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Johannesburg

Johannesburg, informally known as Jozi or Joburg, is the largest city in South Africa and one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world. It is the provincial capital and largest city of Gauteng, the wealthiest province in South Africa. Johannesburg is the seat of the Constitutional Court; the city is located in the mineral-rich Witwatersrand range of hills and is the centre of large-scale gold and diamond trade, It was one of the host cities of the official tournament of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The metropolis is an alpha global city as listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. In 2019, the population of the city of Johannesburg was 5,635,127, making it the most populous city in South Africa. In the same year, the population of Johannesburg's urban agglomeration was put at 8,000,000. Land area of the municipal city is large in comparison with those of other major cities, resulting in a moderate population density of 2,364 per square kilometre; the city was established in 1886 following the discovery of gold on.

Due to the large gold deposit found along the Witwatersrand, within ten years, the population had grown to 100,000 inhabitants. A separate city from the late 1970s until 1994, Soweto is now part of Johannesburg. An acronym for "South-Western Townships", Soweto originated as a collection of settlements on the outskirts of Johannesburg, populated by native African workers from the gold mining industry. Soweto, although incorporated into Johannesburg, had been separated as a residential area for Blacks, who were not permitted to live in Johannesburg proper. Lenasia is predominantly populated by English-speaking South Africans of Indian descent; these areas were designated as non-white areas in accordance with the segregationist policies of the South African government known as Apartheid. Controversy surrounds the origin of the name. There was quite a number of people with the name "Johannes" who were involved in the early history of the city. Among them is the principal clerk attached to the office of the surveyor-general Hendrik Dercksen, Christiaan Johannes Joubert, a member of the Volksraad and was Republic's chief of mining.

Another was Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger, president of the South African Republic from 1883–1900. Johannes Meyer, the first government official in the area is another possibility. Precise records for the choice of name were lost. Johannes Rissik and Johannes Joubert were members of a delegation sent to England to obtain mining rights for the area. Joubert had a park in the city named after him and Rissik has his name for one of the main streets in the city where the important albeit dilapidated Rissik Street Post Office is located; the City Hall is located on Rissik Street. The region surrounding Johannesburg was inhabited by San hunter-gatherers who used stone tools. There is evidence. Stone-walled ruins of Sotho–Tswana towns and villages are scattered around the parts of the former Transvaal in which Johannesburg is situated. By the mid-18th century, the broader region was settled by various Sotho–Tswana communities, whose villages, towns and kingdoms stretched from what is now Botswana in the west, to present day Lesotho in the south, to the present day Pedi areas of the Northern Province.

More the stone-walled ruins of Sotho–Tswana towns and villages are scattered around the parts of the former Transvaal province in which Johannesburg is situated. Many Sotho–Tswana towns and villages in the areas around Johannesburg were destroyed and their people driven away during the wars emanating from Zululand during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, as a result, an offshoot of the Zulu kingdom, the Ndebele, set up a kingdom to the northwest of Johannesburg around modern-day Rustenburg; the main Witwatersrand gold reef was discovered in June 1884 on the farm Vogelstruisfontein by Jan Gerritse Bantjes that triggered the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the founding of Johannesburg in 1886. The discovery of gold attracted people to the area, making necessary a name and governmental organisation for the area. Jan and Johannes were common male names among the Dutch of that time. Johannes Meyer, the first government official in the area is another possibility. Precise records for the choice of name were lost.

Within ten years, the city of Johannesburg included 100,000 people. In September 1884, the Struben brothers discovered the Confidence Reef on the farm Wilgespruit near present-day Roodepoort, which further boosted excitement over gold prospects; the first gold to be crushed on the Witwatersrand was the gold-bearing rock from the Bantjes mine crushed using the Struben brothers stamp machine. News of the discovery soon reached Kimberley and directors Cecil Rhodes with Sir Joseph Robinson rode up to investigate rumours for themselves, they have guided to the Bantjes camp with its tents strung out over several kilometres and stayed with Bantjes for two nights. In 1884, they purchased the first pure refined gold from Bantjes for £3,000. Incidentally, Bantjes had since 1881 been operating the Kromdraai Gold Mine in the Cradle of Humankind together with his partner Johannes Stephanus Minnaar where they first discovered gold in 1881, which offered another

North Down Cricket Club

North Down Cricket Club is an Irish cricket club based in Comber, County Down, Northern Ireland, playing in the NCU Premier League. It was founded in 1857; the Club fields four Saturday/Sunday XIs, Colts XI and under-11, under-13 and under-15 sides. Irish Senior Cup: 3 1989, 1993, 1995 NCU Senior League: 23 1897, 1898, 1906, 1910, 1919, 1921, 1927, 1929, 1930, 1932, 1934, 1936, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2010, 2011 NCU Challenge Cup: 32 1887, 1888, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893, 1894, 1897, 1898, 1908, 1913, 1919, 1920, 1924, 1926, 1927, 1928, 1931, 1932, 1934, 1935, 1936, 1981, 1991, 1994, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2010 Ulster Cup: 3 2002, 2006, 2015 NCU Junior Cup: †10 †1894, †1897, †1902, †1904, †1926, †1981, †1986, †2006, †2013, †2019† Won by 2nd XI North Down have won the Senior League 22 times, sharing it with Waringstown Cricket Club in 2005 and with Cliftonville Cricket Club in 1896, the latter a fact strangely omitted from the NCU records; the Bob Kerr Irish Senior Cup has been won the Ulster Cup twice.

Since 1999, 6 Senior League wins, 6 Senior Challenge Cup wins and an Ulster Cup victory have made it one of the most successful periods in the club's history. In 2007, ONE SHOT MORE... FOR THE HONOUR OF DOWN, a history of North Down Cricket Club at the end its 150th anniversary, written by Ian Shields, was published, it was appropriate that the Senior League and Cup double were won in this anniversary year. Anwar Ali Peter Davison North Down Cricket Club

Clement Payne Movement

The Clement Payne Movement is a left-wing Barbados-based political party named in honour of a Trinidad-born man who led a 1937 uprising in Barbados. The Clement Payne Movement is seen by most Barbadians as more leftist in ideology when compared with either the more moderate BLP or DLP; the CPM seeks the global advancement of Pan-Africanism, has a strong base in this area located in Barbados. The president of the party is David A. Comissiong and the general secretary is Bobby Clarke. In the past, on several occasions the leaders of the CPM have publicly appealed to other Caribbean governments not to recognize the 2004 US-imposed interim government in Haiti; the party officially opposes the process known as the Free Trade Area of the Americas. The CPM was formed in 1988, when its leading figures included David Commissiong, Martin Cadogan, Leroy Harewood, Trevor prescod, David Denny and John Howell; the organization is named after Clement Payne, a pioneer in the Caribbean trade union movement, who in 1998 was recognized as one of the National Heroes of Barbados.

CPM annually distributes a "Clement Payne Hero’s Award". The CPM maintains close contacts with the Communist Party of Cuba, supports normalised relations with the Republic of Cuba. People's Empowerment Party Pan-Caribbean Congress The lesson of Cuba, by David Comissiong Clement Payne