Walthamstow is the principal town of the London Borough of Waltham Forest in North East London, England. It is located 7.5 miles northeast from Charing Cross, Walthamstow is a large town, situated between the North Circular Road to the north, Lee Valley and the Walthamstow Reservoirs to the west, and Epping Forest to the east. The town centre consists of Walthamstow Market, the longest single street market in Europe, Walthamstow is recorded c.1075 as Wilcumestowe and in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Wilcumestou. King John visited Shern Hall in 1213, the building survived until 1896, at one point Walthamstow was just a culmination of five small villages, and affairs were discussed at Vestry House, acting as the first town hall. In 1870 it had grown to the size of a small suburb, until the 19th century it was largely rural, with a small village centre and a number of large estates. The main route through the district was the aforementioned Hoe Street, there were various smaller lanes, crossing the town.
The road now known as Forest Road was originally called Clay Street, further south, the High Street was named Marsh Street, and led from the original settlement out to the marshes. Shernhall Street is an ancient route, as is Wood Street, in the 1660s Sir William Batten, Surveyor of the Navy, and his wife Elizabeth Woodcocke had a house here where, according to Samuel Pepys, they lived like princes and cultivated a vineyard. With the advent of the railways and the ensuing suburbanisation in the late 19th century, Walthamstow experienced a growth in population. The Lighthouse Methodist Church which dates from 1893 which is situated on Markhouse Road, there is a lantern at the top of the tower, which contains a spiral staircase. The LGOC X-type and B-type buses were built at Blackhorse Lane from October 1908 onwards, the B-type is considered one of the first mass-production buses. The manufacturing operation became AEC, famous as the manufacturer of many of Londons buses, on 13 June 1909, A. V.
Roes aircraft took to the air from Walthamstow Marshes. It was the first all-British aircraft and was given the nickname of the Yellow Terror. Roe founded the Avro aircraft company, which built the acclaimed Avro Lancaster. From 1894 Walthamstow was a district and from 1929 a municipal borough in Essex. In 1931 the population of the borough, covering an area of 4,342 acres, other places in east London formerly of the county of Essex, such as Ilford and Romford were placed into London Boroughs along with Walthamstow. None of the district names or codes was changed at this time. Since the 2012 Summer Olympics, the town has become popular mostly as a result of gentrification
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty fire and rescue services, many FRS were previously known as brigades or county fire services, but almost all now use the standard terminology. They are distinct from and governed by an authority, which is the legislative and administrative body. Fire authorities in England and Wales, and therefore fire and rescue services and Northern Ireland have centralised fire and rescue services, and so their authorities are effectively committees of the devolved parliaments. The total budget for services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. The devolved government in Scotland has an agency, HMFSI Scotland. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain,1947, Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed entirely in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire,1959, Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act, it dealt with pensions, staffing arrangements and provision of services by other authorities.
It was repealed in England and Wales along with the 1947 Act,1999, Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of fire strikes. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the action still ongoing. Bains report ultimately led to a change in the relating to firefighting. 2002, Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004, Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004, generally only applying to England and it came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises,2006, The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on Fire, promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation. But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries, There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association.
The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee, in June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report. For example, where FRSs were historically inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office, Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Government Select Committee heard evidence on the Fire Control project. Called to give evidence were Cllr Brian Coleman and Cllr James Pearson from the Local Government Association, giving evidence Matt Wrack from the Fire Brigades Union and John Bonney Chief Fire Officers Association
Metropolitan Police Service
As of March 2016, the Met employed 48,661 full-time personnel. This included 32,125 sworn police officers,9,521 police staff and this number excludes the 3,271 Special Constables, who work part-time and who have the same powers and uniform as their regular colleagues. This makes the Metropolitan Police the largest police force in the United Kingdom by a significant margin, the post of Commissioner was first held jointly by Sir Charles Rowan and Sir Richard Mayne. The post is occupied by the now-outgoing Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe. The Commissioners deputy, the Deputy Commissioner, is currently Craig Mackey, a number of informal names and abbreviations exists for the Metropolitan Police Service, the most common being the Met. In colloquial London, it is referred to as the Old Bill. The Met is referred to by the metonym Scotland Yard after the location of its headquarters in a road called Great Scotland Yard in Whitehall. The Mets current headquarters is New Scotland Yard, in Victoria, the Metropolitan Police Service, whose officers became affectionately known as bobbies, was founded in 1829 by Robert Peel under the Metropolitan Police Act 1829.
In 1839, the Marine Police Force, which had formed in 1798, was amalgamated into the Metropolitan Police. In 1837, it incorporated with the Bow Street Horse Patrol that had organised in 1805. Since January 2012, the Mayor of London is responsible for the governance of the Metropolitan Police through the Mayors Office for Policing, the mayor is able to appoint someone to act on his behalf, the current office-holder is Deputy Mayor for Policing and Crime, Sophie Linden. The work of MOPAC is scrutinised by the Police and Crime Committee of the London Assembly, the area policed by the Metropolitan Police Service is known as the Metropolitan Police District. In terms of policing, the Met is divided into a number of Borough Operational Command Units. The City of London is a police area and is the responsibility of the separate City of London Police. The British Transport Police are responsible for policing of the network in the United Kingdom. Within London, they are responsible for the policing of the London Underground, The Emirates Air Line.
There is a park police force, the Kew Constabulary, responsible for the Royal Botanic Gardens. Officers have limited powers in Scotland and Northern Ireland, within the MPD, the Met will take over the investigation of any serious crime from the British Transport Police and Ministry of Defence Police, if it is deemed appropriate
His first name is often incorrectly rendered Humphrey. Repton was born in Bury St Edmunds, the son of a collector of excise, John Repton, in 1762 his father set up a transport business in Norwich, where Humphry attended Norwich Grammar School. At age twelve he was sent to the Netherlands to learn Dutch, Repton was befriended by a wealthy Dutch family and the trip may have done more to stimulate his interest in polite pursuits such as sketching and gardening. Returning to Norwich, Repton was apprenticed to a merchant, after marriage to Mary Clarke in 1773. He was not successful, and when his parents died in 1778 used his modest legacy to move to a country estate at Sustead. Repton joined John Palmer in a venture to reform the mail-coach system, Reptons childhood friend was James Edward Smith, who encouraged him to study botany and gardening, Smith reproduces a long letter from Repton in his Letter and Correspondence. He was given access to the library of Windham to read its works on botany and his capital dwindling, Repton moved to a modest cottage at Hare Street near Romford in Essex.
He was at first an avid defender of Browns views, contrasted with those of Richard Payne Knight and Uvedale Price and his first paid commission was Catton Park, to the north of Norwich, in 1788. That Repton, with no experience of practical horticulture, became an overnight success, is a tribute to his undeniable talent. To help clients visualise his designs, Repton produced Red Books with explanatory text and watercolours with a system of overlays to show before, in this he differed from Capability Brown, who worked almost exclusively with plans and rarely illustrated or wrote about his work. Reptons overlays were soon copied by the Philadelphian Bernard MMahon in his 1806 American Gardeners Calendar, to understand what was unique about Repton it is useful to examine how he differed from Brown in more detail. Brown worked for many of the wealthiest aristocrats in Britain, carving huge landscape parks out of old formal gardens, while Repton worked for equally important clients, such as the Dukes of Bedford and Portland, he was usually fine-tuning earlier work, often that of Brown himself.
Where Repton got the chance to lay out grounds from scratch it was generally on a more modest scale. Around 1787, Richard Page, landowner of Sudbury, to the west of Wembley decided to convert the Page family home Wellers into a country seat and turn the fields around it into a private estate. In 1792 Page employed Humphry Repton, by famous as an architect, to convert the previous farmland into wooded parkland. Repton often called the areas he landscaped parks, and so it is to Repton that Wembley Park owes its name, the original site that Repton so transformed was built on in the construction of the short-lived Watkins Tower. The area landscaped by Repton was larger than the current Wembley Park and it included the southern slopes of Barn Hill to the north, where Repton planted trees and started building a prospect house – a gothic tower offering a view over the parkland. Repton may have designed the lodge that survives on Wembley Hill Road
London postal district
The London postal district is the area in England of 241 square miles to which mail addressed to the LONDON post town is delivered. It was integrated by the Post Office into the national system of the United Kingdom during the early 1970s and corresponds to the N, NW, SW, SE, W, WC, E. The postal district has known as the London postal area. The County of London was much smaller at 117 square miles, by the 1850s, the rapid growth of the metropolitan area meant it became too large to operate efficiently as a single post town. A Post Office inquiry into the problem had been set up in 1837, in 1854 Charles Canning, the Postmaster General, set up a committee at the Post Office in St. Martins Le Grand to investigate how London could best be divided for the purposes of directing mail. In 1856, of the 470 million items of mail sent in the United Kingdom during the year, approximately one fifth were for delivery in London, the General Post Office thus at the control of the Postmaster General devised the area in 1856 project-managed by Sir Rowland Hill.
Hill produced an almost perfectly circular area of 12 miles radius from the central post office at St. Martins Le Grand, within the district it was divided into two central areas and eight compass points which operated much like separate post towns. Each was constituted London with a suffix indicating the area it covered, the system was introduced during 1857 and completed on 1 January 1858. The remaining eight letter prefixes have not changed, at the same time, the London postal district boundary was retracted in the east, removing places such as Ilford for good. In 1868 the S district was split between SE and SW, the NE and S codes have been re-used in the national postcode system and now refer to the NE postcode area around Newcastle upon Tyne and the S postcode area around Sheffield. In 1917, as a measure to improve efficiency, the districts were further subdivided with a number applied to each sub-district. Exceptionally and esoterically, W2 and SW11 are head districts, the numbered sub-districts became the outward code of the postcode system as expanded into longer codes during the 1970s.
Ad hoc changes have taken place to the organisation of the districts, subdivisions of postcode sub-districts Owing to heavier demand, seven high-density postcode districts in central London have been subdivided to create new, smaller postcode districts. This is achieved by adding a letter after the postcode district. Where such sub-districts are used such as on street signs and maps. The districts subdivided are E1, N1, EC SW1, W1, WC1, there are solely non-geographic suffixed sub-districts for PO boxes in NW1 and SE1. The London postal district has never been aligned with the London boundary, when the initial system was designed, the London boundary was restricted to the square mile of the small, ancient City of London. The wider metropolitan area covered parts of Middlesex, Kent, Essex
Highams Park railway station
Highams Park railway station is in Highams Park which is in the London Borough of Waltham Forest in northeast London. It is in Travelcard Zone 4, and the station and all trains are operated by London Overground, the present station, to the design of Neville Ashbee, was inaugurated in 1903. Trains are operated by London Overground, the typical off-peak weekday service pattern is,4 trains per hour to Liverpool Street,4 tph to Chingford. A level crossing that connects Larkshall Road with Hale End Road is situated just to the south of the station, the crossing is worked by the signal box at Liverpool Street station. There are three ways to cross the line, the footbridge in the station, the subway at the end of the station which links to the level crossing. London Buses routes 212,275, W16 and 675 serve the station, train times and station information for Highams Park railway station from National Rail
Ruth Maria Kelly is a former British Labour Party politician, serving as Member of Parliament for Bolton West from 1997 until she stood down in 2010. Kelly was born in Limavady, Northern Ireland and she lived briefly in the Republic of Ireland before moving to England where she attended Edgarley Hall, the preparatory school for Millfield School. She was educated at the independent Sutton High School, run by the Girls Day School Trust, after being moved up a year and sitting O-levels at Sutton High School at the age of 15, she decided to move back to Ireland to look after her ill grandmother. Her grandmother died after six weeks, but Kelly stayed for a year, living with her aunt and she returned to England on winning a scholarship to the sixth-form of Westminster School. Kelly taught at University of Navarra, after she joined the Labour Party in 1990, becoming a member of the partys Bethnal Green and Stepney constituency party. She was a writer for The Guardian from 1990, before becoming deputy head of the Inflation Report Division of the Bank of England in 1994.
She married Derek John Gadd, a government officer, in 1996. Kellys grandfather, Philip Murphy, served as an officer in the Irish Republican Army during the Irish War of Independence, in 1922 he was interned by the Government of Northern Ireland. Murphys detention file refers to him as quartermaster of the West Fermanagh IRA Battalion and he went on hunger strike to protest at his detention. He was released unconditionally in June 1924, when internment ended, Kelly is a practising Roman Catholic, a member of Opus Dei and regular attender at their meetings and events. Her brother, Ronan Kelly, is a supernumerary in the Opus Dei organisation, in the 1997 general election, Kelly gained the seat of Bolton West from the Conservatives while heavily pregnant, and gave birth to her first son eleven days later. She gained her place in parliament as Tony Blair became Prime Minister with Labours landslide election victory and she served on the Treasury Select Committee, she was appointed as Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Agriculture Minister, Nick Brown from 1998.
Kelly was a member of a set up by the Institute for Public Policy Research into the Private Finance Initiative. After Labour won the 2001 general election, Kelly was appointed as Economic Secretary to the Treasury and her role focused on competition policy and small businesses. After a year she was promoted to be Financial Secretary to the Treasury, in both positions her principal task was in the thorough revision of the Financial Services regulation system which was introduced by the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000. Kelly brought in new regulations to tackle the funding of terrorism after 11 September 2001 attacks, Kelly was assigned the task of dealing with Equitable Life after the Penrose Report into the life insurance company was published. Equitable policyholders continued to demand redress, as a mother of four young children, she refused to work the long hours normally associated with such positions and refused to take a red box in the evening whilst at the Treasury. In a minor reshuffle, she was promoted to be Minister for the Cabinet Office on 9 September 2004, Kelly guided the Civil Contingencies Bill through its final stages in Parliament, which faced serious objections from some civil liberties campaigns
A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing. It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a building or room, or a virtual space. Libraries range in size from a few shelves of books to several million items, in Latin and Greek, the idea of a bookcase is represented by Bibliotheca and Bibliothēkē, derivatives of these mean library in many modern languages, e. g. French bibliothèque. The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in Sumer. Private or personal libraries made up of books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC. In the 6th century, at the close of the Classical period. A library is organized for use and maintained by a body, an institution. In addition to providing materials, libraries provide the services of librarians who are experts at finding and organizing information, Libraries often provide quiet areas for studying, and they often offer common areas to facilitate group study and collaboration.
Libraries often provide facilities for access to their electronic resources. Modern libraries are increasingly being redefined as places to get unrestricted access to information in many formats, the first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing—the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC. These archives, which consisted of the records of commercial transactions or inventories, mark the end of prehistory. Things were much the same in the government and temple records on papyrus of Ancient Egypt, the earliest discovered private archives were kept at Ugarit, besides correspondence and inventories, texts of myths may have been standardized practice-texts for teaching new scribes. There is evidence of libraries at Nippur about 1900 BC, philosopher Laozi was keeper of books in the earliest library in China, which belonged to the Imperial Zhou dynasty. Also, evidence of catalogues found in some destroyed ancient libraries illustrates the presence of librarians, the Library of Alexandria, in Egypt, was the largest and most significant great library of the ancient world.
It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty and functioned as a center of scholarship from its construction in the 3rd century BC until the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The library was conceived and opened either during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter or during the reign of his son Ptolemy II, an early organization system was in effect at Alexandria. The Library of Celsus in Ephesus, now part of Selçuk, Turkey was built in honor of the Roman Senator Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus by Celsus’ son, the library was built to store 12,000 scrolls and to serve as a monumental tomb for Celsus. Private or personal libraries made up of books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC
London, or Greater London, is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London. It is organised into 33 local government districts, the 32 London boroughs, the Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is responsible for strategic local government across the region and consists of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly. The county of Greater London was created on 1 April 1965 through the London Government Act 1963, Greater London was first established as a sui generis council area under the Greater London Council between 1963 and 1986. The area was re-established as a region in 1994, and the Greater London Authority formed in 2000, the region covers 1,572 km2 and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. In 2012, it had the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom at £37,232, the Greater London Built-up Area—used in some national statistics—is a measure of the continuous urban area of London, and therefore includes areas outside of the administrative region.
The term Greater London has been and still is used to different areas in governance, history. In terms of ceremonial counties, London is divided into the small City of London, outside the limited boundaries of the City, a variety of arrangements has governed the wider area since 1855, culminating in the creation of the Greater London administrative area in 1965. The Greater London Arterial Road Programme was devised between 1913 and 1916, one of the larger early forms was the Greater London Planning Region, devised in 1927, which occupied 1,856 square miles and included 9 million people. The LCC pressed for an alteration in its boundaries soon after the end of the First World War, noting that within the Metropolitan, a Royal Commission on London Government was set up to consider the issue. The LCC proposed a vast new area for Greater London, with a boundary somewhere between the Metropolitan Police District and the home counties, protests were made at the possibility of including Windsor and Eton in the authority.
The Commission made its report in 1923, rejecting the LCCs scheme, two minority reports favoured change beyond the amalgamation of smaller urban districts, including both smaller borough councils and a central authority for strategic functions. The London Traffic Act 1924 was a result of the Commission, Greater London originally had a two-tier system of local government, with the Greater London Council sharing power with the City of London Corporation and the 32 London Borough councils. The GLC was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985 and its functions were devolved to the City Corporation and the London Boroughs, with some functions transferred to central government and joint boards. Greater London was used to form the London region of England in 1994, a referendum held in 1998 established a public will to recreate an upper tier of government to cover the region. The Greater London Authority, London Assembly and the directly elected Mayor of London were created in 2000 by the Greater London Authority Act 1999, in 2000, the outer boundary of the Metropolitan Police District was re-aligned to the Greater London boundary.
The 2000 and 2004 mayoral elections were won by Ken Livingstone, the 2008 and 2012 elections were won by Boris Johnson. The 2016 election was won by Sadiq Khan, Greater London continues to include the most closely associated parts of the Greater London Urban Area and their historic buffers. Thus it includes, in five boroughs, significant parts of the Metropolitan Green Belt which protects designated greenfield land in a way to the citys parks