Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Smṛti; these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and the Upanishads, the Puranas, the Mahabharata, the Ramayana, the Āgamas.
Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha. Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius, it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia.
Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean, Southeast Asia, North America, Oceania and other regions. The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu; the Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola. The use of the English term "Hinduism" to describe a collection of practices and beliefs is a recent construction: it was first used by Raja Ram Mohun Roy in 1816-17; the term "Hinduism" was coined in opposition to other religions. Before the British began to categorise communities by religion, Indians did not define themselves through their religious beliefs; the word "Hindu" is much older, it is believed that it was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion.
Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by'Abd al-Malik Isami. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia; the Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas, with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma".
It was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book. Ideas about all the major issues of faith and lifestyle inc
The LU postcode area known as the Luton postcode area, is a group of seven postcode districts in England, within three post towns. These cover south small parts of Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire; the Luton post town forms a group of LU1 to LU4, in the east. The Dunstable post town forms a central strip of two postcode districts, LU5 in the north and LU6 in the south; the Leighton Buzzard post town forms LU7, in the west. The approximate coverage of the postcode districts: Perry Green was used as the locality in the LU2 postal addresses of some properties in Peters Green. Old Linslade was used in the LU7 addresses of Old Linslade, but these now include the words Heath and Reach. Postcode Address File List of postcode areas in the United Kingdom Royal Mail's Postcode Address File A quick introduction to Royal Mail's Postcode Address File
Antidote were a punk rock band from the Netherlands. The band has released several records; the band has toured extensively in North America and Russia. In December 2012, the band announced their break-up. No communication LP/CD 2007 Dirty Faces, Rodent Popsicle Records, Neuroempire Records Another Dose LP/CD 2006 Dirty Faces, Rodent Popsicle Records, Neuroempire Records, SOS Records Back in Year Zero LP/CD 2003 Dirty Faces, 2005 Neuroempire Records, 2006 Rodent Popsicle Records Go Pogo! 10"/LP/CD 2000 Dirty Faces, 2001 Charged Records, 2005 Neuroempire Records "My Life!" LP/CD 1999 Charged Records, 2001 Dirty Faces, 2005 Neuroempire Records De Blauwe Moet Blijven 7", 2000 Injection Records Let's Get Drunk 7", 1998 Injection Records, 2001 Dirty Faces Bounce the Bouncer 7", 1997 Injection Records 1997 s/t demotape split with Seein Red, 2004 Attack Records split with NY-Relx, 2002 Dirty Faces "Keine Arbeit" split with The Shocks and Die Strohsäcke, 2000 Attack Records split met Worhäts, 1999 Attack Records 10 Jahre Attack Records 7", 2004 Attack Records Human Dust Punk/HC compilation 7", 1999 Na Und Records Internationally Yours compilation 7", 1999 Ditchdiggin Records Punx Unite 2 compilation LP/CD, 2000 Charged Records Punk and Disoi!rderly compilation, 2001 Step One Music Antidote website