he suggested' when playing 4/4 time. The idea seemed so right hadn't heard anyone do that before." The editor of the 2008 Jazz Profiles article made specific mention to others who are thought to invent the hi-hat, including Jo Jones, but Kaiser Marshall. Not to take away from Papa Jones accomplishments in drumming style and technique, a 2013 Modern Drummer article credits Papa Jones with being the first to use brushes on drums and shifting time keeping from the bass drum to the hi-hat; until the late 1960s, standard hi-hats were 14 inches, with 13 inches available as a less-common alternative in professional cymbal ranges, smaller sizes down to 12 inches restricted to children's kits.

In the early 1970s, hard rock drummers began to use 15-inch hi-hats, such as the Paiste Giant Beat. In the late 1980s, Zildjian released its revolutionary 12-inch Special Recording hats, which were small, heavy hi-hat cymbals intended for close miking either live or recording, other manufacturers followed suit, Sabian for example with their 10-inch mini hats. In the early to mid-1990s, Paiste offered 8-inch mini hi-hats as part of its Visions series, which were among the world's smallest hi-hats. Starting in the 1980s, a number of manufacturers experimented with rivets in the lower cymbal, but by the end of the 1990s, the standard size was again 14 inches, with 13 inches a less-common alternative, smaller hats used for special sounds. Rivets in hi-hats failed to catch on. Modern hi-hat cymbals are much heavier than modern crash cymbals, reflecting the trend to lighter and thinner crash cymbals as well as to heavier hi-hats. Another evolution is that a pair of hi-hat cymbals may not be identical, with the bottom heavier than the top, vented.

Some examples are Sabian's Fusion Hats with holes in the bottom cymbal, the Sabian X-cellerator, Zildjian Master Sound and Zildjian Quick Beats, Paiste Sound Edge, Meinl Soundwave. Some drummers use mismatched hi-hats from different cymbal ranges, of different manufacturers, of different sizes. Max Roach was known for using

Edwin Cole (RAF officer)

Squadron Leader Edwin Stuart Travis Cole was a British World War I flying ace credited with eight aerial victories. He returned to military service in 1939 for the Second World War. Edwin Stuart Travis Cole was born in England on 26 December 1895, to Ruben and Jessie Cole, he became a mechanical engineer. Cole was awarded Aviator's Certificate No. 2160 on Caudron biplanes at the Ruffy-Baumann School at Hendon. He was commissioned as a probationary second lieutenant in the Royal Flying Corps on 29 April 1916, was appointed a flying officer on 21 July, was confirmed in his rank in August. On 15 September 1916, having been assigned to No. 60 Squadron RFC to fly a Nieuport fighter, he scored his first victory. Reassigned to No. 1 Squadron RFC, he once again flew a Nieuport. He triumphed twice in March 1917, four times during Bloody April, including two observation balloons. On 1 May 1917, he and fellow ace Frank Sharpe captured a German Albatros D. III fighter at Roulers-Elverdinghe, receiving promotion to lieutenant the same day.

Following this, Cole was withdrawn from action. On 6 July 1918 he was promoted to the temporary rank of captain, his record lapses until 1939, when he agreed to let a garage in Downend be used for a first aid post and air raid shelter. On 21 March 1939, he was commissioned as a pilot officer on probation in the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve. On 31 August 1939, he was promoted to flying officer. Unfit for flight duty, on 27 May 1940 he was transferred to General Duties. On 27 May 1941, he was promoted to flight lieutenant. On 1 July 1944, he was once again promoted, this time to temporary squadron leader. On 10 February 1954, Cole relinquished his reserve commission, with permission to retain the rank of squadron leader. Edwin Stuart Travis Cole died in 1984 in England. Military Cross 2nd Lt. Edwin Stewart Travis Cole, Royal Flying Corps For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. On one occasion he, in a scout and brought down an enemy two-seater biplane, he has brought down two hostile balloons.

He has at all times set a splendid example of initiative. Notes BibliographyFranks, Norman. Nieuport Aces of World War I. London, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85532-961-4

Double Life (song)

"Double Life" is a single by the American rock band the Cars from their second album Candy-O. Written by Ric Ocasek, the song was left off the album; the song did not chart. "Double Life" was left off of Candy-O. If I'm outvoted, we don't do it. We didn't include'Double Life' on the new album, it had been dropped." The first lines of the song, "It takes a fast car to lead a double life," are taken from the first two lines of a poem by Lawrence Ferlinghetti called "Lost Parents."On the Candy-O album, this song segues via cross-fading into the next song, "Shoo Be Doo", which, in turn, segues into the album's title track. Aside from being in the same relative keys, the two have nothing in common; this trick of connecting multiple songs by crossfading or short segueways tempted radio programmers, in the earlier days of radio, into playing more than one song from the album. Many stations had succumbed to this temptation in the sequencing of Side Two of the band's debut album. A music video, featuring the band miming to the song, was released.

The video was the twenty-first music video to be aired on MTV. The song is sung by Ric Ocasek on the lead vocals, while the other band members provide a harmony bed of "Aah"s and the repeating refrain "It's all gonna happen to you." Although the song begins with an A power chord, the song is in C Major, consisting of C and F major chords, A minor chords, the dominant, G7 chords. The song features a brief guitar solo by lead guitarist Elliot Easton, who plays a number of high-speed solo licks over a musical background of G major; some of his solo phrases end pointedly on F, the dominant seventh of G, reinforcing its role as the dominant seventh chord. "Double Life" was released as the third single from Candy-O in December 1979, with "Candy-O" on the B-side. Despite the previous two singles' chart success, "Double Life" failed to chart in the United States. "Double Life" has since appeared on the compilation, Just What I Needed: The Cars Anthology, is around 12 seconds longer than the Candy-O version.

Allmusic reviewer Greg Prato states the song "embraces modern pop."


BAG family molecular chaperone regulator 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BAG5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BAG1-related protein family. BAG1 is an anti-apoptotic protein that functions through interactions with a variety of cell apoptosis and growth related proteins including BCL-2, Raf-protein kinase, steroid hormone receptors, growth factor receptors and members of the heat shock protein 70 kDa family; this protein contains a BAG domain near the C-terminus, which could bind and inhibit the chaperone activity of Hsc70/Hsp70. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. Human BAG5 genome location and BAG5 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser

Manonjaya Grand Mosque

Manonjaya Great Mosque is one of the oldest mosques in Tasikmalaya Regency, Indonesia. It was completed in 1837, has an area of 1250 square meters. Together with the Great Mosque of Sumedang, the government established the mosque a paramount cultural heritage of Islam in 1975; the government's decree was issued by the Archaeology Board of Indonesia which referred to the Antiquities Law on September 1, 1975. The existence of the mosque is inseparable from the history of Tasikmalaya. More than a hundred years ago, Manonjaya used to be the municipality of Tasikmalaya, referred as Sukapura. Manonjaya Grand Mosque was built around 1832 when the Regent of Sukapura was led by the local ruler Wiradadaha VIII; the construction of the mosque was carried out with the transfer of the district capital from Pasirpanjang to Manonjaya. The 2009 West Java earthquake destroyed the mosque, it has been damaged during the 1977 earthquake, was subsequently repaired. However, 60 pillars referred to as Dalem Sewidak could not withstand the magnitude of the 2009 earthquake.

The front of the mosque collapsed and logs buffering the roof were scattered. There were no casualties reported within the mosque area; as of 2012, the restoration of the mosque has been completed

Fusion (Star Trek: Enterprise)

"Fusion" is the seventeenth episode of the television series Star Trek: Enterprise. Enterprise encounters a group of unconventional Vulcans, one of whom leads T'Pol into further exploring her emotions. Enterprise is near the Arachnid Nebula when it is hailed by Captain Tavin, of the Vulcan vessel Vahklas, in need of repair. On Enterprise Tavin says that they left Vulcan eight years and their mission is to explore themselves rather than the galaxy. Sub-Commander T'Pol identifies them as V'tosh ka'tur, Vulcans without logic. Captain Archer reports that the repairs will take up to four days and that they should use that time to explore the nebula, he observes that T'Pol has been avoiding the Vulcans, encouraging her to keep an open mind. In the Mess Hall, T'Pol is joined by Tolaris, who comments that she has been affected by human society in more ways than she realizes. T'Pol reports; however Vahklas has translinear sensors. On the Vahklas, T'Pol expresses curiosity that the Vulcans display the likeness of Surak but reject his teachings.

Tolaris has no regrets in exploring a balance of reason and emotion, asks T'Pol not to meditate that night and to experience her dreams. She does dream - she is in San Francisco, walking around disguised in the evening; the memories blur with thoughts of Tolaris acting provocatively towards her. She awakes and visits Doctor Phlox, who tells her that it would be unwise to change her routine too quickly. Tolaris asks T'Pol what her dreams were like, he tells her about the Mind Meld, an ancient technique abandoned by Vulcans centuries ago; when she tries to end the meld, Tolaris persists, until she forces him away. Archer summons Tolaris and informs him that T'Pol is now recovering in Sickbay. Tolaris becomes violent. T'Pol is meditating in her quarters when Archer tells her that ship has departed; as he turns to leave, T'Pol asks the Captain. Archer replies that he does, sometimes in color. T'Pol asks the Captain if he finds it enjoyable, he replies that most nights. T'Pol says "I envy you"; the actions of this episode will be revisited in the Season 2 episode "Stigma", when it is revealed that T'Pol has contracted Pa'nar Syndrome from the mind meld performed in this episode.

The Pa'nar Syndrome/mind meld theme continues in the Season 4 three-part story arc of "The Forge", "Awakening" and "Kir'Shara". "Fusion" on IMDb "Fusion" at "Fusion" at Memory Alpha "Fusion" at