click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Hillburn, New York

Hillburn called "Woodburn" and incorporated in 1893, is a village in the town of Ramapo, Rockland County, New York, United States. It is located north of Suffern, east of Orange County, south of Viola, west of Montebello, it is considered to be one of the more rural communities in Rockland County. The population was 951 at the 2010 census. In addition to European-American migrants, the area was settled early by descendants of Lenape and other remnant groups, who intermarried with Afro-Dutch and other ethnicities after the Revolutionary War; these multiracial descendants were recognized in 1980 by the state as the Ramapough Mountain Indians. For many years they lived by farming and fishing, they tended to marry within their community until the mid-twentieth century. The village of Hillburn was founded in 1893. B. Suffern. In 1943, the attorney Thurgood Marshall won a disparity case regarding integration of the schools of Hillburn, 11 years before his landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education, he represented the village's African-American parents.

In 2010, the state legislature designated May 17 as Thurgood Marshall Day in honor of his work in civil rights. Mixed-race children who lived in the town of Ramapo attended the Brook School in Hillburn, a wood structure that did not have a library, indoor bathrooms or gymnasium; the Main School was reserved for white children and included a gymnasium, a library and indoor plumbing. It is now used as the headquarters of the Suffern Central School District; the Rockland African Diaspora Heritage Center in Pomona, New York, has an exhibit of artifacts and photographs loaned by a student who attended the Brook School. The student went on to college, taught English and history. Hillburn is adjacent to the New Jersey border, on the southeastern edge of the Ramapo Mountains, it is south of Harriman and Steling Forest state parks. The village is bisected by the Ramapo River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 2.2 square miles, of which 2.2 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.89%, is water.

As of the census of 2000, there were 881 people, 273 households, 221 families residing in the village. The population density was 395.5 people per square mile. There were 290 housing units at an average density of 130.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 49.04% white, 11.12% African American, 14.42% Native American, 4.31% Asian, 0.68% Pacific Islander, 2.38% from other races, 18.05% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.56% of the population. There were 273 households out of which 39.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.5% were married couples living together, 24.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.7% were non-families. 16.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.23 and the average family size was 3.58. In the village, the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.8 males. The median income for a household in the village was $54,625, the median income for a family was $56,875. Males had a median income of $36,591 versus $30,000 for females; the per capita income for the village was $17,516. About 10.7% of families and 14.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.0% of those under age 18 and 17.3% of those age 65 or over. The village of Hillburn is located within the Suffern Central School District, is where the district's administrative building is located. Students from grades K-5 are zoned to Montebello Elementary School in Suffern, NY Students in grades 6-8 are zoned to Suffern Middle School, high school students are zoned to Suffern High School. Post at Ramapough/Sidman’s Bridge - Route 17 Site of Camp Ramapaugh and Intrenchments - Torne Valley Road Site of Kellogg & Maurice Railroad Bridge - Route 59 Thurgood Marshall - 45 Mountain Avenue William W. Snow House, Fourth Street & Terrace Avenue Brook Chapel - historic chapel, 1893 Penford, Saxby Voulaer.

"Romantic Suffern - The History of Suffern, New York, from the Earliest Times to the Incorporation of the Village in 1896", Tallman, N. Y. 1955, Village of Hillburn official website

Texas Coastal Bend

The Texas Coastal Bend, or just the Coastal Bend, is a geographical region in the US state of Texas. The name refers to the area being a curve along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico; the largest city of the Coastal Bend is Corpus Christi. It includes part of North Padre Island, as well as Mustang Island; the Coastal Bend consists of 9 counties: Aransas, Brooks, Jim Wells, Kleberg, Nueces and San Patricio Counties. The Coastal Bend is a habitat for many types of wildlife. Aransas National Wildlife Refuge is among the most prominent centers for wildlife in the United States. Wildlife found in the area includes the rare whooping crane, American alligators, nine-banded armadillos, West Indian manatees, numerous other species of wildlife; the Texas Coastal Bend is an area of demarcation between ranges of various vegetative species. For example, the California fan palm is found only west of the Texas Coastal Bend, or more the Balcones Fault. Bays in the area include: Geography of Texas List of geographical regions in Texas List of regions of the United States#Texas C. Michael Hogan.

2009. California Fan Palm: Washingtonia filifera, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg Roy L. Lehman, Ruth O'Brien, Tammy White. 2005. Plants of the Texas Coastal Bend, Texas A&M University Press, 352 pages ISBN 1-58544-408-1, ISBN 978-1-58544-408-3 Texas Coastal Bend travel guide from Wikivoyage

Mani Rathnam (film)

Mani Rathnam is a 1994 Tamil drama film directed by K. Jayabalan; the film features Napoleon, Anand Babu and newcomer Chandini in the lead roles, with Vadivelu, Babloo Prithiveeraj, Jafar Azad and Vittal Prasad playing supporting roles. The film, produced by A. Suresh, had musical score by Sirpy and was released on 2 November 1994; the film became a failure at the box office. Rathnam is a potter in his village and he is a short-tempered person, he has a sister Kavitha studying in the city. Rathnam gets married to his relative Thangamani, in love with Rathnam since her childhood. Sivalingam is a wealthy and wicked man in his village, his son Nadarajan is mentally ill. Sivalingam wants to build a factory in the village. Sivalingam bought all the lands he needed in his village, he needs only one land: Rathnam's land, near the temple. Rathnam refuses: he does not want to see the village temple being demolished by Sivalingam; when Sivalingam sends his henchmen to demolish the temple, Rathnam beats them all.

In the meantime and Mani fall in love with each other in the city. Nadarajan is in love with Kavitha since school days and Sivalingam asks Thangamani to marry his mentally ill son to Kavitha but Thangamani rejects and insults him. Rathnam picked his sister up at the railway station, at their return to home, they see Thangamani hanged. What transpires forms the crux of the story; the film score and the soundtrack were composed by film composer Sirpy. The soundtrack, released in 1994, features 6 tracks with lyrics written by Vairamuthu, Thamizhmani and Ravi. Malini Mannath of The New Indian Express gave the film a positive review and called the film "fairly engaging"

Bruguiera sexangula

Bruguiera sexangula called the upriver orange mangrove, is a mangrove shrub or tree growing up to 15 m 30 m, in height. The mangrove may grow as multi-stemmed shrub, it has short buttresses at the base of the trunk, knee-like air-breathing roots, or pneumatophores. The bark is a smooth grey-brown colour; the smooth, glossy green leaves are simple and opposite, elliptic to elliptic-oblong, 9.5–20 cm long, 3–7 cm wide, with a pointed apex and a 6 cm petiole, occurring in clusters at the end of the branches. The flowers have a pale yellow-green to pinkish-orange calyx with 12–14 lobes, 20–24 stamens and 10–12 creamy-orange, bi-lobed petals; the green, cigar-shaped viviparous propagule grows from within the calyx and is 5–12 cm long and 1–2 cm wide. The mangrove is distributed from India eastwards along the tropical coasts of Southeast Asia to northern Australia and New Caledonia, it is found on various substrates in the upper reaches of river-mouth estuaries with high rainfall and significant freshwater inflow.

The large flowers of the mangrove are bird-pollinated. The petals are under hold loose pollen; the mangrove has various traditional uses in Asia. The developing embryos and the fruits are eaten after soaking. Juice from the fruits is used to treat sore eyes and burns; the timber is heavy and strong and is used as poles as well as for firewood and charcoal. "Bruguiera sexangula". Mangrove Web. TRIN Wiki. Archived from the original on 2012-11-27. Retrieved 2010-11-14. "Tumu berau Bruguiera sexangula". Wild Fact Sheet. Wild Singapore. 2008. Retrieved 2010-11-14

Man v. Food Nation

Man v. Food Nation is the name given to the fourth season of the Travel Channel's Man v. Food, a food reality television series, it premiered on June 1, 2011. A preview episode, "The Quest Begins", aired on May 25, 2011. In this show, host Adam Richman travels to cities around the U. S. to try the signature food dishes of their local eateries. Unlike the previous three seasons of Man v. Food, where he himself took on a food challenge at a local restaurant, in this season, Richman recruits residents of the city he visits to take on a food challenge, while he serves as their coach by giving them tips and advice on how to beat their challenges, using the skills he learned from his own food challenges; the final tally for the season was 16 wins for Food. This was the only season to start with Food winning the challenge, it is the only season in which Food scored more victories than Man. With Richman announcing his retirement from competitive eating on January 27, 2012, Man v. Food Nation would be his final season of Man v. Food.

On April 11, 2012, episodes filmed in Charlotte, N. C. and Jackson, Miss. Were aired, marking what was the official close of the series. In May 2017, Travel Channel announced that the series would be revived, with Casey Webb replacing Richman as host; the fifth season premiered on August 7, 2017. Man v. Food Nation official website

Bidoon (social class)

The Bidoon, or stateless, is a social class in countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Iraq. They are considered by some regional governments, for instance Kuwait, as foreign nationals or illegal immigrants; the Bidoon are categorized into three groups: stateless tribespeople, economic migrants and the children of GCC or Iraqi women who married Bidoon men. The stateless tribespeople are those whose ancestors had settled in GCC countries but were excluded from registration at the time of the respective states' independence; the second group, former citizens of Iraq, Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries abandoned their original nationality to join Kuwaiti and other GCC armed forces and police in the 1960s and 1970s. The Kuwaiti government preferred to register these people as "Bidoon" rather than to reveal the politically-sensitive recruitment policy in the armed forces and police. At the time, the Bidoon status conferred many economic benefits; the third group is composed of the children of women of GCC nationality married to Bidoon men.

The government policy is to impose false nationalities on the Bidoon. In 1985, the Bidoon were excluded from the same social and economic rights enjoyed by Kuwaiti citizens as the country needed to isolate them from the rest of the society; the Iran–Iraq War threatened Kuwait's internal stability and the country feared the ambiguous status of the Bidoon, which provides a human pool for Iraqi refugees, draft dodgers and infiltrators to blend into after getting rid of their identity papers. In 1985, the emir Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah escaped an assassination attempt; that same year, the government changed the Bidoon's status from that of legal residents without nationality to illegal residents. There are 110,729 registered Bidoon in Kuwait. According to the Kuwaiti government, only 34,000 Bidoon are eligible for Kuwaiti citizenship and the remaining Bidoon are expected Iraqis and Saudis. Kuwait recognizes the Bidoon as illegal residents. Human rights organizations have criticized Kuwait for its handling of the issue.

Many Bidoon do not have driving licenses. In March 2011, the Kuwaiti government announced a set of "eleven Bidoon rights". In June 2011, the Kuwaiti government, in coordination with the Zakat house, launched a scholarship fund to support Bidoon students; the Bidoon account for 40% of the Kuwaiti Army. There are 110,729 documented Bidoon. Documented Bidoon are at risk of breach of human rights. Many stateless people who lived in the UAE have failed to obtain Emirati passports, either because they have failed to demonstrate that they lived in the region prior to 1925, their roots cannot be traced back to the tribal region, or because they arrived to the region after 1925. Stateless are considered immigrants from Baloch or Iranian origin by the UAE; the UAE has deported some Bidoon people after the Arab Spring. Although they are not considered Emirati citizens, their status and residence in UAE is legalized. Stateless who are not able to obtain any passport are offered the Comorian passport for free through a government initiative for a citizenship by investment deal worth million of dollars with the government of Comoros and enjoy certain citizenship privileges such as subsidized education and access to government jobs in the UAE.

Bidoon in Saudi Arabia are not considered Saudi citizens and therefore have no benefits. It has revoked citizenship of certain Saudis in the past too, which means these people become Bidoon. Qatar has a number of stateless people living within its borders. Qatar has not helped them out. Like neighbouring Qatar, Bahrain has a number of stateless people, some of whom were dissidents