Hinduism in the United States

Hinduism is a minority religion in the United States of America, ranking fourth largest, constituting 0.7% of the population. The vast majority of American Hindus are immigrants from South Asia, the Caribbean, Africa and other countries and their descendants. Additionally, the United States has a number of converts to Hinduism. There are about 900 ethnic Cham people of Vietnam, living in America, 55% of whom are Hindus, they are one of the few remaining non-Indic Hindus in the World. While there were isolated sojourns by Hindus in the United States during the 19th century, Hindu presence in the United States was limited until the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. Hindu-Americans hold the highest levels of educational attainment among all religious communities in the United States; this is due to strong US immigration policies that favor educated and skilled migrants. Many concepts of Hinduism, such as meditation, ayurveda and yoga, have entered into mainstream American vernacular.

According to Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life survey of 2009, 24% of Americans believe in reincarnation, a core concept of Hinduism. Furthermore, the Hindu values of veganism and ahimsa are gaining in popularity. Om is a chanted mantra across the United States among millennials and those who practice yoga and subscribe to the New Age philosophy; the United States Department of State's 2004 Religious Freedom Report found some 1.5 million adherents of Hinduism, corresponding to 0.50% of the total population. The Hindu population of USA is the world's eighth-largest. Most of the Hindus in America are immigrants and nine percent are the children of immigrants and 10 percent of the Hindus are converts. In the 1990s, Buddhist Bhutan expelled or forced to leave most of its Hindu population, one-fifth of the country's population, demanding conformity in religion. More than 90,000 Hindu-Bhutanese refugees have been resettled in the United States. According to the Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies newsletter published March 2017, Hindus were the largest minority religion in 92 counties out of the 3143 counties in the country.

Although Hinduism is practiced by immigrants from India and Nepal, a sizable amount of Hindus in United States were converts to Hinduism. According to the Pew research estimates, 9% of the Hindus in United States belong to a non-Asian ethnicity – 4% of the Hindus in United States were White, 2% were Black, 1% Latino and 2% Mixed. Converts to Hinduism include actor Russell Brand etc.. American Hindus have the highest rates of educational attainment and highest rate of household income among all religious communities, the lowest divorce rates. 48% of American Hindus hold a post-graduate degree. According to a study by the Pew Research Center's Forum on Religion and Public Life in 2012, 48% of American Hindus have a household income of $100,000 or more, 70% make at least $75,000. According to the 2008 Pew Research, Of all the America adults who said they were raised as Hindus, 80 percent continued to adhere to Hinduism, the highest retention rate for any religion in America. Hindus have high acceptance towards homosexuality.

71% of the Hindus in United States believe that homosexuality should be accepted, higher than the general public, 62%. About 68% of the Hindus supported same-sex marriage, while that of general public is only 53%. Hindus in United States showed high support for abortion. About 68% of the Hindus supported abortion. About 69% of the Hindus supported strict laws and regulation for the protection of environment and nature. According to the Pew Research Center, only 15% of the Americans identified Vedas as Hindu text. Half of Americans knew that yoga has roots in Hinduism. On the same survey when respondents were asked to rate how warmly they see religious groups on a "feeling thermometer”; the Survey noted that on a scale of 0-100, Hindus had a thermometer reading at 55 compared to 63 for Jews, Muslims at 49. According to the pew research statistics in 2014, 88% of the American Hindu population believes in god. However, only 26% believes that religion is important in their life. About 51% of the Hindu population prays daily.

Though 88% of Hindus believes in god, low compared to the 99% of Evangelical Protestants, 96% of Catholics, 99% of Jehovah's Witnesses, etc. Anandibai Joshi is believed to be the first Hindu woman to set foot on American soil, arriving in New York in June 1883 at the age of 19, she graduated with an MD from the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania on March 11, 1886, becoming the first female of South Asian origin to graduate with a degree in Western medicine from the United States. Joshi died within months of her return. One of the first major discussions of Hinduism in the United States was Swami Vivekananda's address to the World's Parliament of Religions in Chicago in 1893, he spent two years in the United States, lectured in several cities including Detroit and New York. In 1902 Swami Rama Tirtha visited the US for about two years lecturing on the philosophy of Vedanta. In 1920 Paramahansa Yoganan

Cylinder (gastropod)

Cylinder is a subgenus of sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the genus Conus, in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies. In the new classification of the family Conidae by Puillandre N. Duda T. F. Meyer C. Olivera B. M. & Bouchet P. Cylinder has become a subgenus of Conus: Conus Petuch & Sargent, 2012 represented as Conus Thiele, 1929; the same study found Cylinder to be polyphyletic, but morphologically consistent corresponding to grades. Conus ammiralis, Conus canonicus and Conus dalli cluster with the type species Conus textile, the others form a separate clade; the Tucker & Tenorio 2009 taxonomy distinguishes Cylinder from Conus in the following ways: Genus Conus Linnaeus, 1758Shell characters The basic shell shape is conical to elongated conical, has a deep anal notch on the shoulder, a smooth periostracum and a small operculum. The shoulder of the shell is nodulose and the protoconch is multispiral. Markings include the presence of tents except for black or white color variants, with the absence of spiral lines of minute tents and textile bars.

Radular tooth The radula has an elongated anterior section with serrations and a large exposed terminating cusp, a non-obvious waist, blade is either small or absent and has a short barb, lacks a basal spur. Geographical distribution These species are found in the Indo-Pacific region. Feeding habits These species eat other gastropods including cones. Subgenus Cylinder Montfort, 1810Shell characters The shell is ovate to elongated in shape; the protoconch is multispiral, the spire is conical to convex in shape. The anal notch is deep; the shell is conspicuously ornamented with rows of tents or textile bars. The periostracum is smooth, the operculum is small. Radular tooth The anterior section of the radula is more elongated than the posterior section; the waist is not obvious. A basal spur is absent, the barb is short; the blade and a terminating cusp are present. Geographical distribution All but one species in this genus are found in the Indo-Pacific region. Feeding habits These species are molluscivorous.

This list of species is based on the information in the World Register of Marine Species list. Species within the genus Cylinder include: Cylinder abbas: synonym of Conus abbas Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 Cylinder ammiralis Linnaeus, 1758: synonym of Conus ammiralis Linnaeus, 1758, represented as Conus ammiralis Linnaeus, 1758 Cylinder aureus: synonym of Conus aureus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 Cylinder barbieri: synonym of Conus barbieri G. Raybaudi Massilia, 1995 Cylinder bengalensis: synonym of Conus bengalensis Cylinder biancae: synonym of Conus biancae Bozzetti, 2010 Cylinder canonicus: synonym of Conus canonicus Hwass in Bruguière, 1792 Cylinder dalli: synonym of Conus dalli Stearns, 1873 Cylinder dondani: synonym of Conus dondani Kosuge, 1981 Cylinder erythrostoma: synonym of Miniaceoliva miniacea Cylinder gloriamaris: synonym of Conus gloriamaris Chemnitz, 1777 Cylinder glorioceanus: synonym of Conus glorioceanus Poppe & Tagaro, 2009 Cylinder legatus: synonym of Conus legatus Lamarck, 1810 Cylinder nodulosus: synonym of Conus nodulosus G.

B. Sowerby II, 1864 Cylinder pacificus: synonym of Conus pacificus Moolenbeek & Röckel, 1996 Cylinder paulucciae: synonym of Cylinder aureus paulucciae represented as Conus aureus paulucciae G. B. Sowerby III, 1887 Cylinder priscai Bozzetti, 2012: synonym of Conus priscai Bozzetti, 2012 represented as Conus priscai Cylinder retifer: synonym of Conus retifer Menke, 1829 Cylinder scottjordani: synonym of Conus scottjordani represented as Conus scottjordani Cylinder tagaroae Limpalaër & Monnier, 2013: synonym of Conus tagaroae represented as Conus tagaroae Cylinder telatus: synonym of Conus telatus Reeve, 1848 Cylinder textile: synonym of Conus textile Linnaeus, 1758 Cylinder victoriae: synonym of Conus victoriae Reeve, 1843 Kohn A. A.. Chronological Taxonomy of Conus, 1758-1840". Smithsonian Institution Press and London. Monteiro A.. The Cone Collector 1: 1-28. Berschauer D.. Technology and the Fall of the Mono-Generic Family The Cone Collector 15: pp. 51-54 Puillandre N. Meyer C. P. Bouchet P. and Olivera B.

M. Genetic divergence and geographical variation in the deep-water Conus orbignyi complex, Zoologica Scripta 40 350-363. To World Register of Marine Species Conidae setting forth the genera recognized therein

Ferdinando Sforzini

Ferdinando Sforzini is an Italian footballer who plays as a striker for Palermo. He is a product of the famous Napoli youth academy. During his stay in Grosseto, Sforzini was given the nickname Nandogoal and taglia gole, nicknamed for his traditional goal celebration. A tall forward, Sforzini started his career off with the youth system of Napoli and was loaned out to Lazio from Napoli's youth system in 2002. Ferdinando Sforzini graduated from Lazio youth system in 2003 and sold, to Sassuolo. At Sassuolo he impressed. After impressing with U. S. Sassuolo Calcio, he was transferred to Serie A club Udinese Calcio in June 2005. Ferdinandos Sforzini remained at Udine for 2 months, but loaned out to Serie B side Verona in order to gain more experience in August 2005. In his season with Verona, Ferdinando Sforzini managed 5 goals in 35 Serie B appearances, which as a substitutes player, but made 16 league starts. For the 2006–2007 season, Udinese opted to again loan out the player in July 2006, however this time, it was to Modena, another Serie B club.

With Modena, Ferdinandos Sforzini scored 5 goals again, in 30 league appearances. On 1 July 2006 Sforzini returned to Udinese, however, he again was loaned out soon later. In July 2007, Ferdinandos Sforzini transferred to Vicenza for yet another Serie B season. With the club, Ferdinandos Sforzini made 14 league appearances in his six-month stay, scoring 2 goals. For the second half of the 2007–2008 season, Udinese loaned out the 23-year-old Sforzini to Ravenna, a club struggling to avoid relegation from the Serie B. In the latter half of the season, Ferdinandos Sforzini scored an impressive 9 goals in 21 league appearances for Ravenna Calcio, but it was not enough to save them from relegation. Ferdinandos Sforzini was again loaned out into the Serie B – this time with Grosseto. In his six-month loan period with Grosseto, Sforzini was a regular starter at the start of season, appearing 18 times and scoring 3 goals in Serie B. In January 2009, he swapped places with Alessandro Pellicori of Avellino.

With relegation frightening Avellino Sforzini impressed, hitting good form and scoring 7 goals in just 12 Serie B appearances. After hitting good form with Avellino, Sforzini returned to Udinese on 1 July 2009, received the call-up to the pre-season camp, but he was loaned out again, this time to Serie B champion A. S. Bari, the Serie A newcomer, he was the starting forward along with Vitaly Kutuzov in the opening match of Serie A, a shocking 1–1 draw with defending champion Internazionale. But in the next Serie A match the coach Giampiero Ventura preferred Riccardo Meggiorini as starting forward to partner with Kutuzov. Sforzini was further hit by left leg injury soon after, At first he would be rested a month but hit by flu in November. Sforzini trained separately for ongoing injury. After Kutuzov's out of season injury, Bari signed José Ignacio Castillo, Sforzini was call-up by Ventura several time to as an extra cover for their starting forwards Barreto and Castillo, he played his return match on 30 substituted Castillo at the second half.

He made a further 5 Serie A appearances as substitute. On 1 July 2010, Sforzini returned to Udinese again, played for Udinese B team in pre-season friendlies. On 25 August 2010, he was loaned to Romanian side CFR Cluj, he made his debut in Liga I 10 September 2010 against Rapid Bucureşti in a 2–0 defeat, replacing Cristian Bud eight minutes from the end of the game. On 15 September made his debut in the Champions League in Cluj- Basel, replacing Lacina Traoré as a substitute Scored the first goal for Cluj on 27 October 2010 won the encounter against the Targu Mures, valid for the knockout stages of the Cupa României. However, after the sacking of Italian manager Andrea Mandorlini in September 2010, Sforzini lost his place in the side and he returned to Udinese Calcio at the start of the January window. During the 2011 January winter transfer market he was transferred to Italian Serie B team U. S. Grosseto on loan with option to sign permanently. After scoring 8 goals in 20 games on loan at U. S. Grosseto in Serie B, Sforzini's move was made permanent leaving Udinese Calcio after a 6-year spell at the club.

His form in his 2 seasons in Grosseto was impressive, in his first season he scored 21 goals in 40 appearances in all competitions with 20 of those coming in Serie B in the 2011/12 season. He finished 3rd top scorer in Serie B behind Marco Sau. On 10 August 2012, Grosseto were provisionally relegated, by the Disciplinary Commission set up for Scommessopoli scandal investigations, to Lega Pro Prima Divisione because of their involvement in Scommessopoli scandal. Furthermore, the president of Grosseto was at the time suspended from all football activities for five years. However, on 22 August 2012, Grosseto and its president were acquitted by the Court of justice eliminating the verdict of the first instance and so re-instated back to Serie B for the following 2012/13 season, his start to the 2012/13 season saw him score 11 goals in his first 21 Serie B appearances before his form attracted interest of Serie A club Pescara in the January transfer window. On 31 January 2013, Sforzini transferred to Serie A side Pescara for €400,000 plus Grosseto received Gastón Brugman and Danilo Soddimo on season long loan's from Pescara as part of the transfer.

In his first half season he made 10 appearances im Serie A, without scoring a goal. He could not help Pescara escape from relegation to Serie B. During the 2013–14 season, Sforzini scored ju