SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hillbrow

Hillbrow is an inner city residential neighbourhood of Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is known for its high levels of population density, poverty and crime. In the 1970s it was an Apartheid-designated "whites only" area but soon became a "grey area", where people of different ethnicities lived together, it acquired a cosmopolitan and politically progressive feel, was one of the first identifiable gay and lesbian areas in urban South Africa. However, due to the mass growth of the population of poor and unemployed black people after the end of Apartheid, crime soared and the streets became strewn with rubbish. This, together with lack of investment and fear led to an exodus of middle class residents in the 1980s and the decay of major buildings, leaving in its wake an urban slum by the 1990s. Today, the majority of the residents are incoming migrants from the townships, rural areas and the rest of Africa, many living in abject poverty. An urban regeneration programme is underway.

There are street markets used by local residents, the Johannesburg Art Gallery contains work by major local artists including William Kentridge. Prior to the discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand in 1886, the suburb laid on government owned land called Randjeslaagte that now makes up the Johannesburg CBD, it was a triangular shaped piece of waste land not used for farming and the future suburb lies in the northern apex of the triangle. The origin of its name is simple, the suburb lies on the brow of the east west mountain ridge that crosses the Johannesburg CBD; the land was owned as claims by J. Nicholls who sold them to Transvaal Mortgage, Loan & Finance Company, it was laid out as a residential suburb during 1894 and 1895, with Richard Currie auctioning the stands. In 1897 it became part of Johannesburg's Sanitary Board. After World War Two, developers started purchasing the stands at values beyond their worth and turned it into blocks of flats. In the mid-20th century, Hillbrow developed a reputation for its growing gay community.

Many gay establishments and publications were founded in Hillbrow from the 1960s forward. The gay community was strong and large enough in Hillbrow that the conservative ruling National Party, which instituted apartheid, fielded a pro-gay rights candidate, Leon de Beer, in the 1987 elections. De Beer's victorious campaign was advertised in the Hillbrow-based gay publication Exit and his campaign promises were to both advance gay rights in parliament and reinstate Hillbrow as a whites-only district, his campaign garnered enough support from the gay community that he won the election, becoming the first elected official in South Africa to run and win on a pro-gay platform. In 1990, one of the first training and information centers for HIV in South Africa was established in Hillbrow catering to white gay men; as the racial demographic in Hillbrow radically shifted, so too did the people in need of HIV-related care, by the late 1990s the clinics worked with black heterosexual women. Hillbrow experienced a heavy decline and most of the gay community, predominantly white, left the area within the decade.

In 2000, Michael Hammon and Jacqueline Görgen directed a documentary named Hillbrow Kids, depicting the struggles of a group of street children in post-apartheid urban South Africa. The 2001 novel Welcome to Our Hillbrow by Phaswane Mpe deals with life in the district in the years after apartheid, focusing on a large number of issues ranging from poverty, HIV/AIDS, xenophobia. Hillbrow has been a setting used by other South African writers: in the 2001 novel, The Restless Supermarket, Ivan Vladislavic comically portrays South Africa's transition to democracy, endowing his narrator, Aubrey Tearle, with the perspective of a conservative white pensioner. Through this lens, Hillbrow becomes representative of the larger post-apartheid South African nation. In 2007, BBC Two reporter Louis Theroux ran a documentary called "Law and Disorder in Johannesburg"; the documentary depicted the state of complete abandon and lawlessness in some parts of the city in Hillbrow. Much of Lauren Beukes' 2010 science fiction novel Zoo City was set in Hillbrow.

In January 2013, Al Jazeera English aired a Witness documentary about Hillbrow described as "A personal journey to Hillbrow, where human spirit and enterprise triumph in this crime-ridden melting pot in the heart of South Africa." In 1990 Jean du Plessis and Adele du Plessis founded The House Group, an organization with several shelters and programs aimed at retrieving and rehabilitating female child victims of commercial sexual exploitation. The organization’s first address in Hillbrow was on 52 Soper Road, close to Ponte City. In 1993 they moved to two adjacent premises on 60 Olivia Road where the organization had The House Drop-in Centre and Intombi Shelter. At the time, in South Africa, there was no legislation allowing The House Group to conduct its mission. Legislation was in effect to help male children; the lack of a legislative framework disallowed The House Group to continue and authorities tried to shut them down. The founders appealed to the media for help. A barrage of media attention followed that rallied public support and gained international attention.

According to The House Group, hundreds of print articles and television exposes occurred over several years. During 1996, The House Group was invited to deliver papers to the 1st World Congress Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children, held in Stockholm, Sweden. A hundred and fifty countries were represented at the meeting; the organization enjoyed goodwill and sponsorship from foreign governments, most notable the Royal Dutch Government and

Tube feet

Tube feet are small active tubular projections on the oral face of an echinoderm, whether the arms of a starfish, or the undersides of sea urchins, sand dollars and sea cucumbers. They are part of the water vascular system. Tube feet function in locomotion and respiration; the tube feet in a starfish are arranged in grooves along the arms. They operate through hydraulic pressure, they are used to pass food to the oral mouth at the center, can attach to surfaces. A starfish, overturned turns one arm over and attaches it to a solid surface, levers itself the right way up. Tube feet allow these different types of animals to move slowly; each tube foot consists of two parts: the podium. The ampulla is a water-filled sac contained in the body of the animal that contains both circular muscles and longitudinal muscle; the podia is the tube-shaped structure that protrudes out from the body and contains longitudinal muscle only. When the muscles around the ampulla contract, they squeeze water from the ampulla into the connected podium, causing the podium to elongate.

When the muscles around the podium contract, they squeeze the water back into the ampulla, causing the podium to contract. The podia use a chemical adhesive to attach to the substratum

Teenager (Fujifabric album)

Teenager is the third studio album by Fujifabric, released on January 23, 2008, on the Capitol Records label. The majority of the songs featured on the album are written by Masahiko Shimura, with the exception of "Kinen Shashin", "B. O. I. P." and "Mabataki", which are written by guitarist Sōichirō Yamauchi. The song "Chocolate Panic" is co-written by Roger Joseph Manning Jr., featured on the track. "Hoshifuru Yoru ni Nattara" is co-written by keyboard player Daisuke Kanazawa. "Pedal" "Kinen Shashin" "B. O. I. P." "Wakamono no Subete" "Chocolate Panic" "Strawberry Shortcakes" "Surfer King" "Romane" "Passion Fruit" "Tōkyō Enjō" "Mabataki" "Hoshifuru Yoru ni Nattara" "Teenager"