Ramapo is a town in Rockland County, New York, United States. It was formed as New Hampstead, in 1791, became Ramapo in 1828, it shares its name with the Ramapo River. As of the 2010 census, Ramapo had a total population of 126,595. If Ramapo were incorporated as a city, it would be the sixth-largest city in the state of New York; the city's name, recorded variously as Ramopuck, Ramapock, or Ramapough, is of Lenape origin, meaning either "sweet water" or "slanting rocks". Early maps referred to Ramapo as Ramepog and Ramapog; the town is located west of Clarkstown and Orangetown. The present-day town was inhabited by the Munsee, a band of the Lenape nation, their descendants now live on Stag Hill in Mahwah, New Jersey, where they form the state -recognized Ramapo Lenape Nation. During the American Revolutionary War, Commander-in-Chief George Washington is said to have climbed the Ramapo Torne with a telescope to watch the July 24, 1777 sailing of the British fleet off Sandy Hook in New Jersey. General Washington and his troops set up an encampment in Suffern, in the west of Ramapo, due to its strategic location near a local mountain pass.
In this encampment were two French soldiers, Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau and Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette. The encampment was on the path to Yorktown, where the final battle of the American Revolution took place; the Town of New Hampstead was formed from part of the Town of Haverstraw in 1791, eight years after the end of the Revolution. The first railroad line across Rockland County ran from Piermont to Ramapo. By 1851, the line was extended to Lake Erie, was considered an engineering marvel. Ramapo Iron Works, located near present-day State Route 17 at the base of Terse Mountain, was a producer of first cut nails made in American, wood screws, cotton cloth, spring steel in the first half of the 19th century, its founder, Jeremiah H. Pierson, was influential in building the Nyack Turnpike and the New York & Erie Railroad across the county. A cotton mill is still standing on the east side of the road. In 1916, what would become State Route 59, which reached from Nyack to Spring Valley in 1915, was extended to Suffern and Hillburn.
Ramapo became one of the first cities to use Adequate Public Facilities acts to tier growth and infrastructure together. In 2006 Money magazine ranked Ramapo as the 49th best place in the United States and the best place in New York State to live. Arts and leisure, housing, low crime rates and open spaces/parkland determined the town's ranking. In the category of park space, percentage of land set aside for gardens and parks, the town finished first. Ramapo received the highest rating and one of the best in the country for its open spaces and parkland. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 61.9 square miles, of which 61.2 square miles is land and 0.7 square miles, or 1.11%, is water. The south town line is the border of New Jersey, the west town line is the border of Orange County; the break in the Ramapo Mountains at Suffern formed by the Ramapo River causes the town to be the site of the New York State Thruway and I-287, New York State Route 17, a railroad line.
The Palisades Interstate Parkway runs through the northeast corner of the town, with an exit at the Haverstraw town line on the northern border. Torne Mountain, in Harriman State Park, overlooks the Ramapo Pass and remnants of the once-thriving Ramapo Iron Works. During the American Revolution, the Torne served as a lookout for British ship movements on the Hudson. Legend tells that Gen. George Washington lost his watch on the mountain, it may still be heard ticking up there in a crevice of rock; the highest point in Ramapo is Squirrel Swamp Mountain near the northern border of the town, with an elevation of 1,252 feet. The hamlet of Antrim, near the south town line The village of Airmont The village of Chestnut Ridge The village of Hillburn, in the southwest part of the town The hamlet of Hillcrest The village of Kaser The hamlet of Monsey The village of New Hempstead The village of New Square The village of Montebello The hamlet of Ramapo, in the southwest part of the town; the hamlet of Ramapo and the town of Ramapo are confused on many internet-based maps.
The hamlet of Sandyfield The village of Sloatsburg The village of Spring Valley The hamlet of Sterlington, near Sloatsburg The village of Suffern The hamlet of Suffern Park, near Suffern The hamlet of Tallman, in the south part of the town The hamlet of Viola, in the east part of the town The village of Wesley Hills, in the northeast part of the town As of the census of 2000, there were 108,905 people, 31,561 households, 24,870 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,778.2 people per square mile. There were 32,422 housing units at an average density of 529.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 72.54% white, 17.04% African American, 0.32% Native American, 4.60% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 2.65% from other races, 2.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.19% of the population. There were 31,561 households out of which 42.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.3% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.2% were non-families.
17.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.37 and the average family size was 3.82. In the town, the popul
Zdzisław Marchwicki, called the "Zagłębie vampire", was an alleged Polish serial killer. He was born in 1927 in Dąbrowa Górnicza to a lower-class family, his father went through five marriages in which four children were born—three brothers and a sister—all of whom were charged along with Zdzisław for criminal conspiracy and obstructing justice. Marchwicki was charged of killings committed in the following areas: in the neighbourhoods of Czeladź, Będzin, adjoining towns in Zagłębie Dąbrowskie and Upper Silesia; the murders started in 1964 and continued, with occasional breaks, until late 1970. Having been arrested in early 1972, Marchwicki was charged with the murder of fourteen women and the attempted murder of another six, but one attempted murder charge was not proven. After a publicized show trial which lasted for 10 months, Marchwicki received the death sentence in July 1975, his execution took place in 1977 in Poland. Zdzisław's brother Jan Marchwicki received the death penalty, while his third brother Henryk was sentenced to 25 years for taking part in a conspiracy to commit murder.
The half-sister, got a three-year prison sentence for receiving stolen things such as watches and pens that she knew came from Zdzisław's victims. Criminal penalties were given out to Halina's son called Zdzisław, for failing to inform the police about the murder conspiracies. One of Marchwicki's murder victims was the niece of Edward Gierek, the Upper Silesian communist party leader. However, the prosecution and the police investigators denied being pressured by political forces in the criminal prosecution of Zdzisław Marchwicki. Zdzisław Marchwicki in Polish
Enalapril, sold under the brand name Vasotec among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, diabetic kidney disease, heart failure. For heart failure, it is used with a diuretic, such as furosemide, it is given by injection into a vein. Onset of effects are within an hour when taken by mouth and last for up to a day. Common side effects include headache, feeling lightheaded with standing, cough. Serious side effects include low blood pressure. Use during pregnancy is believed to result in harm to the baby, it is in the angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor family of medications. Enalapril was patented in 1978 and came into medical use in 1984, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.08 to 0.80 per month. In the United States, it costs about $25 to $50 per month. In 2016, it was the 94th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 8 million prescriptions.
Enalapril is used to treat hypertension, symptomatic heart failure, asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. It has been proven to protect the function of the kidneys in hypertension, heart failure, diabetes, may be used in the absence of hypertension for its kidney protective effects, it is used in chronic kidney failure. Furthermore, enalapril is an emerging treatment for psychogenic polydipsia. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial showed that when used for this purpose, enalapril led to decreased water consumption in 60% of patients. Enalapril is pregnancy category D; some evidence suggests it will cause death to a developing fetus. Patients are advised not to become pregnant while taking enalapril and to notify their doctors if they become pregnant. In pregnancy, enalapril may result in damage to resulting oligohydramnios. Enalapril is not recommended for use while breastfeeding; the most common side effects of enalapril include increased serum creatinine, low blood pressure and dry cough.
The most serious common adverse event is angioedema which affects the face and lips, endangering the patient's airway. Angioedema can occur at any point during treatment with enalapril, but is most common after the first few doses. Angioedema and fatality therefrom are higher among black people. Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by an angiotensin-converting enzyme. Angiotensin II constricts blood vessels. Enalaprilat, the active metabolite of enalapril, inhibits ACE. Inhibition of ACE decreases levels of angiotensin II, leading to less vasoconstriction and decreased blood pressure. Pharmacokinetic data of enalapril: Onset of action: about 1 hour Peak effect: 4–6 hours Duration: 12–24 hours Absorption: ~60% Metabolism: prodrug, undergoes biotransformation to enalaprilat Squibb developed the first ACE inhibitor, but it had adverse effects such as a metallic taste. Merck & Co. developed enalapril as a competing prodrug. Enalaprilat was developed to overcome these limitations of captopril.
The sulfhydryl moiety was replaced by a carboxylate moiety, but additional modifications were required in its structure-based design to achieve a potency similar to captopril. Enalaprilat, had a problem of its own in that it had poor oral availability; this was overcome by the researchers at Merck by the esterification of enalaprilat with ethanol to produce enalapril. Merck introduced enalapril to market in 1981; the patent expired in 2000. Package insert at DailyMed: dailymed-nlm-nih.gov
Carmen de Luna Villajuan was a Filipina educator and co-founded the Centro Escolar University. After completing her own education to train as a teacher, de Luna taught at the private school run by Librada Avelino in Manila and the Pandacan Public Girls' School. In 1907, the two women, along with Fernando Salas founded the Centro Escolar de Señoritas, as a non-sectarian educational facility for girls. Acting as assistant director from 1907 to 1934, she assumed the directorship upon Avelido's death and led the university until her own death in 1962. For her work with civic and charitable organizations and lifelong commitment to education, de Luna was honored with the Philippine Presidential Medal of Merit, the Vatican's Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice medal, as well as recognition from Spain for her work in preserving Spanish culture and language. A historical marker in recognition of her was placed at the Centro Escolar University by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Carmen de Luna Villajuan was born on 16 July 1873 in San Miguel, Manila, in the Philippine Islands, which at the time was part of the Spanish Empire, to Ignacia Villajuan and Sebastian de Luna.
She attended a Catholic boarding school operated by Anacleta Abrera in Binondo, earning her elementary teaching certificate in 1890. To continue her education, de Luna enrolled in the course offered by the sisters of the Assumption Convent, where she met fellow student Librada Avelino, who would become her collaborator and companion for the rest of her life, she graduated in 1894 and that same year passed the government examination to obtain her teaching license as a secondary school teacher. In 1896, de Luna's friend Librada Avelino was loaned a property in Santa Cruz in which to open a school; as the school grew, it moved from Fernandez Street to San Sebastian Street and de Luna, Avelino's cousin Margarita "Garit" Oliva joined Avelino, as teachers in the school. At the end of the Philippine Revolution, the school closed because the new United States authorities changed the educational curricula throughout the country requiring that courses be taught in English. In 1901, the two friends traveled to Hong Kong to improve their English and after a 6 month stay, returned to the Philippines.
Avelino was employed as the principal of the Pandacan Public Girls' School and de Luna worked for her as a teacher. De Luna continued her education and earned a bachelor's degree of Arts and Sciences in 1907; that same year, DeLuna and Avelino sought the advice of Fernando Salas, a lawyer from a family of educators, about opening a school for women, modeled after the Centro Escolar de Varones, which Salas was operating. They decided to invest in the founding of a school in Manila which would be called the Centro Escolar de Señoritas; each contributed ₱250 and began to organize a non-sectarian school located at 841 Iris Street called Azcarraga Street. Avelino, De Luna, Oliva all intended to teach and they hired other women who had graduated from various normal schools, such as sisters Filomena and Ildefonsa Amor. Salas' teacher candidates included a historian and lawyer. After proposing his candidates, Salas retrieved his investment funds; the initial board of the Centro Escolar de Señoritas included Avelino as director, de Luna as assistant director, María Francisco as secretary, Felisa Francisco as treasurer and Oliva as administrator.
The course offerings which began with girls' education from kindergarten to high school, expanded in 1921 to offer tertiary courses. In 1930, the Centro Escolar de Señoritas became a university and two years was incorporated as the Centro Escolar University; when Avelino died in 1934, de Luna took over the direction of the institution and would continue in that post until her own death. After the liberation of the Philippines in World War II, the university became co-educational in 1945, making de Luna the only woman in the country to head a university which taught female and male students. In addition to her work at the university, de Luna De Luna was involved in the Liga de Mujeres Filipinas, which aimed to equalize the civic and socio-economic opportunities afforded to women, she worked with numerous civic and charitable organizations including La Gota de Leche and the Abbey of Our Lady of Montserrat, which operated San Beda College. Her work among youth was recognized by President Elpidio Quirino in 1949, who bestowed upon her the Presidential Medal of Merit, the year the honor was inaugurated.
That same year, she was honored by Pope Pius XII, who awarded her the Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice medal for her leadership and service to the Catholic church. In 1950, she received recognition in the form of a Medal an Diploma of Merit from the Spanish government for her work to preserve the Spanish culture and language of the Philippines. For her lifetime of service as a civic leader and educator, de Luna was recognized by President Carlos P. Garcia in 1961. De Luna died on 4 November 1962 in Republic of the Philippines; the National Historical Commission of the Philippines affixed a plaque to honor her at the Centro Escolar University in 1973
The Russian-Bashkir Friendship Monument is a monument in the city of Ufa, dedicated to the 400th anniversary of the accession of Bashkortostan in Russia.. At the base of the monument are bronze sculptures of two women who sit on either side of the stela half turn each other. In the hands of sculptures depicting Russia and Bashkortostan, the symbols of peace are laurel wreaths. On the monument are carved the years "1557 - 1957" and the inscription: СЛАВА ВЕЛИКОЙ БРАТСКОЙ ДРУЖБЕ РУССКОГО И БАШКИРСКОГО НАРОДОВ РУС ҺӘМ БАШҠОРТ ХАЛЫҠТАРЫНЫҢ БӨЙӨК ТУҒАНЛЫҠ ДУҪЛЫҒЫНА ДАН In 1957 it was celebrated the 400th anniversary of Bashkiria's voluntary entry into the Russian Empire. In the same year, June 14, the monument was laid on the site, a marble slab with the inscription: «There will be erected a monument in memory of the 400th anniversary of Bashkiria's voluntary accession to the Russian State» However the design of the monument began only after 4 years, its opening was only August 7, 1965
Ólafur Örn Bjarnason is an Icelandic former professional footballer who played as a centre-back. He started his career in Grindavík, returned there after two years in Swedish club Malmö FF. In 2004, he moved from Grindavík to SK Brann in Norway, his first season was successful, he played every league match. In 2006, he formed one of Norway's strongest centre back duo with his countryman, Kristján Örn Sigurðsson, together named Örneredet, he returned to Grindavík in August 2010 in a player/manager role. With 213 official matches for Brann, he's the most capped foreign player, 11th most capped player in the club's history. Before the 2013 season he signed for Fram. Ólafur has been capped 27 times for Iceland. He made his début in a friendly match in June 1998 against South Africa as a substitute for Sverrir Sverrisson. On 24 June 2010 returned to Grindavík and was named as their new head coach, he replaced Milan Stefán Jankovic. After the 2011 season he quit as manager, but decided nonetheless to play for them in the 2012 season.