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Hindu mythology

Hindu mythology are narratives found in Hindu texts such as the Vedic literature, epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, the Puranas, the regional literatures like Periya Puranam. Hindu mythology is found in translated popular texts such as the Panchatantra and Hitopadesha, as well as Southeast Asian texts. Hindu mythology does not have a consistent, monolithic structure; the same myth appears in various versions and can be represented differently across socio-religious traditions. These myths have been noted to have been modified by various philosophical schools over time and in the Hindu tradition; these myths are taken to have deeper symbolic and have been given a complex range of interpretations. The Hindu Epic literature is found in genre of Hindu texts such as: Vedic literature Puranas VedasMany of these legends evolve across these texts, the character names change or the story is embellished with greater details, yet the central message and moral values remain the same. According to Wendy Doniger, Every Hindu epic is different.

Each Hindu epic celebrates the belief that the universe is boundlessly various, that everything occurs that all possibilities may exist without excluding the other. There is no single basic version of a Hindu epic. Great epics are richly elusive. Moreover, epics are living organisms. Hindu epic shares human values found in epic everywhere. However, the particular details vary and its diversity is immense, according to Doniger; the Hindu legends embed the Indian thought about the nature of existence, the human condition and its aspirations through an interwoven contrast of characters, the good against the evil, the honest against the dishonest, the dharma-bound lover against the anti-dharma bully, the gentle and compassionate against the cruel and greedy. In these epics, everything is impermanent including matter and peace. Magic and miracles thrive, gods are defeated and fear for their existence, triggering wars or debates. Death threatens and re-threatens life, while life finds a way to creatively re-emerge thus conquering death.

Eros persistently prevails over chaos. The Hindu epics integrate in a wide range of subjects, they include stories about how and why cosmos originated and why humans or all life forms originated along with each's strengths and weaknesses, how gods originated along with each's strengths and weaknesses, the battle between good gods and bad demons, human values and how humans can live together, resolve any disagreements, healthy goals in stages of life and the different ways in which each individual can live, the meaning of all existence and means of personal liberation as well as legends about what causes suffering and the end of time with a restart of a new cycle. A significant collection of Vaishnavism traditional reincarnations includes those related to the avatars of Vishnu; the ten most common of these include: Matsya: It narrates a great flood, similar to one found in many ancient cultures. The savior here is the Matsya; the earliest accounts of Matsya mythology are found in the Vedic literature, which equate the fish saviour to the deity Prajapati.

The fish-savior merges with the identity of Brahma in post-Vedic era, still as an avatar of Vishnu. The legends associated with Matsya expand and vary in Hindu texts; these legends have embedded symbolism, where a small fish with Manu's protection grows to become a big fish, the fish saves earthly existence. Kurma: The earliest account of Kurma is found in the Shatapatha Brahmana, where he is a form of Prajapati-Brahma and helps with the samudra manthan. In the Epics and the Puranas, the legend expands and evolves into many versions, with Kurma becoming an avatar of Vishnu, he appears in the form of a tortoise or turtle to support the foundation for the cosmos and the cosmic churning stick. Varaha: The earliest versions of the Varaha or boar legend are found in the Taittiriya Aranyaka and the Shatapatha Brahmana, both Vedic texts, they narrate. The earth was trapped in it; the god Prajapati in the form of a boar brings the earth out. In post-Vedic literature the Puranas, the boar mythology is reformulated through an avatar of god Vishnu and an evil demon named Hiranyaksha who persecutes people and kidnaps goddess earth.

Varaha-Vishnu kills the demon and rescues earth. Narasimha: The Narasimha mythology is about the man-lion avatar of Vishnu, he destroys an evil king, ends religious persecution and calamity on Earth, saves his devotee from the suffering caused by torments and punishments for pursuing his religious beliefs, thereby Vishnu restores the Dharma. Vamana Parashurama Rama Krishna Buddha Kalki Kanglei mythology Greek mythology Dowson, John. A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion, Geography and Literature. Trubner & Co. London. Buitenen, J. A. B. van. Classical Hindu mythology: a reader in the Sanskrit Puranas. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 0-87722-122-7. Campbell, Joseph. Myths of light: Eastern Metaphors of the Eternal. Novato, California: New World Library. ISBN 1-57731-403-4. J. L. Brockin


The virino is a hypothetical infectious particle, once theorized to be the cause of scrapie and other degenerative diseases of the central nervous system. The hypothesis was never accepted, the causative agents responsible for these diseases are now accepted to be prions; the virino was described to protect the central dogma of molecular biology, threatened by the existence of a series of degenerative neurological TSE diseases including kuru, CJD, scrapie in sheep, BSE in cattle. The central dogma states that nucleic acids act as the information carriers, DNA and RNA make proteins. Proteins alone cannot make DNA. However, studies searching for the transmission agent of scrapie and other TSEs have failed to culture bacteria, tests attacking nucleic acids strands have little effect on the infectivity of TSE solutions; these failures rule out a virus as the infective agent. Experiments using electron beams designed to disrupt large molecules have been performed to investigate the size of the agent show that it is small: much smaller than the smallest known virus.

The virino has the benefit of explaining the traits of TSEs which resemble nucleic acids: for example, their occurrence in strains, which positively indicates the TSE agent is information carrying, not a toxin. In 1971, Dickinson, AG and Meikle, VM provided a hypothesis for the replication of the scrapie agent; this hypothesis was based on the discovery of a single autosomal gene controlling the scrapie incubation period in mice and on observations about strains of the scrapie agent. They dubbed the gene sinc for scrapie incubator; this hypothesis proposed that the gene products of each sinc allele contributed to a multimeric protein structure, which formed a'replication site' for the scrapie agent. The replication of the agent would depend on how the particular strain interacted with the replication site and of what the site was composed; the fact that different strains of scrapie were known had suggested the agent was similar to conventional viruses in that it carried a genome composed of nucleic acids.

Thus, variants could arise during incubation. No host-encoded properties were found to determine scrapie agent strain differences; this was thought to prove that the genome of the agent could vary independently and, although replicated by normal host mechanisms, was not coded by the host. The term'virino' was coined to reflect the small size, immunological neutrality, virus-like nature of the infectious particles. Thus, in the nucleotide model proposed by Dickinson, AG, Outram, GW in 1979, the lifecycle of the scrapie agent included a stage where the genome was bound to host protein a multimeric protein complex, derived from the sinc gene. Recalling Enrico Fermi's word play on a neutron-like particle, Outram coined the term'virino' to describe a small virus. In the virino model, the host protein protects the scrapie agent nucleic acids from degradation and prevents the host from raising an immune response, since the protein/nucleic acid complex is seen as a legitimate part of the host. However, the presumed scrapie-associated nucleic acid has not been identified, physical or chemical evidence for its presence is lacking.

Stanley B. Prusiner discovered a genetic control which he dubbed prii, for prion incubator; this discovery was shown to be interchangeable with sinc


Parner, is a historic town in Ahmednagar District, India. It is the headquarters town for Parner Taluka. Parner was named after Rishi Parashar, whose son Maharishi Ved Vyas wrote famous epic "Mahabharat"; the town of Parner is located at coordinates 19° 0' 0" North, 74° 26' 0" East, at an altitude of about 790 metres. The majority of the population is Hindu, but there are few Muslims and Christian and Buddhists. Old historic temples in Parner are famous for their varied architecture. Parner is known as Replica of Kashi for the 12 temples of Lord Shiva; some beautiful temples of Shri Ram, Goddess Malganga, Daryabai, Sheddheshwar Temple and Lord Hanuman are the worship places of town. Sant Niloba Maharaj Temple 12 km from Parner city; the town has a S. T. Bus Depot. Nearest railway station is in Ahmednagar, about 40 Kilometers away. Shahajapur is an energy center in Parner taluka. Supa MIDC is near to parner. Senapati Pandurang Mahadev Bapat was Indian freedom fighter, he was born in Parner village

Courier (Quarterly)

The Courier was a magazine published in Britain during the period 1938-1951, by Norman Kark Publications, Grand Buildings, Trafalgar Square, London. It was printed on art paper and continued to be produced throughout World War II, in spite of the paper restrictions imposed; each issue included 180 pages, 7½ inches wide by 7 inches deep: at the time, Britain's daily newspapers were rationed to only four pages. There were four issues a year; the price was three shillings, A Penguin pocket book only cost six pence in 1940. The sub-title was "Picturing Today"; each copy had a large number of Satire articles, one or more shaggy dog story was always included. In addition there was a section of art photographs, including chaste "nude studies" of women and seascape photographs; some issues had coloured fold=outs and others had humour inserts printed on standard paper. The contents were grouped into the following sections: Satire - which included cartoons and a short topical article, as well as a "Shaggy Dog" story.

Transatlantic - Articles about New York and other US news items. Life in Pictures - Photos and other illustrations. Day and Age - General and Historic articles. Departments - including. Fiction - Short stories, including a handful by the better-known British authors of the day, including A A Milne, John Galsworthy, Robert Standish; the production of the Courier was extended after 1951 as a monthly publication, with a different format and fewer pages. During the fifties, the Courier changed to a 100-plus page magazine, it incorporated the material from the discontinued publication called TO-DAY. This format had the following major sections and their sub-sections: This Day and Age Out of the Letter Box Editorial (This sub-section was used for articles and other material from outside sources. **The Month The Grand National Life In Pictures This section always carried pictures of both rural and urban areas throughout Great Britain. The other material varied according to the availability; the Backward Glance A combination of original and reprint material stressing the achievements of the English peoples.

There was not much printed from any of the other members of the Commonwealth. Satire Fiction Departments Cuisine The Garden, The Mode, The Motor, The Stage' The Screen, The Record, The Page. Bridge, Chess HeadlinersThis heading covered Britain's Political Scene, it is believed to have been discontinued in the 1960s. A sister magazine was published monthly by Norman Kark called Bandwagon, it was a smaller format than the Courier, but printed on the same high quality art paper. It stopped publishing in the early 1950s; the contents was on all aspects of entertainment, with sections on art, music, the stage, the cinema and biographic sketches

Music Production and Engineering Major at Berklee

The Music Production & Engineering Major at Berklee College of Music is notable for attempting to give students an integrated understanding of the recording and production process, rather than focusing on the engineering aspects alone. Courses cover the technologies for documenting music, as well as the collaborative elements of studio work, the business of recording. Berklee Online introduced a Master of Music in Music Production, started accepting applications in February 2018; the program is designed to be completed in one year, consists of 12 courses. The first recording facility at Berklee was a 2-track studio in the basement of Berklee’s main building, 1140 Boylston Street. Joe Hostetter offered the first elective course in Sound Recording in 1972. With the encouragement of producer Arif Mardin, the college built its first 8-track studio in 1974. Within a few years, as enrollment in recording courses increased, a second 8-track studio was added. In 1977 the Department of Audio Recording was formed, with Hostetter as its first Chair.

In March 1982 Berklee Provost Bob Share hired Boston recording studio owner, Wayne Wadhams to recommend whether the school should eliminate the Audio Recording Major or create a new program with new studios and additional faculty. After discussion with Berklee faculty and music industry executives, Wadhams recommended a program designed to instruct students in technical aspects of recording and production as well as the collaborative process and business affairs of labels; the Music Production and Engineering Department was established and a new major was offered in January 1983. Three new production and recording studios were designed and constructed, two of them were wired to the Berklee Performance Center, allowing live performances to be remotely recorded and monitored. A fourth, larger studio was completed in June 1983. Don Puluse was named chair of the department in August 1983; the current department chair is Rob Jaczko. The program has continued to expand its facilities, with 13 studios in operation in 2009.

Since 1989, MP&E has released CDs of top student projects. MP&E and Electronic Production and Design student projects are included on a Music Technology Division CD series initiated in 2007. MP&E faculty and students produced The Darfur Project: We Are All Connected, an album of original music inspired by the Darfur Conflict. MP&E students contribute to the student-run labels, Heavy Rotation Records and Jazz Revelations Records. Student productions air on the commercial-free Berklee Internet Radio Network, as well. In 1985, the Society of Professional Audio Recording Services voted the Department best in the category of Outstanding Institutional Achievement in a Recording Program. Mix magazine presented MP&E with the first year that the competition was held. Over the next several years MP&E would win three more TEC Awards. Alumni of the Berklee MP&E Department garnered more than 40 Grammies, three Oscars, four Emmy Awards between 1992 and 2009

Drew Shindell

Drew Shindell is a physicist and a climate specialist and professor at Duke University's Nicholas School of the Environment. His H-index is 94 and he is listed as an ISI Highly Cited Researcher, he was a chapter lead of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change October 8, 2018 Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5ºC as well as on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report in 2013. He has testified on climate issues before both houses of the US Congress, at the request of both parties, his research concerns natural and human drivers of climate change, linkages between air quality and climate change, the interface between climate change science and policy. He has been an author on more than 200 peer-reviewed publications and received awards from Scientific American, NASA, the EPA, the NSF, he was a leading scientific contributor to the establishment of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, a group of now more than 60 nations along with many intergovernmental and non-governmental organization dedicated to implementing actions that reduce air pollution and mitigate climate change.

He chaired the 2011 Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone produced by the United Nations Environment Programme and World Meteorological Organization that, along with the paper in Science he led in 2012 entitled "Simultaneously Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change and Improving Human Health and Food Security" helped to catalyze the Coalition's formation. He has served as Chair of the Science Advisory Panel to the Coalition since 2012, he has addressed the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the World Bank and state officials, developed a climate change course with the American Museum of Natural History, made numerous appearances in newspapers, on radio, on TV as part of his public outreach efforts. Shindell is a physicist who got his B. A. at University of California at Berkeley in 1988 and his Ph. D at the State University of New York in Stony Brook in 1995. From 2000 to 2014 he was a climatologist at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York City.

While there, Dr. Shindell taught atmospheric chemistry at nearby Columbia University for more than a decade. In 2014 he was named Professor of Climate Sciences at Duke University, where he was appointed the Nicholas Professor of Earth Sciences in 2016, his research is concerned with global climate change, climate variability, atmospheric chemistry and air pollution. He uses climate models to investigate chemical changes such as air pollution, climate changes such as global warming, the connections between these two. Among his research interests are: Long-term changes in climate and climate variability patterns Sensitivity of climate change to different drivers Climate and air quality linkages and public policy Interdisciplinary assessment of the impact of policy options on climate, public health and the economy Atmospheric composition changes and solar power generation Shindell et al: Quantified, Localized Health Benefits of Accelerated Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reductions. In: Nature Climate Change 8, 291-291,

Bergin et al: Large reductions in solar energy production due to dust and particulate air pollution. In: Environmental Science and Technology 4, 339-344, doi:10.1021/acs.estlett.7b00197. Shindell et al: A climate policy pathway for near- and long-term benefits, In: Science 356, No. 6337, 493-494, doi:10.1126/science.aak9521. Shindell et al: The Social Cost of Methane: Theory and Applications. In: Faraday Discussions 200, 429-451, doi:10.1039/C7FD00009J. Shindell et al: Climate and health impacts of US emissions reductions consistent with 2 °C. In: Nature Climate Change 6, 503–507, doi:10.1038/nclimate2935. Bond et al: Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment. In: Journal of Geophysical Research 118, Issue 11, 5380–5552, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50171. Shindell et al, Simultaneously Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change and Improving Human Health and Food Security. In: Science 335, No. 6065, 183-189, doi:10.1126/science.1210026. Gray et al, Solar Influence on Climate. In: Reviews of Geophysics 48, Issue 4, doi:10.1029/2009RG000282.

Lamarque et al, Historical gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols: methodology and application. In: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, 7017-7039, doi:10.5194/acp-10-7017-2010. Steig et al, Warming of the Antarctic ice-sheet surface since the 1957 International Geophysical Year. In: Nature 457, 459-462, doi:10.1038/nature07669. Michael E. Mann et al, Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly. In: Science 326, No. 5957, 1256-1260, doi:10.1126/science.1177303. Shindell et al, Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions. In: Science 326, No. 5953, 716-718, doi:10.1126/science.1174760. Hansen et al, Efficacy of climate forcings. In: Journal of Geophysical Research 110, D18, doi:10.1029/2005JD005776. Shindell et al, Solar Forcing of Regional Climate Change During the Maunder Minimum. In: Science 294, No. 5549, 2149-2152, doi:10.1126/science.1064363. Shindell et al, Solar Cycle Variability and Climate. In: Science 284, No.

5412, 305-308, doi:10.1126/science.284.5412.305. Shindell et al, Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse-gas forcing. In: Nature 399, 452-455, doi:10.1038/20905. Shindell et al, Increased polar stratospheric ozone losses and delayed eventual recovery owing to increasing greenhouse-gas concentrations. In: Nature 392, 589-592, doi:10.1038/33385. Home page at Duke University CV Research interests and papers