Hindu Kush

The Hindu Kush is an 800-kilometre-long mountain range that stretches through Afghanistan, from its centre to northern Pakistan and into Tajikistan. It forms the western section of the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region and is the westernmost extension of the Pamir Mountains, the Karakoram and the Himalayas, it divides the valley of the Amu Darya to the north from the Indus River valley to the south. The range has numerous high snow-capped peaks, with the highest point being Tirich Mir or Terichmir at 7,708 metres in the Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To the north, near its northeastern end, the Hindu Kush buttresses the Pamir Mountains near the point where the borders of China and Afghanistan meet, after which it runs southwest through Pakistan and into Afghanistan near their border; the eastern end of the Hindu Kush in the north merges with the Karakoram Range. Towards its southern end, it connects with the Spin Ghar Range near the Kabul River; the Hindu Kush range region was a significant centre of Buddhism with sites such as the Bamiyan Buddhas.

It remained a stronghold of polytheistic faiths until the 19th century. The range and communities settled in it hosted ancient monasteries, important trade networks, travellers between Central Asia and South Asia; the Hindu Kush range has been the passageway during the invasions of the Indian subcontinent, continues to be important during modern-era warfare in Afghanistan. Geologically, the range is rooted in the formation of a subcontinent from a region of Gondwana that drifted away from East Africa about 160 million years ago, around the Middle Jurassic period; the Indian subcontinent and islands of the Indian Ocean rifted further, drifting northeastwards, with the Indian subcontinent colliding with the Eurasian Plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Palaeocene. This collision created the Himalayas, including the Hindu Kush; the Hindu Kush range is still rising. It is prone to earthquakes; the name "Hindu Kush" is, from a historical perspective young. In ancient times the mountain range was called "Paropamisadae" by Hellenic Greeks in the late first millennium BC and was mentioned as Paropamisadae in world maps.

The name Hindu Kush was first mentioned in the 14th century, states Ervin Grötzbach, it is "missing from the accounts of the early Arab geographers and occurs for the first time in Ibn Baṭṭuṭa." Ibn Baṭṭuṭa, states Grötzbach, saw the "origin of the name Hindu Kush in the fact that numerous Hindu slaves died crossing the pass on their way from India to Turkestan". In his travel memoirs about India, the 14th century Moroccan traveller Muhammad Ibn Battuta mentioned crossing into India via the mountain passes of the Hindu Kush. In his Rihla, he mentions the history of the range in slave trading. Alexander von Humboldt stated that it can be learned from his work that the name only referred to a single mountain pass upon which many Indian slaves died of the cold weather. Battuta wrote, After this I proceeded to the city of Barwan, in the road to, a high mountain, covered with snow and exceedingly cold. A Persian-English dictionary indicates that the suffix'koš' is the present stem of the verb "to kill".

According to Francis Joseph Steingass, the word and suffix "-kush" means "a male. A Practical Dictionary of the Persian Language gives the meaning of the word kush as "hotbed". According to one interpretation, the name Hindu Kush means "kills the Hindu" or "Hindu killer" and is a reminder of the days when slaves from the Indian subcontinent died in the harsh weather typical of the Afghan mountains while being taken to Central Asia; the World Book Encyclopedia states that the word kush means death, was given to the mountains because of their dangerous passes. In contrast, state Fosco Maraini and Nigel Allan, the earliest known usage occurs on a map published about 1000 CE. According to Allan, the term Hindu Kush has been seen to mean "Hindu killer", but two other meanings of the term include "sparkling snows of India" and "mountains of India" with "Kush" a soft variant of Kuh which means "mountain." To Arab geographers, states Allan, Hindu Kush was the frontier boundary. This theory refers to the frontier.

According to McColl, the origins of the Hindu Kush name are controversial. Along with its origin in the perishing of Indian slaves, two other possibilities exist; the term could be a corruption of Hindu Koh from pre-Islamic times where it separated Hindu population of southern Afghanistan from non-Hindu population in northern Afghanistan. The second possibility is that the name may be from the ancient Avestan language, with the meaning "water mountain." The mountain range was called "Paropamisadae" by Hellenic Greeks in the late first millennium BC. Some 19th century encyclopaedias and gazetteers state that the term Hindu Kush applied only to the peak in the area of the Kushan Pass, which had become a centre of the Kushan Empire by the first century; some scholars remove the space, refer to Hindu Kush as "Hindukush". The Hindu Kush is a formidable mountain range to cross with most peaks being between 4,400 and 5,200 m, some much higher; the mountains experience heavy snowfall and blizzards, with the l

Indian Mujahideen

The Indian Mujahideen is a terrorist group led by Abdul Subhan Qureshi, now under Delhi Police custody. The Indian Mujahideen was declared a terrorist organisation on 4 June 2010 and banned by the Government of India. On 22 October 2010, New Zealand declared it a terrorist organisation. In September 2011, the United States placed the Indian Mujahideen on its list of foreign terrorist organisations, with the State Department acknowledging that the group had engaged in several terrorist attacks in India and had regional aspirations with the ultimate aim of creating an "Islamic caliphate" across South Asia; the group was banned by the United Kingdom as it aimed at creating an Islamic state and implementing sharia law in India, by use of indiscriminate violence. Investigators believe that Indian Mujahideen is one of many groups composed of lower-tier SIMI members. According to the Indian Intelligence Bureau, SIMI took new titles because the top leadership of SIMI have been detained and would be available for interrogation.

The change in names is believed to signal a change in tactics as SIMI-affiliated militants attempt to garner more support from India's Muslim community rather than be seen as a group consisting of foreigners. Two days after the 13 May 2008 Jaipur bombings, the extremist group sent an e-mail to Indian media in which they claimed responsibility for the attacks and said they would "demolish the faiths of the infidels of India." The biggest and boldest attack to date by the group was the 2008 Ahmedabad serial blasts, where it gained national notoriety with a casualty count towards 50. Though IM came to light in 2008, in the same year it was seen to have a faction; the 30 October 2008 Assam bombings were claimed by alleged offspring of the IM, Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen, though police were still investigating this link. It is suspected. Abdul Subhan Qureshi alias Tauqeer, 36, under arrest: a software engineer from Mumbai. Have planted a bomb at M-block market in Greater Kailash-I, Varanasi bombs.

Mohammad Saif: arrested from Batla House in Jamia Nagar after the 19 September encounter. Have planted a bomb at Regal Cinema in Connaught Place. Zeeshan: arrested after the Jamia Nagar encounter. Have planted a bomb at Barakhamba Road in Connaught Place. Mohammed Sajid aka Pankaj: killed during the Batla House encounter. Have planted a bomb at Barakhamba Road in Connaught Place. Junaid: Escaped during the Batla House encounter. Have planted a bomb at M-block market in Greater Kailash-I, Varanasi bombs. Mohammad Shakeel: arrested on 21 September, from Jamia Nagar. Have planted a bomb at Nehru Place in south Delhi. Zia-ur-Rehman: arrested on 21 September, from Jamia Nagar. Have planted a bomb at Connaught Place and on a cycle in Ahmedabad. Saqib Nisar: arrested on 21 September, from Jamia Nagar. Shahzad alias Pappu: arrested, from Azamgarh by UP STF, he escaped during the Jamia Nagar encounter. Have planted a bomb in Central Park, Connaught Place. Alihas Malik: sought. Have planted a bomb at Central Park, Connaught Place.

Mohammad Khalif: sought Arif: sought Salman: arrested by Special Cell The emails sent by Indian Mujahideen claimed that they were responsible for the following terror incidents. One warning email was received 5 minutes before the first blast in Ahmedabad. Another was received soon after the first blast of Delhi bombings; the timing makes it impossible for any other groups to have sent the two emails. 2007 Uttar Pradesh bombings 13 May 2008 Jaipur bombings 2008 Bangalore serial blasts 2008 Ahmedabad serial blasts 13 September 2008 Delhi bombings 2010 Pune bombing 2010 Jama Masjid attack 2010 Varanasi bombing 2011 Mumbai serial blasts 2013 Bodh Gaya blasts On 28 August 2013, in a major breakthrough, Yasin Bhatkal, co-founder of IM, another IM terrorist were arrested by Indian Police and NIA near the Indo-Nepal border. According to Gujarat police, the breakthrough in the 2008 Ahmedabad serial blasts case came from five'switched-off' mobile phone numbers. Joint Commissioner of Police Ashish Bhatia said that the terrorists had procured five SIM cards of phones that were switched off on the day of the blasts — 26 July.

The analysis of the phone calls made to those SIM cards from PCOs provided them the key leads. The arrest of ten suspects included the leader, Mufti Abu Bashir Ishlahi alias Abdul Wasir, arrested with the help of Uttar Pradesh police at his father's home at Sarai Mir in Azamgarh, Uttar Pradesh on 14 August 2008. Bashir studied in the local Madarsatu

24-hour analog dial

Clocks and watches with a 24-hour analog dial have an hour hand that makes one complete revolution, 360°, in a day. The more familiar 12-hour analog dial has an hour hand. Twenty-four-hour analog clocks and watches are used today by pilots and the military, are sometimes preferred because of the unambiguous representation of a whole day at a time. Note that this definition refers to the use of a complete circular dial to represent a 24-hour day. Using the numbers from 0 to 23 to mark the day is the 24-hour clock system. Sundials use 24-hour analog dials—the shadow traces a path that repeats once per day. Many sundials are marked with the double-XII or double-12 system, in which the numbers I to XII are used twice, once for the morning hours, once for the afternoon and evening hours. So VI appears twice on many dials, once near sunrise and once near sunset. Modern 24-hour analog dials—other than sundials—are always marked with 24 numbers or hour marks around the edge, using the 24-hour clock system.

These dials do not need to indicate AM or PM. The ancient Egyptians divided the day into 24 hours. There are diagrams of circles divided into 24 sections in the astronomical ceiling in the tomb of Senemut. Sundials use all of the 24-hour dial, because they show the position of the sun in the sky. Sometimes, for aesthetic rather than practical reasons, all the 24 hour marks are shown. Medieval clocks used the 24-hour analog dial, influenced by the widespread example of the astrolabe. In Northern Europe, the double-XII system was preferred: two sets of the Roman numerals I to XII were used, one on the left side for the night and morning hours, another set on the right side of the dial to represent the afternoon and evening hours. In Italy, the numbers from 1 to 24 were used, leading to the widespread use of the 24-hour system in that country. On Italian clocks, the I was shown at the right side of the dial, rather than the top; this reflects the influence of the Italian timekeeping system, which started counting the hours of the day at sunset or twilight.

In northern Europe, the double XII system was superseded during the 14th and 15th centuries by the single XII, leading to the widespread adoption of the 12-hour dial for popular use. The 24-hour analog dial continued to be used, but by technicians, astronomers and clockmakers. John Harrison, Thomas Tompion, Mudge built a number of clocks with 24-hour analog dials when building astronomical and nautical instruments. 24-hour dials were used on sidereal clocks. The famous Big Ben clock in London has a 24-hour dial as part of the mechanism, although it is not visible from the outside. In the 20th century, the 24-hour analog dial was adopted by radio amateurs, pilots and for military use. 24-hour analog watches and clocks are still being manufactured today, are sought after by collectors and enthusiasts. Manufacturers who make 24-hour analog watches include Glycine, Vostok, Poljot and many others; the major variation in the design of 24-hour analog dials is the location of noon. Although always opposite each other, 180° apart, noon is sometimes at the top, sometimes at the bottom.

A few rare variants left sides. There is no ambiguity. In the United States, the government and military use 24-hour clocks having noon at the bottom. A 24-hour watch is a type of watch with an hour hand; this type of watch is useful for aviators, health care professionals, members of the military. That is, anyone who uses multiple timezones; the face may be arranged in either of two ways: with noon at the top and midnight at the bottom, or else rotated 180° with midnight at the top and noon at the bottom. Multiple time zones can be displayed by having a rotating bezel; the bezel is a ring around the outside of the watch's face. When it is used, the top of the watch always represents midnight GMT; the bezel, which has hour markings, is rotated so that its numbering represents local time. So, a pilot always has GMT time available for talking to air traffic control and, when they land, only has to rotate the bezel to "set" the watch to their new local time. Glycine was the first to feature a 24-hour rotating bezel in 1953 with the Airman No.1 Pilot watch.

The design became known when Rolex designed the Rolex GMT Master for Pan-Am Pilots in 1954. A 24-hour watch with a compass card dial can be used to determine direction when set to local noon and used in conjunction with the sun. Many digital watches can be set to show the time in 24-hour format. A common use for the 24-hour analog method of representing time is for showing the way the time of day depends on one's location. A globe, map, or disk can be used. George Orwell uses the 12-hour and 24-hour dials to symbolize the old and new worlds in his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four; the 12-hour dial is a relic of pre-revolutionary society, used to represent the desirable past. This theme is famously set in the opening line: It was a bright cold day in April, the clocks were striking thirteen. In the 1927 fil