Hillary Clinton

Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton is an American politician, lawyer and public speaker. She served as First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, as a United States senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, as the 67th United States secretary of state from 2009 until 2013. Clinton became the first woman to be nominated for president of the United States by a major political party when she won the Democratic Party nomination in 2016, she was the first woman to win the popular vote in an American presidential election, which she lost to Donald Trump. She is the current chancellor of Queen's University Belfast in Northern Ireland. Raised in the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge, Clinton graduated from Wellesley College in 1969 and earned a Juris Doctor from Yale Law School in 1973. After serving as a congressional legal counsel, she moved to Arkansas and married future president Bill Clinton in 1975. In 1977, she co-founded Arkansas Advocates for Families, she was appointed the first female chair of the Legal Services Corporation in 1978 and became the first female partner at Little Rock's Rose Law Firm the following year.

Clinton was the first lady of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and again from 1983 to 1992. As First Lady of the United States, Clinton advocated for healthcare reform. In 1994, her major initiative—the Clinton health care plan—failed to gain approval from Congress. In 1997 and 1999, Clinton played a leading role in advocating the creation of the State Children's Health Insurance Program, the Adoption and Safe Families Act and the Foster Care Independence Act, her marital relationship came under public scrutiny during the Lewinsky scandal, which led her to issue a statement that reaffirmed her commitment to the marriage. In 2000, Clinton was elected as the first female senator from New York, she was re-elected in 2006. During her Senate tenure, Clinton advocated for medical benefits for first responders whose health was damaged in the September 11 attacks. In 2008, Clinton ran for president but was defeated by eventual winner Barack Obama in the Democratic primaries. Clinton was U. S. secretary of state in the Obama Administration from 2009 to 2013.

During her tenure, Clinton responded to the Arab Spring by advocating military intervention in Libya. She was harshly criticized by Republicans for the failure to prevent or adequately respond to the 2012 Benghazi attack. Clinton helped to organize a diplomatic isolation and a regime of international sanctions against Iran in an effort to force it to curtail its nuclear program, her use of a private e-mail server during her time as Secretary of State was the subject of intense scrutiny. Upon leaving her Cabinet position after Obama's first term, she wrote her fifth book and undertook speaking engagements. Clinton made a second presidential run in 2016. After winning the Democratic nomination, she ran in the general election with Virginia Senator Tim Kaine as her running mate. Clinton lost the presidential election to Republican opponent Donald Trump in the Electoral College despite winning a plurality of the popular vote. Following her loss, she wrote her third memoir, What Happened, launched Onward Together, a political action organization dedicated to fundraising for progressive political groups.

Hillary Diane Rodham was born on October 1947, at Edgewater Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois. She was raised in a United Methodist family; when she was three years old, her family moved to the Chicago suburb of Park Ridge. Her father, Hugh Rodham, was of English and Welsh descent, managed a small but successful textile business, which he had founded, her mother, Dorothy Howell, was a homemaker of Dutch, French Canadian and Welsh descent. Clinton has two younger brothers and Tony; as a child, Rodham was a favorite student among her teachers at the public schools she attended in Park Ridge. She earned numerous badges as a Brownie and a Girl Scout, she has told the story of being inspired by U. S. efforts during the Space Race and sending a letter to NASA around 1961 asking what she could do to become an astronaut, only to be informed that women were not being accepted into the program. She attended Maine East High School, where she participated in the student council and school newspaper and was selected for the National Honor Society.

She was elected class vice president for her junior year but lost the election for class president for her senior year against two boys, one of whom told her that "you are stupid if you think a girl can be elected president". For her senior year and other students were transferred to the then-new Maine South High School. There she was a National Merit Finalist and was voted "most to succeed." She graduated in 1965 in the top five percent of her class. Rodham's mother wanted her to have an professional career, her father, otherwise a traditionalist, felt that his daughter's abilities and opportunities should not be limited by gender. She was raised in a politically conservative household, she helped canvass Chicago's South Side at age 13 after the close 1960 U. S. presidential election. She saw evidence of electoral fraud against Republican candidate Richard Nixon, volunteered to campaign for Republican candidate Barry Goldwater in the U. S. presidential election of 1964. Rodham's early political development was shaped m

Chongjin concentration camp

Chongjin concentration camp is a labour camp in North Korea for political prisoners. The official name is Kwan-li-so No. 25. Satellite images show a major expansion of the camp after 2010; the camp is located in the city of Chongjin in the North Hamgyong province of North Korea. It is situated in Suseong district of Songpyong-guyok, around 7 km northwest of the city center and 1 km west of Susŏng River. Chongjin camp is a lifetime prison. Like the other political prison camps it is controlled by the state security agency, but while the other camps include many vast prison-labour colonies in remote mountain valleys, Chongjin camp is only one big prison building complex similar to the reeducation camps. The camp is around 500 m long and 500 m wide, surrounded by high walls and fences and equipped with guard towers; the number of prisoners is estimated to be between 3000 and 5000. The main purpose of the camp is to isolate political prisoners from society; the prisoners are exploited for hard labour to be performed in the prison factories.

Popular North Korean consumer products like Kalmaegi bicycles are manufactured by prisoners using hand tools. Ahn Myung-chul described Chongjin camp as a top-level political prisoner camp, therefore harsh conditions can be assumed. Detailed analysis of satellite images shows a major expansion of the camp perimeter in 2010; the size of the camp increased 72 percent, from 580 m2 to now 1,000 m2. Along the new fence line 17 additional guard posts were erected. In the eastern part of the new perimeter several new buildings were erected from 2011 to 2013 to be used as prisoner housing. There are no first-hand witness accounts on the camp. Lim Kook-jae, a South Korean abducted to North Korea in 1987 aboard the Dong Jin 27, died in Chongjin camp, according to a human rights organization. Many pastors and presbyters, dissident Korean-Japanese and people expelled from Pyongyang with their families are detained in Chongjin camp, according to the 9th International Conference on North Korean Human Rights and Refugees.

Human rights in North Korea Prisons in North Korea Yodok concentration camp Kaechon internment camp Camp 22 Committee for Human Rights in North Korea – Overview on North Korean Prison Camps with Testimonies and Satellite Photographs Database Center for North Korean Human Rights - Political prison camps in North Korea today Digital Globe Analytics - Detailed satellite image analysis of North Korea's Camp No. 25 Korea Institute for National Unification - White paper on human rights in North Korea 2011 One Free Korea - Camp 25 at Chongjin The Daily NK: The Hub of North Korean News – News about North Korea and human rights


Swaralipi is any system used in sheet music in order to represent aurally perceived music through the use of written notes for Indian classical music. The Indian scholar and musical theorist Pingala, in his Chanda Sutra, used marks indicating long and short syllables to indicate meters in Sanskrit poetry. In the notation of Indian rāga, a solfege-like system called; as in Western solfege, there are names for the seven basic pitches of a major scale. The tonic of any scale is named Sa, the dominant Pa. Sa is fixed in any scale, Pa is fixed at a fifth above it; these two notes are known as achala swar. Each of the other five notes, Re, Ga, ma, Dha and Ni, can take a'regular' pitch, equivalent to its pitch in a standard major scale, or an altered pitch, either a half-step above or half-step below the shuddha pitch. Re, Ga, Dha and Ni all have altered partners. Ma has an altered partner, a half-step higher. Re, Ga, ma, Dha and Ni are called vikrut swar. In the written system of Indian notation devised by Ravi Shankar, the pitches are represented by Western letters.

Capital letters are used for the achala swar, for the higher variety of all the vikrut swar. Lowercase letters are used for the lower variety of the vikrut swar