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Higher education

Higher education is tertiary education leading to award of an academic degree. Higher education called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education, it represents levels 6, 7 and 8 of the 2011 version of the International Standard Classification of Education structure. Tertiary education at a non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education; the right of access to higher education is mentioned in a number of international human rights instruments. The UN International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights of 1966 declares, in Article 13, that "higher education shall be made accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means, in particular by the progressive introduction of free education". In Europe, Article 2 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1950, obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education Since World War II, developed and many developing countries have increased the participation of the age group who studies higher education from the elite rate, of up to 15 per cent, to the mass rate of 16 to 50 per cent.

In many developed countries, participation in higher education has continued to increase towards universal or, what Trow called, open access, where over half of the relevant age group participate in higher education. Higher education is important to national economies, both as an industry, in its own right, as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. College educated workers have commanded a measurable wage premium and are much less to become unemployed than less educated workers. Higher education called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education, is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education, it is delivered at universities, colleges, seminaries and institutes of technology, through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, other career colleges that award degrees. Tertiary education at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education.

The International Standard Classification of Education in 1997 classified all tertiary education together in 1997 version of its schema. They were referred to as level 5 and doctoral studies at level 6. In 2011, this was expanded 2011 version of the structure. Higher education at undergraduate level and doctoral level became levels 6, 7 and 8. Non-degree level Tertiary education, sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education was reordered ISCED 2011 level 4, with level 5 for some higher courses. In the days when few pupils progressed beyond primary education or basic education, the term "higher education" was used to refer to secondary education, which can create some confusion; this is the origin of the term high school for various schools for children between the ages of 14 and 18 or 11 and 18. Higher education includes teaching, exacting applied work, social services activities of universities. Within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level, beyond that, graduate-level.

The latter level of education is referred to as graduate school in North America. In addition to the skills that are specific to any particular degree, potential employers in any profession are looking for evidence of critical thinking and analytical reasoning skills, teamworking skills, information literacy, ethical judgment, decision-making skills, fluency in speaking and writing, problem solving skills, a wide knowledge of liberal arts and sciences; the oldest institutions of higher education appeared between the 5th and the 2nd centuries B. C. in several major cultural areas of Eurasia. In the Greek world, Plato's Academy, Aristotle's Lycaeum and other philosophical-mathematical schools became models for other establishments in Alexandria of Egypt under the Ptolemies. In India, the city of Takṣaśilā the great Buddhist monastery of Nālandā, attracted students and professors from distant regions. In China, the Han dynasty established chairs to teach the Five Confucean Classics in - 124 the Grand School to train cadres for the imperial administration.

All these higher-learning institutions became models for other schools within their sphere of cultural influence. In 425, the Byzantine emperor Theodosius II innovated as he established the Pandidakterion, with a faculty of 31 professors, to train public servants. In the 7th and 8nd centuries, "cathedral schools" were created in Western Europe. Meanwhile, the first Medresahs were founded in the Moslem empire – mere primary schools in the premises of major mosques, which evolved toward secondary higher education; however high the intellectual level of these schools could be, it would be anachronistic to call them "universities". Their organization and purposes were markedly different from the corporations of students and teachers, independent from both the Church and the State, which established themselves from the 12th century in Western Europe as Universitas Studiorum; the University of al-Qarawiyyin in Fez, Morocco is the oldest existing continually operating higher educational institution in the world according to UNESCO and Guinness World Records and is referred to as the oldest university by scholars.

Undoubtably, there are older institutions of higher education

Robert Lloyd Lewis

Robert Lloyd Lewis is an American television and film producer. He has worked as a producer on the Showtime drama series Dexter since 2006 and has received multiple award nominations for his work on the series. Lewis joined the crew of Dexter as the episodic producer midway through the first season in 2006, he took over the role from Dennis Bishop. He remained in this role throughout the second, third and fifth seasons. For his work in the series he received Producers Guild of America PGA Award nominations as'Television Producer of the Year' in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, as well as being co-nominated for a Primetime Emmy Awards for'Outstanding Drama Series' in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, his 2005 TV film A Summer to Remember received a Young Artist Award nomination for actress Bridgette Andersen, his television series Related received a Young Artist Award nomination for actress Bridgette Andersen. A Summer to Remember Midas Valley Betrayed by Innocence Firefighter Swimsuit Spy Parker Lewis Can't Lose Weird Science Players Get Real Action The Big House Being Brewster Trash A.

U. S. A. Skin Method & Red Reunion Related episodes, 2005–2006) Dexter Superstition Hamburger... The Motion Picture 2008, PGA Award nomination as'Television Producer of the Year' for Dexter 2008, Primetime Emmy Award nomination for'Outstanding Drama Series' for Dexter 2009, BAFTA Award nomination for'Best International Series' for Dexter 2009, PGA Award nomination as'Television Producer of the Year' for Dexter 2009, Primetime Emmy Award nomination for'Outstanding Drama Series' for Dexter 2010, PGA Award nomination as'Television Producer of the Year' for Dexter 2010, Primetime Emmy Award nomination for'Outstanding Drama Series' for Dexter 2011, PGA Award nomination as'Television Producer of the Year' for Dexter 2011, Primetime Emmy Award nomination for'Outstanding Drama Series' for Dexter Robert Lloyd Lewis on IMDb

List of pipe organ stops

For audio examples, see the article on organ stops. An organ stop can mean one of three things: the control on an organ console that selects a particular sound the row of organ pipes used to create a particular sound, more appropriately known as a rank the sound itselfOrgan stops are sorted into four major types: principal, string and flute; this is a sortable list of names. Countless stops have been designed over the centuries, individual organs may have stops, or names of stops, used nowhere else; this non-comprehensive list deals with names of stops found on numerous Baroque and romantic organs. Here are a few of the most common ones: Encyclopedia of Organ Stops, a exhaustive reference that describes over two thousand stop names. Pipe organ tonal design, a French organ builder's site in sometimes puzzling English. "Harmonic Stop". New International Encyclopedia. 1905