Master of ceremonies
A master of ceremonies, abbreviated MC, is the official host of a ceremony, staged event or similar performance. The term is earliest documented in the Catholic Church since the 5th century, where the Master of Ceremonies was and still is an official of the Papal Court responsible for the proper and smooth conduct of the elegant and elaborate rituals involving the Pope and the sacred liturgy; the master of ceremonies sometimes refers to the protocol officer during an official state function in monarchies. Today, the term is used to connote a compère, which corresponds to a master of ceremonies who presents performers, speaks to the audience, entertains people, keeps an event moving; this usage occurs in the entertainment industry, including for television game show hosts, as well as in contemporary hip hop and electronic dance music culture. In addition, the term exists in various chivalric orders and fraternal orders. Alternative names include compère, microphone controller; the term originated in the Catholic Church.
The Master of Ceremonies is an official of the Papal Court responsible for the proper and smooth conduct of the elegant and elaborate rituals involving the Pope and the sacred liturgy. He may be an official involved in the proper conduct of protocols and ceremonials involving the Roman Pontiff, the Papal Court, other dignitaries and potentates. Examples of official liturgical books prescribing the rules and regulations of liturgical celebrations are Cæremoniale Romanum and Cæremoniale Episcoporum; the office of the Master of Ceremonies itself is old. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the most ancient ceremonials and rituals of the Catholic Church are the Ordines Romani. Names of Masters of Ceremonies are known since the Renaissance. However, copies of books prescribing the forms of rituals and customs of pontifical ceremonies are known to have been given to Charles Martel in the 8th century; the rules and rituals themselves are known to have been compiled or written by the pontifical masters of ceremonies, dating back to the time of Pope Gelasius I with modifications and additions made by Pope Gregory the Great.
It is reasonable to assume. The duties of the Master of Ceremonies may have developed from the time Emperor Constantine the Great gave the Lateran Palace to the popes or from the time Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, were no doubt influenced by imperial practices and norms. However, documentary evidence from the late Roman period is scarce or lost; the ceremonies and practices of the Byzantine emperors are known to have influenced the papal court. The accumulation of elaborations and complications since the Renaissance and Baroque eras continued well into the 20th century, until some of the ceremonies were simplified or eliminated by Pope Paul VI in the 1970s after Vatican II. At a large Catholic church or cathedral, the Master of Ceremonies organizes and rehearses the proceedings and ritual of each Mass, he may have responsibility for the physical security of the place of worship during the liturgy. At major festivities such as Christmas and Easter, when the liturgies are long and complex, the Master of Ceremonies plays a vital role in ensuring that everything runs smoothly.
The current papal Master of Ceremonies is Monsignor Guido Marini, who succeeded Archbishop Piero Marini. Certain European royal courts maintained senior offices known as Masters of Ceremonies, responsible for conducting stately ceremonies such as coronations and receptions of foreign ambassadors. Examples included: Spanish Empire: Maestro de Ceremonias British Empire: Master of the Ceremonies France: Grand Master of Ceremonies Japan: Master of Ceremonies Russian Empire: see Table of Ranks Ottoman Empire: Kapıcıbaşı "chief doorkeeper" of the Topkapi Palace The function is prevalent in the culture of chivalric orders, as well as in more modern fraternal orders, such as Freemasons and Odd Fellows. Most large corporate and association conferences and conventions use an MC to keep the events running smoothly; this role is sometimes performed by someone inside the group but by an outside professional expert MC. Their role could include - introducing and thanking speakers, introducing the theme of the conference, facilitating a panel discussion & interviewing guests.
During the wedding reception, the multifaceted responsibility of the Master of Ceremony is to keep the agenda flowing smoothly by: skillfully capturing and maintaining the attention of the wedding guests directing their attention on whatever the bride and groom have chosen to include keeping the wedding attendees informed so at any given moment they know what is happening comfortably guiding the bride's and groom's friends and family so they know what they are supposed to do to participateThe role of the wedding master of ceremonies incorporates a wide range of skills, those who serve in this capacity have undergone extensive training in the following areas: Delivering applause cues Presenting introductions Microphone technique Posture and stance Voice inflection Staging Masters of ceremonies at weddings and private events ensure the coordination of their event, including liaison with catering staff. In hip hop and electronic dance music, "MC" refers to rap artists or performers who perform vocals for their own or other artist's original material
The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar; the official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself; the Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was known as Germany. Germany became a de facto republic on 9 November 1918 when Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the German and Prussian thrones with no agreement made on a succession by his son Crown Prince Wilhelm, became a de jure republic in February 1919 when the position of President of Germany was created. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for Germany was written and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War.
Resentment in Germany towards the Treaty of Versailles was strong on the political right where there was great anger towards those who had signed the Treaty and submitted to fulfill the terms of it. The Weimar Republic fulfilled most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles although it never met its disarmament requirements and paid only a small portion of the war reparations. Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the western borders of the country by abandoning irredentist claims on France and Belgium, but continued to dispute the eastern borders and sought to persuade German-speaking Austria to join Germany as one of Germany's states. From 1930 onwards President Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen and General Kurt von Schleicher; the Great Depression, exacerbated by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government.
The Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the "éminence grise" who would keep Hitler under control, using his close personal connection to Hindenburg. Within months, the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency: it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitler's seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation; these events brought the republic to an end – as democracy collapsed, the founding of a single-party state began the dictatorship of the Nazi era. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919, but this name only became mainstream after 1933. Between 1919 and 1933 there was no single name for the new state that gained widespread acceptance, why the old name Deutsches Reich remained though hardly anyone used it during the Weimar period.
To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model and cringed to see the honour of the traditional word Reich associated with it. The Catholic Centre party, Zentrum favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat while on the moderate left the Chancellor's SPD preferred Deutsche Republik. By 1925, Deutsche Republik was used by most Germans, but for the anti-democratic right the word Republik was, along with the relocation of the seat of power to Weimar, a painful reminder of a government structure, imposed by foreign statesmen, along with the expulsion of Kaiser Wilhelm in the wake of massive national humiliation; the first recorded mention of the term Republik von Weimar came during a speech delivered by Adolf Hitler at a National Socialist German Worker's Party rally in Munich on 24 February 1929—it was a few weeks that the term Weimarer Republik was first used in a newspaper article. Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany.
According to historian Richard J. Evans: The continued use of the term'German Empire', Deutsches Reich, by the Weimar Republic....conjured up an image among educated Germans that resonated far beyond the institutional structures Bismarck created: the successor to the Roman Empire. After the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were altered to reflect the political changes; the Weimar Republic without the symbols of the former Monarchy. This left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak and claws and white highlighting. By reason of a decision of the Reich's Government I hereby announce, that the Imperial coat of arms on a gold-yellow shield shows the one headed black eagle, the head turned to the right, the wings open but with closed feathering, beak and claws in red color. If the Reich's Eagle is shown without a frame, the same charg
Marcel Pagnol was a French novelist and filmmaker. Regarded as an auteur, in 1946, he became the first filmmaker elected to the Académie française. Although his work is less fashionable than it once was, Pagnol is still regarded as one of France's greatest 20th-century writers and is notable for the fact that he excelled in every medium—memoir, novel and film. Marcel Pagnol was born on 28 February 1895 in Aubagne, Bouches-du-Rhône département, in southern France near Marseille, the eldest son of schoolteacher Joseph PagnolA and seamstress Augustine Lansot. B Marcel Pagnol grew up in Marseille with his younger brothers Paul and René, younger sister Germaine. In July 1904, the family rented the Bastide Neuve, – a house in the sleepy Provençal village of La Treille – for the summer holidays, the first of many spent in the hilly countryside between Aubagne and Marseille. About the same time, Augustine's health, which had never been robust, began to noticeably decline and on 16 June 1910 she succumbed to a chest infection and died, aged 36.
Joseph remarried in 1912. In 1913, at the age of 18, Marcel passed his baccalaureate in philosophy and started studying literature at the University in Aix-en-Provence; when World War I broke out, he was called up into the infantry at Nice but in January 1915 he was discharged because of his poor constitution. On 2 March 1916, he married Simone Colin in November graduated in English, he became an English teacher, teaching at a lycée in Marseille. In 1922, he moved to Paris, where he taught English until 1927, when he decided instead to devote his life to playwriting. During this time, he belonged to a group of young writers, in collaboration with one of whom, Paul Nivoix, he wrote the play, Merchants of Glory, produced in 1924; this was followed, by Topaze, a satire based on ambition. Exiled in Paris, he returned nostalgically to his Provençal roots, taking this as his setting for his play Marius, which became the first of his works to be adapted into a film in 1931. Separated from Simone Collin since 1926, he formed a relationship with the young English dancer Kitty Murphy.
Their son Jacques Pagnol was born on 24 September 1930. In 1929, on a visit to London, Pagnol attended a screening of one of the first talking films and he was so impressed that he decided to devote his efforts to cinema, he suggested adapting his play Marius for cinema. This was directed by Alexander Korda and released on 10 October 1931, it became one of the first successful French-language talking films. In 1932 Pagnol founded his own film production studios in the countryside near Marseille. Over the next decade Pagnol produced his own films, taking many different roles in the production – financier, script writer, studio head, foreign-language script translator – and employing the greatest French actors of the period. On 4 April 1946, Pagnol was elected to the Académie française, taking his seat in March 1947, the first filmmaker to receive this honour. In his films, Pagnol transfers his playwriting talents onto the big screen, his editing style is somberly reserved. As a pictorial naturalist, Pagnol relies on film as art to convey a deeper meaning rather than as a tool to tell a story.
Pagnol took great care in the type of actors he employed, hiring local actors to appear in his films to highlight their unique accents and culture. Like his plays, Pagnol's films emphasize musicality; the themes of many of Pagnol's films revolve around the acute observation of social rituals. Using interchangeable symbols and recurring character roles, such as proud fathers and rebellious children, Pagnol illuminates the provincial life of the lower class. Notably, Pagnol frequently compares women and land, showing both can be barren or fertile. Above all, Pagnol uses all this to illustrate the importance of their renewal. In 1945, Pagnol remarried, they had Frédéric and Estelle. Estelle died at the age of two. Pagnol was so devastated that he returned to live in Paris, he went back to writing plays, but after his next piece was badly received he decided to change his job once more and began writing a series of autobiographical novels – Souvenirs d'enfance – based on his childhood experiences. In 1957, the first two novels in the series, La Gloire de mon père and Le château de ma mère were published to instant acclaim.
The third Le Temps des secrets was published in 1959, though the fourth Le Temps des Amours was to remain unfinished and was not published until 1977, after his death. In the meantime, Pagnol turned to a second series, L'Eau des Collines – Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources – which focused on the machinations of Provençal peasant life at the beginning of the twentieth century and were published in 1962. Pagnol adapted his own film Manon des Sources, with his wife Jacqueline in the title role, into two novels, Jean de Florette and Manon des Sources, collectively titled L'Eau des Collines. Marcel Pagnol died in Paris on 18 April 1974, he is buried in Marseille at the cemetery La Treille, along with his mother, father and wife. His boyhood friend, David Magnan, died at the Second Battle of the Marne in July 1918, is buried nearby. Pagnol was known for his translations of Shakespeare and Virgil: 1944: Le
Justin Brooks Atkinson was an American theatre critic. He worked for The New York Times from 1925 to 1960. In his obituary, the Times called him "the theater's most influential reviewer of his time." A war correspondent during World War II, he received the Pulitzer Prize in 1947 for his work as the Moscow correspondent for the Times. Atkinson was born in Melrose, Massachusetts to Jonathan H. Atkinson, a salesman statistician and Garafelia Taylor; as a boy, he printed his own newspaper, planned a career in journalism. He attended Harvard University, he graduated from Harvard in 1917, worked at the Springfield Daily News and the Boston Evening Transcript, where he was assistant to the drama critic. In 1922, he became the editor of the New York Times Book Review, in 1925 the drama critic. Atkinson married Oriana MacIlveen, a writer, in August 1926. On the drama desk, Atkinson became known for his commitment to new kinds of theater—he was one of the first critical admirers of Eugene O'Neill—for his interest in all kinds of drama, including off-Broadway productions.
In 1928, he said of the new play The Front Page, "No one who has ground his heels in the grime of a police headquarters press room will complain that this argot misrepresents the gentlemen of the press." In 1932 Atkinson dropped the J. from his bi-line and embraced the witty, direct writing style that became his hallmark. His reviews were reputed to have the power to make or break a new stage production: for example, his panning in 1940 of Lawrence Riley's Return Engagement led to that comedy's closure after only eight performances, this despite the fact that Riley's previous comedy, Personal Appearance, had lasted for over 500 performances on Broadway. Atkinson, dubbed "the conscience of the theater," was not comfortable with the influence he wielded over the Broadway box office. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Atkinson attempted to enlist in the Navy, but was refused, he requested a reassignment to war coverage, The New York Times sent him to the front lines as a war correspondent in China, where he covered the second Sino-Japanese war until 1945.
While in China, he visited Mao Tse-Tung in Yenan and was captivated by Mao, writing favorably on the Chinese Communist Party movement, against the Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek, which he saw as reactionary and corrupt. After visiting Yenan, he wrote that the CCP political system was best described as an "agrarian or peasant democracy, or as a farm labor party." Atkinson viewed the Chinese Communist Party as Communist in name only and more democratic than totalitarian. After the end of the war, Atkinson stayed only in New York before being sent to Moscow as a press correspondent. After returning from the Soviet Union, Atkinson was reassigned to the drama desk, where he remained until his retirement in 1960, he is given much credit for the growth of Off-Broadway into a major theatrical force in the 1950s, has been cited by many influential people in the theatre as crucial to their careers. David Merrick's infamous spoof ad for Subways Are For Sleeping—in which he hired seven ordinary New Yorkers who had the same names as prominent drama critics to praise his musical—had to wait for Atkinson's retirement, because Merrick could not find anyone with the right name.
There was only one Brooks Atkinson in New York City. Atkinson was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1960, he came out of retirement in 1965 to write a favorable review of Man of La Mancha. After his retirement, he became a member of The Players who organized a tribute dinner for Atkinson's 80th birthday, attended by Arthur Miller, Elia Kazan, other prominent actors and playwrights, he died on January 1984 at Crestwood Hospital in Huntsville, Alabama. Atkinson had moved to Huntsville from his farm in Durham, New York in 1981 to be closer to his family. Skyline Promenades, 1925 East of the Hudson, 1931 The Cingalese Prince, 1934 Once Around the Sun, 1951 New Voices in American Theater, 1955 Tuesdays and Fridays, 1963 Broadway, 1970 This Bright Land: A Personal View, 1972 The Lively Years, 1920-1973, 1973 Henry Thoreau, The Cosmic Yankee, 1981 In 1960, the Mansfield Theatre in New York was renamed Brooks Atkinson Theatre in his honor. Brooks Atkinson Theatre Broadway, New York, NY Brooks Atkinson papers, 1904-1980, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American journalist, short-story writer, noted sportsman. His economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory—had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his adventurous lifestyle and his public image brought him admiration from generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954, he published seven novels, six short-story collections, two non-fiction works. Three of his novels, four short-story collections, three non-fiction works were published posthumously. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature. Hemingway was raised in Illinois. After high school, he reported for a few months for The Kansas City Star before leaving for the Italian Front to enlist as an ambulance driver in World War I. In 1918, he was wounded and returned home, his wartime experiences formed the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms. In 1921, he married Hadley Richardson.
The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent and fell under the influence of the modernist writers and artists of the 1920s "Lost Generation" expatriate community. His debut novel, The Sun Also Rises, was published in 1926. After his 1927 divorce from Richardson, Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer, he based For Whom the Bell Tolls on his experience there. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940, he was present at the liberation of Paris. Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea, Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was killed in two successive plane crashes that left him in pain or ill-health for much of the rest of his life. Hemingway maintained permanent residences in Key West and Cuba. In 1959, he bought a house in Ketchum, where, in mid-1961, he ended his own life. Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, his father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, was a physician, his mother, Grace Hall Hemingway, was a musician.
Both were well-educated and well-respected in Oak Park, a conservative community about which resident Frank Lloyd Wright said, "So many churches for so many good people to go to." For a short period after their marriage and Grace Hemingway lived with Grace's father, Ernest Hall, their first son's namesake. Ernest Hemingway would say that he disliked his name, which he "associated with the naive foolish hero of Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest"; the family moved into a seven-bedroom home in a respectable neighborhood with a music studio for Grace and a medical office for Clarence. Hemingway's mother performed in concerts around the village; as an adult, Hemingway professed to hate his mother, although biographer Michael S. Reynolds points out that Hemingway mirrored her energy and enthusiasm, her insistence that he learn to play the cello became a "source of conflict", but he admitted the music lessons were useful to his writing, as is evident in the "contrapuntal structure" of For Whom the Bell Tolls.
The family spent summers at Windemere near Petoskey, Michigan. Hemingway's father taught him to hunt and camp in the woods and lakes of Northern Michigan as a young boy; these early experiences in nature instilled a passion for outdoor adventure and living in remote or isolated areas. From 1913 until 1917, Hemingway attended River Forest High School, he took part in a number of sports such as boxing and field, water polo, football. He excelled in English classes, with his sister Marcelline, performed in the school orchestra for two years. During his junior year he had a journalism class, structured "as though the classroom were a newspaper office," with better writers submitting pieces to the school newspaper, The Trapeze. Hemingway and Marcelline both submitted pieces, he edited the Trapeze and the Tabula, imitating the language of sportswriters, taking the pen name Ring Lardner, Jr.—a nod to Ring Lardner of the Chicago Tribune whose byline was "Line O'Type."Like Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser, Sinclair Lewis, Hemingway was a journalist before becoming a novelist.
After leaving high school he went to work for The Kansas City Star as a cub reporter. Although he stayed there for only six months, he relied on the Star's style guide as a foundation for his writing: "Use short sentences. Use short first paragraphs. Use vigorous English. Be positive, not negative." Early in 1918, after applying to serve with, being turned down by, the US Army and Marines because of poor eyesight, Hemingway responded to a Red Cross recruitment effort in Kansas City and signed on to become an ambulance driver in Italy. He left New York in May and arrived in Paris as the city was under bombardment from German artillery. By June, he was at the Italian Front, it was around this time that he first met John Dos Passos, with whom he had a rocky relationship for decades. On his first day in Milan, he was sent to the scene of a munitions factory explosion, where rescuers retrieved the shredded remains of female workers, he described the incident in his non-fiction book Death in the Afternoon: "I remember that after we searched quite for the complete dead we collected fragments."
A few days he was stationed a
Ewald von Demandowsky
Ewald von Demandowsky was a German film producer who held the office of a Nazi German Reichsfilmdramaturg and was head of production at the Tobis Film company in the Third Reich. Demandowsky was born in Berlin. A member of the Nazi Party in 1930, he gained an employment as a cultural-political editor of the Völkischer Beobachter newspaper. In 1937 he was appointed Reichsfilmdramaturg subordinate to the Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda and served to abort unwanted filming projects at the behest of Reich Minister Joseph Goebbels. Two years he became head of Tobis Filmkunst the second largest German film production company after Universum Film AG, he produced a number of notorious Nazi propaganda films, including Ich klage an. Commissioned as a SS officer, von Demandowsky had a love affair with rising star Hildegard Knef in the latter part of World War II. According to Knef, Demandowsky assigned to the Volkssturm militia at the end of the war fled from Berlin, he surrendered and was transferred to a prisoner of war by the Polish Armed Forces but soon after was released to return to Berlin.
In 1946 he was again arrested by US military police and handed over to the Soviet Military Administration. Demandowsky was tried for fascist war propaganda and sentenced to death by a Soviet Military Tribunal and shot on 7 October 1946 in Berlin-Lichtenberg. In the early 1990s Demandowsky was rehabilitated by the public prosecutor of the Russian Federation in accordance with article 3 letter a of the Act of the Russian Federation on the rehabilitation of victims of political reprisals of 18 October 1991. Media related to Ewald von Demandowsky at Wikimedia Commons
Auschwitz concentration camp
The Auschwitz concentration camp was a complex of more than 40 Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II and the Holocaust. It consisted of the main camp and administrative headquarters in Oświęcim. Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, sparking World War II, they converted Auschwitz I from an army barracks to a prison camp for Polish political prisoners; the first prisoners were German criminals who were brought to the camp as functionaries in May 1940, the first gassing of prisoners took place in block 11 of Auschwitz I in September 1941. Auschwitz II–Birkenau became a major site of the Nazis' Final Solution to the Jewish Question. Transport trains delivered Jews from all over German-occupied Europe to the camp's gas chambers from early 1942 until late 1944. At least 1.1 million people died at Auschwitz of the estimated 1.3 million sent there, some 90 percent of them were Jews. One in six Jews killed in the Holocaust died at the camp.
Others deported to Auschwitz included 150,000 non-Jewish Poles, 23,000 Roma, 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war, 400 Jehovah's Witnesses, tens of thousands of diverse nationalities, an unknown number of homosexual men. Many of those not killed in the gas chambers died because of starvation, forced labor, infectious diseases, individual executions, medical experiments. In the course of the war, the camp was staffed by 7,000 members of the German Schutzstaffel 12 percent of whom were convicted of war crimes. Several were executed, including camp commandant Rudolf Höss; the Allies did not act on early reports of atrocities, their failure to bomb it or its railways remains controversial. At least 802 prisoners tried to escape, 144 and two Sonderkommando units launched a brief, unsuccessful uprising on 7 October 1944, consisting of prisoners assigned to staff the gas chambers. Soviet troops approached Auschwitz in January 1945, most of the prisoners were sent west on a death march; the remaining prisoners were liberated on 27 January 1945, a day commemorated as International Holocaust Remembrance Day.
In the following decades, survivors wrote memoirs of their experiences in Auschwitz, such as Primo Levi, Viktor Frankl, Elie Wiesel, the camp became a dominant symbol of the Holocaust. In 1947, Poland founded the Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum on the site of Auschwitz I and II, it was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979; the ideology of Nazism brought together elements of antisemitism, racial hygiene and eugenics, combined them with pan-Germanism and territorial expansionism with the goal of obtaining more Lebensraum for the Germanic people. After the Nazi seizure of power in Germany, boycotts of German Jews and acts of violence against them became ubiquitous, legislation was passed excluding them from the civil service and certain professions, including the law. Harassment and economic pressure were used to encourage them to leave Germany. On 15 September 1935, the Reichstag passed the Nuremberg Laws, prohibiting marriages between Jews and people of Germanic extraction, extramarital relations between Jews and Germans, the employment of German women under the age of 45 as domestic servants in Jewish households.
The Reich Citizenship Law defined as citizens those of "German or kindred blood". Thus Jews and other minorities were stripped of their citizenship. By the start of World War II in 1939, around 250,000 of Germany's 437,000 Jews had emigrated to the United States, the United Kingdom, other countries; when Germany invaded Poland in September 1939, triggering World War II, Adolf Hitler ordered that the Polish leadership and intelligentsia be destroyed. 65,000 civilians, viewed as inferior to the Aryan master race, had been killed by the end of 1939. In addition to leaders of Polish society, the Nazis killed Jews, the Roma, the mentally ill. SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich head of the Gestapo, ordered on 21 September 1939 that Polish Jews be rounded up and concentrated into cities with good rail links; the intention was to deport them to points further east, or to Madagascar. Two years in June 1941, in an attempt to obtain new territory, Hitler invaded the Soviet Union. Auschwitz I, a former Polish army barracks, was the main camp and administrative headquarters of the camp complex.
Intending to use it to house political prisoners, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, head of the Schutzstaffel, approved the site in April 1940 on the recommendation of SS-Obersturmbannführer Rudolf Höss of the Concentration Camps Inspectorate. Höss oversaw the development of the camp and served as its first commandant, with SS-Obersturmführer Josef Kramer as his deputy. Around 1,000 m long and 400 m wide, Auschwitz I consisted of 20 brick buildings, six of them two-story; the camp housed the SS by 1943 held 30,000 inmates. The first 30 prisoners arrived on 20 May 1940 after being transported from the Sachsenhausen concentration camp in Oranienburg, Germany. Convicted German criminals, the men were known as "greens" after the green triangles they were required to w