Durham is a historic city and the county town of County Durham in North East England. The city lies on the River Wear, to the west of Sunderland, south of Newcastle upon Tyne and to the north of Darlington. Founded over the final resting place of St Cuthbert, its Norman cathedral became a centre of pilgrimage in medieval England; the cathedral and adjacent 11th-century castle were designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986. The castle has been the home of Durham University since 1832. HM Prison Durham is located close to the city centre. City of Durham is the name of the civil parish; the name "Durham" comes from the Celtic element "dun", signifying a hill fort, the Old Norse "holme", which translates to island. The Lord Bishop of Durham takes a Latin variation of the city's name in his official signature, signed "N. Dunelm"; some attribute the city's name to the legend of the Dun Cow and the milkmaid who in legend guided the monks of Lindisfarne carrying the body of Saint Cuthbert to the site of the present city in 995 AD.
Dun Cow Lane is said to be one of the first streets in Durham, being directly to the east of Durham Cathedral and taking its name from a depiction of the city's founding etched in masonry on the south side of the cathedral. The city has been known by a number of names throughout history; the original Nordic Dun Holm was known in Latin as Dunelm. The modern form Durham came into use in the city's history; the north eastern historian Robert Surtees chronicled the name changes in his History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham but states that it is an "impossibility" to tell when the city's modern name came into being. Archeological evidence suggests a history of settlement in the area since 2000 BC; the present city can be traced back to AD 995, when a group of monks from Lindisfarne chose the strategic high peninsula as a place to settle with the body of Saint Cuthbert, that had lain in Chester-le-Street, founding a church there. Local legend states that the city was founded in A.
D. 995 by divine intervention. The 12th century chronicler Symeon of Durham recounts that after wandering in the north, Saint Cuthbert's bier miraculously came to a halt at the hill of Warden Law and, despite the effort of the congregation, would not move. Aldhun, Bishop of Chester-le-Street and leader of the order, decreed a holy fast of three days, accompanied by prayers to the saint. During the fast, Saint Cuthbert appeared to a certain monk named Eadmer, with instructions that the coffin should be taken to Dun Holm. After Eadmer's revelation, Aldhun found that he was able to move the bier, but did not know where Dun Holm was; the legend of the Dun Cow, first documented in The Rites of Durham, an anonymous account about the Durham Cathedral, published in 1593, builds on Symeon's account. According to this legend, by chance that day, the monks came across a milkmaid at Mount Joy, she stated. The monks, followed her, they settled at a wooded "hill-island" – a high wooded rock surrounded on three sides by the River Wear.
There they erected a shelter for the relics, on the spot where the Durham Cathedral would stand. Symeon states that a modest wooden building erected there shortly was the first building in the city. Bishop Aldhun subsequently had a stone church built, dedicated in September 998, it no longer remains. The legend is interpreted by a Victorian relief stone carving on the south face of the cathedral and, more by the bronze sculpture'Durham Cow', which reclines by the River Wear in view of the cathedral. During the medieval period the city gained spiritual prominence as the final resting place of Saint Cuthbert and Saint Bede the Venerable; the shrine of Saint Cuthbert, situated behind the High Altar of Durham Cathedral, was the most important religious site in England until the martyrdom of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury in 1170. Saint Cuthbert became famous for two reasons. Firstly, the miraculous healing powers he had displayed in life continued after his death, with many stories of those visiting the saint's shrine being cured of all manner of diseases.
This led to him being known as the "wonder worker of England". Secondly, after the first translation of his relics in 698 AD, his body was found to be incorruptible. Apart from a brief translation back to Holy Island during the Norman Invasion the saint's relics have remained enshrined to the present day. Saint Bede's bones are entombed in the cathedral, these drew medieval pilgrims to the city. Durham's geographical position has always given it an important place in the defence of England against the Scots; the city played an important part in the defence of the north, Durham Castle is the only Norman castle keep never to have suffered a breach. The Battle of Neville's Cross, which took place near the city on 17 October 1346 between the English and Scots, is the most famous battle of the age; the city suffered from plague outbreaks in 1544, 1589 and 1598. Owing to the divine providence evidenced in the city's legendary founding, the Bishop of Durham has always enjoyed the title "Bishop by Divine Providence" as opposed to other bishops, who are "Bishop by Divine Permission".
However, as the north-east of England lay so far from Westminster, the bishops of Durham enjoyed extraordinary powers such as the ability to hold their own parliament, raise their own armies, appoint their own sheriffs and Justices, administer their own laws, levy taxes and customs duties, create fairs and markets, issue charters, salvage shipwrecks
Hardraw Force is a waterfall on the Hardraw Beck in Hardraw Scar, a wooded ravine just outside the hamlet of Hardraw, 0.93 miles north of the town of Hawes, Wensleydale in the Yorkshire Dales. The Pennine Way long distance footpath passes close by. Comprising a single drop of 100 feet from a rocky overhang, Hardraw Force is claimed to be England's highest unbroken waterfall – at least discounting underground falls. Geologically, the bed of the river and plunge pool is shale. Public viewing of Hardraw Force is rather unusual, as the visitor has to go through the bar of the Green Dragon Inn public house in Hardraw to reach the falls, it is £2.50 per adult, £1.50 per child. Access behind the falls is now prohibited. Hardraw Scar is a limestone gorge located behind the Green Dragon inn at Hardraw near Hawes in the Yorkshire Dales, it is a natural amphitheatre and in September is the site of an annual brass band entertainment contest. The contest attracts bands from all over the North of England and is a popular event amongst players and audiences alike.
The gorge is situated alongside the Pennine Way and has an impressive waterfall, Hardraw Force, at the far end. Access to the gorge is via the nearby public house. In 1899, a great flood came racing over the waterfall and into Hardraw itself, ruining buildings and uprooting coffins from the graveyard; the lip of the waterfall was demolished by the force of the water and the landowner at the time got his estate manager to repair the lip and it is now held together at the top by metal stakes. Both J. M. W. Turner and William Wordsworth have visited the waterfall and both men stayed at the Green Dragon Inn; the falls were used as a location in the film Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, in the scene where Maid Marian catches Robin Hood bathing under a waterfall. Hardraw Force is the setting for a brass band competition held annually on the second Sunday in September; the competition was first held in the falls' natural amphitheatre in 1884. In recent years two other musical events have started up at the falls: the Hawdraw Bash is a Folk Rock concert in early July and the Hardraw Gathering is a three-day festival of traditional music at the end of July.
Cumbria is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's county town is Carlisle, in the north of the county, the only other major urban area is Barrow-in-Furness on the southwestern tip of the county; the county of Cumbria consists of six districts and in 2008 had a population of just under half a million. Cumbria is one of the most sparsely populated counties in the United Kingdom, with 73.4 people per km2. Cumbria is the third largest county in England by area, is bounded to the north by the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders, to the west by the Irish Sea, to the south by Lancashire, to the southeast by North Yorkshire, to the east by County Durham and Northumberland. Cumbria is predominantly rural and contains the Lake District National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site considered one of England's finest areas of natural beauty, serving as inspiration for artists and musicians.
A large area of the southeast of the county is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park while the east of the county fringes the North Pennines AONB. Much of Cumbria is mountainous, it contains every peak in England over 3,000 feet above sea level, with Scafell Pike at 3,209 feet being the highest point of England. An upland and rural area, Cumbria's history is characterised by invasions and settlement, as well as battles and skirmishes between the English and the Scots. Notable historic sites in Cumbria include Carlisle Castle, Furness Abbey, Hardknott Roman Fort, Brough Castle and Hadrian's Wall; the county of Cumbria was created in April 1974 through an amalgamation of the administrative counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, to which parts of Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire were added. During the Neolithic period the area contained an important centre of stone axe production, products of which have been found across Great Britain. During this period stone circles and henges began to be built across the county and today'Cumbria has one of the largest number of preserved field monuments in England'.
While not part of the region conquered in the Romans' initial conquest of Britain in 43 AD, most of modern-day Cumbria was conquered in response to a revolt deposing the Roman-aligned ruler of the Brigantes in 69 AD. The Romans built a number of fortifications in the area during their occupation, the most famous being UNESCO World Heritage Site Hadrian's Wall which passes through northern Cumbria. At the end of the period of British history known as Roman Britain the inhabitants of Cumbria were Cumbric-speaking native Romano-Britons who were descendants of the Brigantes and Carvetii that the Roman Empire had conquered in about AD 85. Based on inscriptional evidence from the area, the Roman civitas of the Carvetii seems to have covered portions of Cumbria; the names Cumbria, Cymru and Cumberland are derived from the name these people gave themselves, *kombroges in Common Brittonic, which meant "compatriots". Although Cumbria was believed to have formed the core of the Early Middle Ages Brittonic kingdom of Rheged, more recent discoveries near Galloway appear to contradict this.
For the rest of the first millennium, Cumbria was contested by several entities who warred over the area, including the Brythonic Celtic Kingdom of Strathclyde and the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria. Most of modern-day Cumbria was a principality in the Kingdom of Scotland at the time of the Norman conquest of England in 1066 and thus was excluded from the Domesday Book survey of 1086. In 1092 the region was incorporated into England; the region was dominated by the many Anglo-Scottish Wars of the latter Middle Ages and early modern period and the associated Border Reivers who exploited the dynamic political situation of the region. There were at least three sieges of Carlisle fought between England and Scotland, two further sieges during the Jacobite risings. After the Jacobite Risings of the eighteenth century, Cumbria became a more stable place and, as in the rest of Northern England, the Industrial Revolution caused a large growth in urban populations. In particular, the west-coast towns of Workington and Barrow-in-Furness saw large iron and steel mills develop, with Barrow developing a significant shipbuilding industry.
Kendal and Carlisle all became mill town, with textiles and biscuits among the products manufactured in the region. The early nineteenth century saw the county gain fame as the Lake Poets and other artists of the Romantic movement, such as William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, lived among, were inspired by, the lakes and mountains of the region; the children's writer Beatrix Potter wrote in the region and became a major landowner, granting much of her property to the National Trust on her death. In turn, the large amount of land owned by the National Trust assisted in the formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951, which remains the largest National Park in England and has come to dominate the identity and economy of the county; the county of Cumbria was created in 1974 from the traditional counties of Cumberland and Westmorland, the Cumberland County Borough of Carlisle, along with the North Lonsdale or Furness part of Lancashire referred to as "Lancashire North of
Middleton-in-Teesdale is a small market town in County Durham, in England. It is situated on the north side of Teesdale between Eggleston and Newbiggin, a few miles to the north-west of Barnard Castle; the settlement is surrounded by the North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Middleton is administered by Durham County Council, it is part of the Bishop Auckland parliamentary constituency, represented in parliament by Helen Goodman since 2005. It is in the North East England region; the local police force is Durham Constabulary. The small market town in Upper Teesdale expanded in the early 19th century when the London Lead Company moved its northern headquarters there from Blanchland in Northumberland. Much of the architecture from its days as a company town is still visible; this includes Middleton House the headquarters of the company, the school and some company houses. A fountain was erected in the town in 1877 to honour Robert Walton Bainbridge, superintendent of the London Lead Mining Company.
Middleton served as the terminus of a railway line from Barnard Castle until this was closed as part of the Beeching Axe. Middleton has links to the early Co-operative Society and may pre-date the Rochdale Pioneers. There are many early Methodist chapels. On 20 June 1939, a British American Air Services De Havilland Dragon Rapide flying from Heston Aerodrome to Newcastle Airport crashed at Forest-in-Teesdale near Middleton-in-Teesdale; the weather was bad and the aircraft was flying low. The accident killed all crew on board. Middleton is on the Pennine Way about 9 miles from High Force. Dominating the moors to the south side of the village is the Scots-Pine-covered tumulus of Kirkcarrion, one of Teesdale's major Bronze Age burial sites. Photographs of Middleton-in-Teesdale, Teesdale2000 Middleton Plus North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty
Jib Tunnel known as Lateral Passage is one of the entrances into the Gaping Gill cave system, located behind a large boulder in the north bank of Fell Beck adjacent to Gaping Gill Main Shaft. Although short, it leads to Lateral Shaft, a direct descent into Gaping Gill Main Chamber, a popular caving route, has had considerable significance in the history of the exploration of Gaping Gill, it lies within the designated Ingleborough Site of Special Scientific Interest. A short wriggle between the shakehole wall and a large boulder leads into the roomy passage. After 5 metres this abruptly drops 104 metres to the floor of the Main Chamber. Although a direct descent is possible, a considerable waterfall enters from Spout Tunnel 12 metres below the lip, so the modern route, known as Dihedral, deviates away from this to land on a ledge some 50 metres down; the route leaves the shaft to drop down the rift above the Main Chamber, before emerging through the roof and dropping the final 30 metres to the floor.
Spout Tunnel can be entered by swinging in from a ladder. The passage becomes narrow, after 37 metres the main water enters down a 9 metres pitch. Above this a further 3 metres climb enters 49 metres of passage which gets too small close to a sink in Fell Beck opposite Rat Hole Sink. Below the pitch a small passage continues for another 25 metres, is thought to drain the area just to the east of the blind valley. Professor McKenny Hughes reported that the entrance was blocked with glacial fill until a flood in 1872, when it got washed out, he wriggled round the large boulder and reached the shaft which he estimated as being in excess of 90 metres deep. In 1895 Edward Calvert, of the Yorkshire Ramblers' Club, attempted to replicate Edouard Martel's descent of the Main Shaft of a few weeks earlier, but failed to get beyond Birkbeck's Ledge at −60 metres because of the quantity of water. Looking up, he could see. In the year he entered Jib Tunnel, realised that this was the parallel shaft that he had seen, that a man could be lowered directly to the floor of the Main Chamber from its lip.
The following year, he set up a series of jibs and pulleys, was lowered in a boatswain's chair, becoming the second person to reach the Main Chamber. Jib Tunnel was used for explorations of the system until 1921, when the current system of lowering the winch from a gantry positioned across the corner of the Main Shaft was developed. There have been three deaths in the cave. In 1982 Ted Holstead died after losing control. In 1989 Keith Mann died of exposure whilst prusiking up the shaft on rope. In 1995 eleven-year-old Lee Craddock wandered into Jib Tunnel and fell down the shaft to his death whilst on an outing organised by the Scouting Association