click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hieronymus Bosch

Hieronymus Bosch was a Dutch/Netherlandish painter from Brabant. He is one of the most notable representatives of the Early Netherlandish painting school, his work contains fantastic illustrations of religious narratives. Within his lifetime his work was collected in the Netherlands and Spain, copied his macabre and nightmarish depictions of hell. Little is known of Bosch's life, he spent most of it in the town of's - Hertogenbosch. The roots of his forefathers are in Aachen, his pessimistic and fantastical style cast a wide influence on northern art of the 16th century, with Pieter Bruegel the Elder being his best-known follower. Today he is seen as a hugely individualistic painter with deep insight into humanity's desires and deepest fears. Attribution has been difficult. About another half dozen paintings are confidently attributed to his workshop, his most acclaimed works consist of a few triptych altarpieces, including The Garden of Earthly Delights. Hieronymus Bosch was born Jheronimus van Aken.

He signed a number of his paintings as Jheronimus Bosch. The name derives from his birthplace,'s-Hertogenbosch, called "Den Bosch". Little is known of Bosch's training, he left behind no letters or diaries, what has been identified has been taken from brief references to him in the municipal records of's-Hertogenbosch, in the account books of the local order of the Illustrious Brotherhood of Our Blessed Lady. Nothing is known of his thoughts on the meaning of his art. Bosch's date of birth has not been determined with certainty, it is estimated at c. 1450 on the basis of a hand drawn portrait made shortly before his death in 1516. The drawing shows the artist at an advanced age in his late sixties. Bosch was lived all his life in and near's - Hertogenbosch, a city in the Duchy of Brabant, his grandfather, Jan van Aken, was a painter and is first mentioned in the records in 1430. It is known that Jan had five sons, four of whom were painters. Bosch's father, Anthonius van Aken, acted as artistic adviser to the Illustrious Brotherhood of Our Blessed Lady.

It is assumed that either Bosch's father or one of his uncles taught the artist to paint, but none of their works survive. Bosch first appears in the municipal record on 5 April 1474, when he is named along with two brothers and a sister.'s-Hertogenbosch was a flourishing city in 15th-century Brabant, in the south of the present-day Netherlands, at the time part of the Burgundian Netherlands, during its lifetime passing through marriage to the Habsburgs. In 1463, four thousand houses in the town were destroyed by a catastrophic fire, which the thirteen-year-old Bosch witnessed, he became a popular painter in his lifetime and received commissions from abroad. In 1488 he joined the respected Brotherhood of Our Lady, a devotional confraternity of some forty influential citizens of's-Hertogenbosch, seven thousand'outer-members' from around Europe. Sometime between 1479 and 1481, Bosch married Aleyt Goyaerts van den Meerveen, a few years his senior; the couple moved to the nearby town of Oirschot, where his wife had inherited a house and land from her wealthy family.

An entry in the accounts of the Brotherhood of Our Lady records Bosch's death in 1516. A funeral mass served in his memory was held in the church of Saint John on 9 August of that year. Bosch produced at least sixteen triptychs, of which eight are intact, another five in fragments. Bosch's works are organised into three periods of his life dealing with the early works, the middle period, the late period. According to Stefan Fischer, thirteen of Bosch's surviving paintings were completed in the late period, with seven attributed to his middle period. Bosch's early period is studied in terms of his workshop activity and some of his drawings. Indeed, he taught pupils in the workshop; the recent dendrochronological investigation of the oak panels by the scientists at the Bosch Research and Conservation Project led to a more precise dating of the majority of Bosch's paintings. His most famous triptych is The Garden of Earthly Delights whose outer panels are intended to bracket the main central panel between the Garden of Eden depicted on the left panel and the Last Judgment depicted on the right panel.

It is attributed by Fischer as a transition painting rendered by Bosch from between his middle period and his late period. In the left hand panel God presents Eve to Adam; the figures are set in a landscape populated by exotic animals and unusual semi-organic hut-shaped forms. The central panel is a broad panorama teeming with nude figures engaged in innocent, self-absorbed joy, as well as fantastical compound animals, oversized fruit, hybrid stone formations; the right panel presents a hellscape. Set at night, the panel features tortured figures and frozen waterways; the nakedness of the human figures has lost any eroticism suggested in the central panel, as large explosions

ADAM7

Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ADAM7 gene. ADAM7 is an 85-kDa enzyme, a member of the transmembrane ADAM protein family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, neurogenesis. ADAM7 is important for the maturation of sperm cells in mammals. ADAM7 is denoted as: ADAM_7, ADAM-7, EAPI, GP-83, GP83; the functions of ADAM7 directly relate to sperm fertilization. Sperm are immobile until traversing the epididymis, in which the sperm interact with many proteins secreted by epithelial cells of the epididymis. Lacking protease activity, ADAM7 may play roles in protein-protein interactions and cell adhesion processes including sperm-egg fusion. ADAM7 is transferred to the maturing sperm's surface; as determined through mouse gene knock-out studies, the amount of ADAM7 secreted is directly linked to ADAM2 and ADAM3 protein levels.

Complex formation between ADAM7, Hspa5, Itm2b have been shown to act as a molecular chaperone after ADAM7 is incorporated into the membrane of sperm cells. Furthermore, complex formation with Itm2b is increased during sperm capacitation leading to a conformation change in ADAM7; as such, the ADAM7 protein plays an important function involved in sperm capacitation, although this function is not understood. ADAM7 is synthesized in epididymis cells and transferred to the membrane of immature sperm cells as they traverse the epididymis during ejaculation. Epithelial cells of the epididymis incorporate ADAM7 into their membrane like other integral membrane protein. Portions of the membrane are secreted as exosome vesicles. Secretion in this manner is an apocrine secretion in which apical blebs containing a portion of the epididymis cell are released from the cell; the apical blebs encounter the immature sperm cell membrane within the convoluted tubules of the epididymis. The apical bleb and immature sperm cell membrane fuse incorporating ADAM7 into the sperm cell membrane.

Human ADAM7 contains a sequence of 756 amino acids. Numerous mammalian orthologs are known; the largest portion of ADAM7 resides in the extracellular space. A short helical transmembrane sequence anchors the sequence while a short cytoplasmic sequence exists; this is consistent and expected. ADAM7 expression is localized in mammalian epididymis cells. Expression of ADAM7 is higher in the head of the epididymis and decreases in cells towards the distal epididymis. ADAM7 is present in mature sperm cell membranes of mice. Thus, ADAM7 is transferred to the maturing sperm cell membrane. MRNA transcripts are expressed in testes leydig cells as well. Due to the large mammalian homology, ADAM7 is studied in Mus Musculus; the MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: M12.956 Endocrinology Journal Gene expression/activity chart via biogps: mRNA Tissue Expression Human ADAM7 genome location and ADAM7 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser

Katharina of Hanau

Catherine of Hanau known as Katharina was a German regent. She was the regent of the County of Rieneck during the minority of her son from 1431 until 1434, she was the eldest daughter of Reinhard II, who would become the first Count of Hanau in 1429, Catherine of Nassau-Beilstein. She first married in 1421, to Count Thomas II of Rieneck, twice a widower at that time, having been married before to Elisabeth of Henneberg and to Elisabeth of Castell, his first two marriages were childless. Catherine and Thomas were engaged on 14 October 1419. After their marriage, the pair resided at Wildenstein Castle, they had the following children: Philip the Elder, Count of Grünsfeld and Wildenstein, married to Countess Palatine Amalia of Mosbach, a daughter of Count Palatine Otto I of Mosbach Philip the Younger, Count of Lohr, Gemünden, Brückenau and Schildeck, who joined the clergy, but reverted to a secular state in 1454 and married Margaret of Eppstein and in 1465 to Anna of Wertheim-Breuberg. After Thomas' death, Catherine became the guardian of her children.

When she remarried, the guardianship and regency of Rieneck were taken up by her brother Reinhard III. In 1434, Catherine married Count William II of Henneberg-Schleusingen. Catherine and William were engaged on 17 May 1432. On 15 June 1432, Catherine renounced her claim on the County of Rieneck, in exchange for 8000 guilders. From her husband, she received a dowry of 16000 guilder, secured with the district and castle of Mainberg Castle, near Schweinfurt. Catherine and William had the following children: William III, married Duches Margaret of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Margaret, a nun in the Ilm Convent John II, from 1472 abbot of Fulda Abbey Berthold XII, clergyman Berthold XIV, provost of Bamberg Margaret, married Count Günther XXXVI of Schwarzburg-Blakenburg Catherine died on 25 September 1460 Massfeld Castle in Untermassfeld. Georg-Wilhelm Hanna: Katharina von Hanau, in: Mitteilungsblatt der Heimatstelle des Main-Kinzig-Kreises, issue 14, 1989, p. 201–203 Georg-Wilhelm Hanna: Ministerialität, Macht und Mediatisierung.

Die Ritteradligen von Hutten, ihre soziale Stellung in Kirche und Staat bis zum Ende des Alten Reiches, in the series Hanauer Geschichtsblätter, vol. 44, Hanau, 2007, ISBN 3-935395-08-6 thesis, Bamberg, 2006 PDF 7024 kB W. Sattler: Das alte Schloß Mainberg bei Schweinfurt und seine Bewohner. Historische Skizze, new edition, 1854, p. 17ff Otto Schecher: Die Grafen von Rieneck. Studien zur Geschichte eines mittelalterlichen Hochadelsgeschlechtes in Franken, thesis, Würzburg, 1963 Reinhard Suchier: Genealogie des Hanauer Grafenhauses, in: Festschrift des Hanauer Geschichtsvereins zu seiner fünfzigjährigen Jubelfeier am 27. August 1894, Hanau, 1894 Ernst J. Zimmermann: Hanau Stadt und Land, 3rd ed. Hanau, 1919, reprinted: 1978

The Destructors (film)

The Destructors is a 1968 American science fiction film directed by Francis D. Lyon and written by Arthur C. Pierce and Larry E. Jackson; the film stars Richard Egan, Patricia Owens, John Ericson, Michael Ansara, Joan Blackman and David Brian. The film was released by Feature Film Corp. of America. Richard Egan as Dan Street Patricia Owens as Charlie John Ericson as Dutch Holland Michael Ansara as Count Mario Romano Joan Blackman as Stassa David Brian as Hogan Johnny Seven as Spaniard Khigh Dhiegh as King Chou Lai Gregory Morton as Dr. Frazer John Howard as Ernest Bushnell Michael Dugan as Parkhouse Jim Adams as Agent Wayne Eddie Firestone as Dr. Barnes Olan Soule as Mace Linda Kirk as Prissy Rick Traeger as Hans Gertmann King Moody as Patch Cal Currens as King's Bodyguard Jayne Massey as Operator Suzie Tom McDonald as Agent Dewey Horace Brown as Skipper Douglas Kennedy as General Walter Reed as Admiral James Seay as Sec. of Defense The Destructors on IMDb

Naksha

Naksha is a 2006 Indian fantasy action adventure film. The film is directed by Sachin Bajaj and stars Sunny Deol, Vivek Oberoi, Sameera Reddy and Jackie Shroff; this movie is a loose adaptation of 2003 American film The Rundown. Despite of getting negative reviews by critics film recovered its budget. Youngster Vicky Malhotra lives with his mother. A lawyer shows up to speak with his mother about her late husband's old bungalow in the Uttarakhand hills. Vicky discovers a secret cache behind one of the photographs, and in the cache lies a replica of a map, made by his father, once killed unlocking a mystery of treasure. Some of his father's murderers discover Vicky, abduct him. In the meantime, Vicky's mother visits her husband's first wife, her husband's son by this wife, Veer Malhotra, is a forest officer in Uttarakhand. Veer is Vicky's step-brother. Vicky's mother requests Veer's mother to seek Veer's assistance in finding Vicky and bringing him back. While thugs bring Vicky to Bali; as Bali is about to have Vicky executed, Veer rescues Vicky.

Determined to obtain the map at any cost, Bali's men give chase to Veer and Vicky: the chase takes them through the dense jungles of Uttarakhand to the foothills of the Himalayas. They rescue Riya from a river rafting accident. Bali and his men capture Veer and Vicky, slaughter the pygmies. Bali reveals that the map describes the location of a powerful device: the armour and earrings of the mythical warrior Karna; this armour will make the wearer all powerful. Veer and Vicky escape, they arrive at the final destination. Endowed with divine strength, the evil Bali overpowers them and prepares to kill them. Veer and Vicky exploit the flaw to restore the armour, they escape the temple just in time before it comes crashing down. Sunny Deol as Veer Malhotra Vivek Oberoi as Vicky Malhotra Sameera Reddy as Riya Jackie Shroff as Baali The music was composed by Pritam; the lyrics were written by Sameer apart from the song'U n I', penned by Mayur Puri. The album consisting of 11 tracks was released by Saregama on 24 July 2006.

All lyrics are written by Sameer. Naksha on IMDb Official website

182d Fighter Squadron

The 182d Fighter Squadron is a unit of the Texas Air National Guard 149th Fighter Wing located at Kelly Field Annex, Joint Base San Antonio, Texas. The 149th is equipped with the F-16C/D Fighting Falcon. Established in mid-1943 as a P-47 Thunderbolt fighter squadron, trained under I Fighter Command on Long Island and Massachusetts. Moved to England, arriving in January 1944. Began operations with IX Fighter Command on 14 March and flew a fighter sweep over the English Channel coast of France. Made strafing and bombing attacks on airfields and highway bridges, vehicles, anti-aircraft gun positions, V-weapon sites to help prepare for the invasion of France. Supported the landings in Normandy early in June 1944 and began operations from the Continent the same month. Aided in the taking of Cherbourg, participated in the air operations that prepared the way for the Allied breakthrough at St Lo on 25 July, supported ground forces during their drive across France. Continued to support ground forces, participated in the assault against the Siegfried Line, took part in the Battle of the Bulge by attacking rail lines and trains, marshalling yards and vehicles, armored columns, gun positions.

Operated with the Allied forces that pushed across the Rhine and into Germany. After V-E Day, served with the army of occupation, being assigned to United States Air Forces in Europe. Inactivated in Germany on 20 August 1946; the wartime 396th Fighter Squadron was re-designated as the 182d Fighter Squadron, was allotted to the Texas Air National Guard, on 24 May 1946. It was organized at the Brooks Army Airfield and was extended federal recognition on 27 January 1947 by the National Guard Bureau; the 182d Fighter Squadron was bestowed the lineage, history and colors of the 396th Fighter Squadron. The squadron was assigned to the Texas Air National Guard 136th Fighter Group and was equipped with F-51D Mustangs; the mission of the squadron was the air defense of Texas. During the postwar years, the 182d trained the Hill Country and west Texas; as a result of the Korean War, the Texas Air National Guard was federalized and placed on active-duty status on 10 October 1950, being assigned to Ninth Air Force, Tactical Air Command.

TAC ordered the 136th Fighter Group to Langley Air Force Base, where the unit was re-designated to a Fighter-Bomber unit, its status was changed to a Wing. At Langley, the 136th Fighter-Bomber Wing consisted of the following units: 111th Fighter-Bomber Squadron 182d Fighter-Bomber Squadron 154th Fighter-Bomber Squadron. At Langley AFB, the 136th trained with their F-51D Mustangs. Losing two 111th FBS pilots in a training accident on 15 December. A third pilot was killed on 27 January 1951 in another accident. In February 1951, the aged F-51Ds that the unit had been flying since its activation in 1947 were replaced by F-84E Thunderjets, the squadron began transition training on the jet fighter-bomber. Most of the training took place at Langley, although some pilots were sent to Shaw AFB, South Carolina. Maintenance crews, all new to jet aircraft, were trained at Langley and engine specialists were sent to the Allison plant in Indianapolis. Assigned to the Arkansas ANG 154th FBS at the time was a Navy exchange pilot, future NASA astronaut Lieutenant Walter Schirra.

In May 1951, less than seven months the wing was deployed to Japan, being attached to Far East Air Force and stationed at Itazuke Air Force Base, the first echelon of the 136th arriving on 18 May. The 136th replaced the Strategic Air Command 27th Fighter-Escort Wing, which had deployed to Far East Air Force in the early days of the Korean War. At Itazuke, the squadrons took over the F-84Es of the 27th FEW, which remained in place, its aircraft being reassigned from SAC to Far East Air Force inventory records. On 2 June, the final elements of the 136th arrived in Japan, the national guardsmen relieved the 27th Fighter Bomber Wing and the SAC airmen departed for the United States; the 136th was the first Air National Guard wing in history to enter combat. From Japan the wing engaged in combat operations over South Korea, however flying in the North Pacific area was a challenge to the wing, losing seven F-84Es in non-combat operations and three in combat. On 26 June, in one of the largest air-to-air battles in Korea, two 182d FBS pilots, Captain Harry Underwood and 1st Lt Arthur Olighter shot down an enemy MiG-15 that broke through an F-86 Sabre escort of four B-29s.

Two other 111th FBS pilots, 1sts Lt John Morse and John Marlins scored probables in the same encounter. These were the first combat victories by Air National Guard pilots. On 3 July the 136th sent their aircraft to North Korea, attacking FLAK batteries in downtown Pyongyang while other aircraft attacked North Korean airfields. However, the short-legged F-84 had limited combat time over Korea, therefore on 16 November 1951 the wing moved to Taegu Air Force Base in South Korea for its combat operations. In 1952, the 136th was re-equipped with the F-84G Thunderjet, designed for tactical close air support of ground forces. During its time in combat, the 136th flew 15,515 combat sorties, it was the first ANG unit to down a MiG-15. The 136th Fight