Ontario Provincial Police
The Ontario Provincial Police is the Provincial Police service for the province of Ontario, Canada. The OPP is responsible for providing policing services over one million square kilometres of land and 174,000 km2 of water to a population of 2.3 million people. As of 2010, the O. P. P. has over 6,200 uniformed,850 auxiliary and 2,700 civilian personnel. The vehicle fleet consists of 2,290 vehicles,114 marine vessels,286 snow and all-terrain vehicles, rank Structure within the OPP is paramilitary or quasi-military in nature, with several non-commissioned ranks leading to the officer ranks. The OPP is the largest deployed police force in Ontario, the service is responsible for providing policing services throughout the province in areas lacking local police forces. The OPP works with other agencies, including the Ministry of Transportation and Ministry of Natural Resources to enforce highway safety and conservation regulations. Finally, OPP officers provide security at the Ontario Legislature at Queens Park in Toronto, the OPP is one of three provincial police forces in Canada.
The others are the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary in Newfoundland and Labrador, at the First Parliament of Upper Canada on September 17,1792, at Niagara-on-the-Lake, provision was made for the formation of a police system. Initially, policing jurisdictions were limited to districts, townships, in 1845, a Mounted Police Force was created, in order to keep the peace in areas surrounding the construction of public works. It became the Ontario Mounted Police Force after Confederation, in 1877, the Constables Act extended jurisdiction and gave designated police members authorization to act throughout the province. Murray was joined by two detectives in 1897, marking the beginnings of the Criminal Investigation Branch. However, for the most part, policing outside of Ontarios cities was non-existent, with the discovery of silver in Cobalt and gold in Timmins, lawlessness was increasingly becoming a problem in northern Ontario. It consisted of 45 men under the direction of Superintendent Joseph E.
Rogers, the starting salary for constables was $400 per annum, increased to $900 in 1912. The first OPP detachment was located in Bala, Ontario, in the 1920s, restructuring was undertaken with the passing of The Provincial Police Force Act,1921. The title of the officer was changed to Commissioner and given responsibility for enforcing the provisions of The Ontario Temperance Act. Major-General Harry Macintyre Cawthra-Elliot was appointed as the first Commissioner, the OPPs first line of duty death occurred in 1923 when escaped convict Leo Rogers shot and killed Sergeant John Urquhart near North Bay. Rogers, who was killed in a shootout with O. P. P. Officers, had already mortally wounded North Bay City Constable Fred Lefebvre, the first OPP motorcycle patrol was introduced in 1928, phased out in 1942 and reintroduced in 1949
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, the territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, the Quimbaya and the Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 the Gran Colombia Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada, the new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, and the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886.
Since the 1960s the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage. Cultural diversity has influenced by Colombias varied geography. The urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines, ecologically, it is one of the worlds 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer. Colombia is a power and a regional actor with the fourth-largest economy in Latin America, is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is an accessing member to the OECD. Colombia has an economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run. The name Colombia is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus and it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule.
The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819. When Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, New Granada officially changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was changed, this time to United States of Colombia. To refer to country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica, the oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 km southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period, at Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found
The Gendarmerie or Rijkswacht was the former paramilitary police force of Belgium. The word gendarme comes from Old French gens darmes, meaning men-at-arms, whereas the Dutch name, rijkswacht, in 1795, the Belgian provinces came under French rule. It was at time that the Rijkswacht/Gendarmerie was created. This military force had been created a time before in France itself to replace the Marechaussee of the former monarchy. The legislation which organised the new service in Belgium was a law dated April 17,1798. In 1815 the Belgian provinces became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Dutch renamed the Gendarmerie as the “Royal Marechaussee” and reorganised the force. In 1830 the Belgian revolution occurred, after obtaining its independence the new Belgian state created its own national Rijkswacht/Gendarmerie on the basis of the already existing constabulary. The Rijkswachters/Gendarmes operated throughout the entire country, from its creation, the Rijkswacht/Gendarmerie was formally part of the Belgian Army.
During the Second World War, the Rijkswacht/Gendarmerie was restricted to the role of administrative and legal police force, the majority of the Rijkswachters/Gendarmes refused to collaborate with the German occupiers. It is believed that individual gendarmes assisted the Belgian Resistance and these actions were not tolerated by the occupation authorities and from 1942 onwards the corps was deprived of many of its functions. After the war, the service was reorganized, new units were created, and at the end of 1957, new legislation relating to the fundamental role of the Rijkswacht/Gendarmerie was passed, envisaged in the Constitution of 1830. This law confirmed the functions of the Rijkswacht/Gendarmerie and its independence from the administrative authorities, the Rijkswacht/Gendarmerie was separated from the Belgian Army Territorial Defense Force, and became a fourth department within the military. The Rijkswacht/Gendarmerie was authorised to create its own training establishments, during the 1960s conditions of service improved considerably.
This period saw an increase in serious crimes. The Central Bureau of Investigations was created, plus a radio network. Tracker dogs were employed for the first time, during the 1980s, the Rijkswacht/Gendarmerie suffered serious problems. Much of its equipment was outdated, it was significantly understrength and it was the period of fighting Communist cells and deadly criminal activities by gangs and hooliganism. Several parliamentary commissions blamed the Rijkswacht/Gendarmerie for poor investigations and law enforcement work in these cases, the Rijkswacht/Gendarmerie was threatened with disbandment, and drastic measures were taken to reorganise several units and to improve public relations
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by the state to enforce the law, protect property, and limit civil disorder. Their powers include the use of force. Law enforcement, constitutes part of policing activity. Policing has included an array of activities in different situations, in some societies, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, these developed within the context of maintaining the class system and the protection of private property. Many police forces suffer from police corruption to a greater or lesser degree, the police force is usually a public sector service, meaning they are paid through taxes. Alternative names for police force include constabulary, police department, police service, crime prevention, protective services, law enforcement agency, members may be referred to as police officers, sheriffs, rangers, peace officers or civic/civil guards. As police are often interacting with individuals, slang terms are numerous, many slang terms for police officers are decades or centuries old with lost etymology.
One of the oldest, has largely lost its slang connotations and this is derived from πόλις, city. Law enforcement in ancient China was carried out by prefects for thousands of years since it developed in both the Chu and Jin kingdoms of the Spring and Autumn period, in Jin, dozens of prefects were spread across the state, each having limited authority and employment period. Under each prefect were subprefects who helped collectively with law enforcement in the area, some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives. The concept of the system spread to other cultures such as Korea. In ancient Greece, publicly owned slaves were used by magistrates as police, in Athens, a group of 300 Scythian slaves was used to guard public meetings to keep order and for crowd control, and assisted with dealing with criminals, handling prisoners, and making arrests. Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves, in the Roman empire, the army, rather than a dedicated police organization, provided security.
Local watchmen were hired by cities to some extra security. Magistrates such as fiscal and quaestors investigated crimes. There was no concept of public prosecution, so victims of crime or their families had to organize and their duties included apprehending thieves and robbers and capturing runaway slaves. The vigiles were supported by the Urban Cohorts who acted as a heavy-duty anti-riot force, in medieval Spain, Santa Hermandades, or holy brotherhoods, peacekeeping associations of armed individuals, were a characteristic of municipal life, especially in Castile. These organizations were intended to be temporary, but became a fixture of Spain
Traffic police or traffic officers, often referred to colloquially as traffic cops, are police officers who direct traffic or serve in a traffic or roads policing unit enforcing rules of the road. Traffic police include officers who patrol major roads and police who address traffic infractions on other roads and it has been noted that, Traffic police have existed in some form for nearly three centuries, In the Democratic Republic of the Congo five automatic traffic police are in operation. The large aluminium figures are able to rotate at the waist, the system runs on solar power, from panels on the roof of the structure within which the robot stands. The robot controls the traffic with red and green lights in its hands, the robots can speak to pedestrians and help them safely cross the road. The system is designed and built by a womens engineering co-operative in DRC, another five robots have been bought for Katanga province, and a further thirty for motorway use have been proposed
Bayerische Motoren Werke AG, usually known under its abbreviation BMW, is a German luxury vehicle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916. It is one of the luxury automakers in the world. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, headquartered in Munich, Bavaria, BMW owns Mini cars and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW was established as a business entity following a restructuring of the Rapp Motorenwerke aircraft manufacturing firm in 1912 named Aerowerke Gustav Otto, after the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft-engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. The company consequently shifted to production as the restrictions of the treaty started to be lifted in 1923. BMWs first significant aircraft engine, and commercial product of any sort, was the BMW IIIa inline-six liquid-cooled engine of 1918, known for good fuel economy, with German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe.
The factory in Munich made ample use of forced labour, foreign civilians, prisoners of war, the few Me 262 A-1b test examples built used the more developed version of the 003 jet, recording an official top speed of 800 km/h. The first-ever four-engine jet aircraft flown were the sixth and eighth prototypes of the Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance-bomber. Through 1944 the 003s reliability improved, making it a power plant for air frame designs competing for the Jägernotprogramms light fighter production contract. Which was won by the Heinkel He 162 Spatz design, the BMW003 aviation turbojet was under consideration as the basic starting point for a pioneering turboshaft powerplant for German armored fighting vehicles in 1944–45, as the GT101. Towards the end of the Third Reich, BMW developed some military aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe, the BMW Strahlbomber, the BMW Schnellbomber and the BMW Strahljäger, but none of them were built. By the year 1958, the division of BMW was in financial difficulties.
It was decided to carry on by trying to cash in on the current economy car boom exploited so successfully by German ex-aircraft manufacturers such as Messerschmitt, BMW bought the rights to manufacture the Italian Iso Isetta. BMWs version of the cars were to be powered by a modified form of BMWs motorcycle engine. This was moderately successful and helped the company get back on its feet, since 1959, the controlling majority shareholder of the BMW Aktiengesellschaft has been the Quandt family, which owns about 46% of the stock. The rest is in public float, BMW acquired the Hans Glas company based in Dingolfing, Germany, in 1966. Glas vehicles were badged as BMW until the company was fully absorbed. However, this factory was outmoded and BMWs biggest immediate gain was, according to themselves, the Glas factories continued to build a limited number of their existing models, while adding the manufacture of BMW front and rear axles until they could be closer incorporated into BMW
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province of Canada. Situated in the countrys Atlantic region, it comprises the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, in 2013, the provinces population was estimated at 526,702. About 92% of the population lives on the island of Newfoundland. The province is Canadas most linguistically homogeneous, with 97. 6% of residents reporting English as their mother tongue in the 2006 census, Newfoundland was home to unique varieties of French and Irish, as well as the extinct Beothuk language. In Labrador, local dialects of Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are spoken and Labradors capital and largest city, St. Johns, is Canadas 20th-largest census metropolitan area and is home to almost 40 percent of the provinces population. St. Johns is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and to the highest court in the jurisdiction and it became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31,1949, as Newfoundland.
On December 6,2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the official name to Newfoundland. The name Newfoundland is a translation of the Portuguese Terra Nova, the influence of early Portuguese exploration is reflected in the name of Labrador, which derives from the surname of the Portuguese navigator João Fernandes Lavrador. Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province in Canada, and is located at the corner of North America. The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two divisions, which is a large area of mainland Canada, and Newfoundland. The province includes over 7,000 tiny islands, each side is about 400 km long, and its area is 108,860 km2. Newfoundland and its small islands have a total area of 111,390 km2. Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36′N and 51°38′N, Labrador is an irregular shape, the western part of its border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, most of Labradors southern boundary with Quebec follows the 52nd parallel of latitude.
Labradors extreme northern tip, at 60°22′N, shares a border with Nunavut. Together and Labrador make up 4. 06% of Canadas area, Labrador is the easternmost part of the Canadian Shield, a vast area of ancient metamorphic rock comprising much of northeastern North America. Colliding tectonic plates have shaped much of the geology of Newfoundland, gros Morne National Park has a reputation as an outstanding example of tectonics at work, and as such has been designated a World Heritage Site. The Long Range Mountains on Newfoundlands west coast are the northeasternmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains, the north-south extent of the province, prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the province
For the Canadian Force see, Victoria Police Department Victoria Police is the primary law enforcement agency of Victoria, Australia. It was formed in 1853 and operates under Victoria Police Act 2013 and it has a running cost of some A$2. 51bn. Victoria Police enjoys one of the highest community confidence in the world, the general satisfaction is high, with more than 76. 9% of the Victorian residents satisfied with policing services in general. Victoria Police Mission Statement, The Victoria Police mission is to provide a safe and orderly society by serving the community and the law. The early settlers of Melbourne provided their own Police force and in 1840 there were 12 constables who were two shillings and nine pence per day and the chief constable was Mr. W Wright. Charles Brodie followed Wright as chief constable in 1842 and was succeeded by W. J. Sugden who held the positions of chief constable. By 1847 there were Police in country centres and the Melbourne force was composed of one officer, four sergeants.
There was a force of 28 mounted natives enlisted and trained by DeVilliers and, that month William Henry Fancourt Mitchell was gazetted as Chief Commissioner of Police for the Colony of Victoria. In 1853, Victoria Police was the first police organisation in Australia who merged all its police entities into one organisation under Victoria Police Chief Commissioner William Mitchell and it remains until this day, that Victoria is the only state in Australia with a Chief Commissioner of Police. From a report at the time, the troops and Police were under arms, following the brutality of the police after the stockade, public opinion turned against them, the 13 miners charged with treason were all acquitted and police numbers were dramatically cut. Mitchell resigned as commissioner and Charles MacMahon, was appointed acting chief commissioner that same year. After the formation of the Victorian Police, the first recorded death on duty was Edward Gray in 1853, followed by William Hogan in 1854, six years later, three more officers who were hunting the Kelly Gang, were killed by them at Stringybark Creek.
Two years later, in 1880, the police confronted the Kelly Gang at Glenrowan, a shoot-out ensued on 28 June, during which three members of the Kelly Gang were killed and following which Ned Kelly was shot and captured. In 1888 senior constable John Barry produced the first Victoria Police Guide, Police officers were granted the right to vote in parliamentary elections the same year. In 1899 the force introduced the Victoria Police Valour Award to recognise the bravery of members, three years later, in 1902, the right to a police pension was revoked. On 31 October 1923 members of the Victoria Police Force refused duty, the police strike led to riots and looting in Melbournes central business district. The Victorian government enlisted special constables, and the Commonwealth of Australia called out the Australian military, Victoria Police are the only Australian police department to ever go on strike. Only a few of the strikers were ever employed as policemen again, Members of the Victoria Police now have among the highest union membership rates of any occupation, at well over 90%
New South Wales Police Force
The New South Wales Police Force is the primary law enforcement agency of the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is a servant of the Crown, independent of Government, under the Police Regulation Act,1862, the organisation of the NSW Police Force was formally established in 1862 with the unification of all existing independent police units in the state. The authority and responsibility of the police force was given to the inspector general of police. The 1990s were a turbulent period in NSW police history, the Royal Commission into the New South Wales Police Service was held between 1995 and 1997. The Royal Commission uncovered hundreds of instances of bribery, money laundering, drug trafficking, the police commissioner, Tony Lauer, resigned as the level of corruption in the service became clear and his own position untenable. Peter James Ryan was recruited from the UK, wide-ranging reforms occurred as a result of the recommendations of the Royal Commission, including the establishment of a permanent Police Integrity Commission.
The minister for justice and police, Troy Grant, is responsible to the NSW parliament for the police portfolio, Grant is a former NSW police officer who served 22 years before entering politics. As of October 2014, the force consists of some 16,467 officers. The motto of the NSW Police Force is the Latin Culpam poena premit comes, the NSW Police insignia includes the motto. The overall mission of the police is to life and property and to detect. Like all other states of Australia and shires in NSW have only limited law enforcement responsibilities. The police perform the primary law enforcement role in all areas of the state, the New South Wales Police Force has existed in various forms since the foundation of the colony of New South Wales at Sydney in 1788. Police units were under the rule of the district magistrates, responding to the various forms of crime, a number of independent specialised units were set up. The earliest of these units formed was the Mounted Police, established in 1825 to keep the settlers safe, in 2009, it had 34 horses and was claimed to be the oldest mounted police unit in the world.
Other specialist groups formed during this time were the Water Police, the Border Police and the Native Police. After a failed attempt made by Act No.38 of 1850, unified control of the police eventuated in 1862 when the Police Regulation Act was passed, the first inspector general of police, John McLerie, was appointed to assume overall authority and responsibility. The Police Regulation Act, passed in 1935, changed the title to commissioner of police. The position of deputy commissioner was created, by 1872, there were seventy police stations throughout the colony in sub-districts, with a total of 803 police officers
Royal Newfoundland Constabulary
The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary is a police force in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It provides policing to the communities of St. Johns and the Northeast Avalon Peninsula, Corner Brook, Churchill Falls, Labrador City, the RNC dates back to 1729, with the appointment of the first police constables. Mitchell served as Inspector General and Superintendent of Police until 1871, in January 1909, John J. Sullivan became the first Newfoundland-born police chief of the RNC. He held that post until September,1917, during World War II, the RNC pursued spies and criminal elements in the foreign military stationed at St. Johns. Their investigation into the 1942 Knights of Columbus Hostel fire has become popular knowledge, in 1979, Queen Elizabeth II of Canada conferred the designation Royal on the Newfoundland Constabulary, in recognition of its long history of service to Newfoundland and Labrador. On May 3,2005, the RNC made an exchange of colours with An Garda Síochána na hÉireann.
The exchange of colours was to mark the historic links between policing in Newfoundland and Ireland, the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary serves alongside the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, which is contracted by the provincial government to provide provincial and community policing services. The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary services mainly major metropolitan areas while the RCMP serves smaller, the RNC has operated a mounted unit since 1873. The unit was created in 2003 replacing a voluntary unit, the units history can be traced back to three earlier units, the Newfoundland Constabulary Mounted Force 1873-1894, New Fire Brigade Mounted Force 1895-1922 and Newfoundland Constabulary 1922-1951. The unit has four Percheron horses and four riders, below is a list of the Percheron horses names
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is both a federal and a national police force of Canada. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police was formed in 1920 by the merger of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police with the Dominion Police, the former was originally named the North-West Mounted Police, and was given the Royal prefix by King Edward VII in 1904. The RCMP-GRC wording is protected under the Trade-marks Act, larger cities may form their own municipal police departments. The two most populous provinces and Quebec, maintain provincial forces, the Ontario Provincial Police, the other eight provinces contract policing responsibilities to the RCMP. The RCMP provides front-line policing in those provinces under the direction of the provincial governments, when Newfoundland joined the confederation in 1949, the RCMP entered the province and absorbed the Newfoundland Ranger Force, which patrolled most of Newfoundlands rural areas. The Royal Newfoundland Constabulary patrols urban areas of the province, in the territories, the RCMP is the sole territorial police force.
Many municipalities throughout Canada contract to the RCMP, the RCMP polices at the federal and municipal level. It is the police force of any sort in several areas of Canada. The RCMP is responsible for an unusually large breadth of duties, under their federal mandate, the RCMP police throughout Canada, including Ontario and Quebec. Under provincial and municipal contracts the RCMP provides front-line policing in all areas outside of Ontario, there are detachments located in small villages in the far north, remote First Nations reserves, and rural towns, but larger cities such as Surrey, British Columbia. There, support units investigate for their own detachments, and smaller municipal police forces, investigations include major crimes, forensic identification, collision forensics, police dogs, emergency response teams, explosives disposal, and undercover operations. CSIS is not part of the RCMP, but is its own entity, Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald first began planning a permanent force to patrol the North-West Territories after the Dominion of Canada purchased the territory from the Hudsons Bay Company.
Reports from Army officers surveying the territory led to the recommendation that a force of between 100 to 150 mounted riflemen could maintain law and order. The Prime Minister first announced the force as the North West Mounted Rifles, officials in the United States raised concerns that an armed force along the border was a prelude to a military buildup. Macdonald renamed the force the North-West Mounted Police when formed in 1873, the force added Royal to its name in 1904. It merged with the Dominion Police, the police force for all points east of Manitoba. As part of its security and intelligence functions, the RCMP infiltrated ethnic or political groups considered to be dangerous to Canada. This included the Communist Party of Canada, but a variety of minority cultural, the force was deeply involved in immigration matters, and especially deportations of suspected radicals
Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean. Its capital city is Zagreb, which one of the countrys primary subdivisions. Croatia covers 56,594 square kilometres and has diverse, mostly continental, Croatias Adriatic Sea coast contains more than a thousand islands. The countrys population is 4.28 million, most of whom are Croats, the Croats arrived in the area of present-day Croatia during the early part of the 7th century AD. They organised the state into two duchies by the 9th century, tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. In 1918, after World War I, Croatia was included in the unrecognized State of Slovenes and Serbs which seceded from Austria-Hungary, a fascist Croatian puppet state backed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany existed during World War II.
After the war, Croatia became a member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991 Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year, the Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully during the four years following the declaration. A unitary state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system, the International Monetary Fund classified Croatia as an emerging and developing economy, and the World Bank identified it as a high-income economy. Croatia is a member of the European Union, United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the service sector dominates Croatias economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue during the summer, with Croatia ranked the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world, the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatias most important trading partner, since 2000, the Croatian government constantly invests in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors.
Internal sources produce a significant portion of energy in Croatia, the rest is imported, the origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe. The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, the first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved—leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim, the oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription, where Duke Branimir is styled as Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, the area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period