Hindus are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism. The term has been used as a geographical and religious identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent; the historical meaning of the term Hindu has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu river. By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims; the historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local South Asian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear. Competing theories state that Hindu identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it may have developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu-Muslim wars.
A sense of Hindu identity and the term Hindu appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit and Bengali. The 14th- and 18th-century Indian poets such as Vidyapati and Eknath used the phrase Hindu dharma and contrasted it with Turaka dharma; the Christian friar Sebastiao Manrique used the term'Hindu' in religious context in 1649. In the 18th century, the European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus, in contrast to Mohamedans for Mughals and Arabs following Islam. By the mid-19th century, colonial orientalist texts further distinguished Hindus from Buddhists and Jains, but the colonial laws continued to consider all of them to be within the scope of the term Hindu until about mid-20th century. Scholars state that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon. Hindoo is an archaic spelling variant. At more than 1.03 billion, Hindus are the world's third largest group after Muslims.
The vast majority of Hindus 966 million, live in India, according to India's 2011 census. After India, the next 9 countries with the largest Hindu populations are, in decreasing order: Nepal, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, United States, United Kingdom and Myanmar; these together accounted for 99% of the world's Hindu population, the remaining nations of the world together had about 6 million Hindus in 2010. The word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit word Sindhu, which means "a large body of water", covering "river, ocean", it was used as the name of the Indus River and referred to its tributaries. The actual term'hindu' first occurs, states Gavin Flood, as "a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the Punjab region, called Sapta Sindhu in the Vedas, is called Hapta Hindu in Zend Avesta. The 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I mentions the province of Hidush, referring to northwestern India; the people of India were referred to as Hinduvān and hindavī was used as the adjective for Indian in the 8th century text Chachnama.
The term'Hindu' in these ancient records is an ethno-geographical term and did not refer to a religion. The Arabic equivalent Al-Hind referred to the country of India. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by the Buddhist scholar Xuanzang. Xuanzang uses the transliterated term In-tu whose "connotation overflows in the religious" according to Arvind Sharma. While Xuanzang suggested that the term refers to the country named after the moon, another Buddhist scholar I-tsing contradicted the conclusion saying that In-tu was not a common name for the country. Al-Biruni's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hind, the texts of the Delhi Sultanate period use the term'Hindu', where it includes all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists, retains the ambiguity of being "a region or a religion". The'Hindu' community occurs as the amorphous'Other' of the Muslim community in the court chronicles, according to Romila Thapar.
Wilfred Cantwell Smith notes that'Hindu' retained its geographical reference initially:'Indian','indigenous, local', virtually'native'. The Indian groups themselves started using the term, differentiating themselves and their "traditional ways" from those of the invaders; the text Prithviraj Raso, by Chanda Baradai, about the 1192 CE defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan at the hands of Muhammad Ghori, is full of references to "Hindus" and "Turks", at one stage, says "both the religions have drawn their curved swords. In Islamic literature,'Abd al-Malik Isami's Persian work, Futuhu's-salatin, composed in the Deccan in 1350, uses the word'hindi' to mean Indian in the ethno-geographical sense and the word'hindu' to mean'Hindu' in the sense of a follower of the Hindu religion"; the poet Vidyapati's poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus and Turks in a city and concludes "The Hindus and the Turks live close together. One of the earliest uses of word'Hindu' in religious context in a European language, was the publication in 1649 by Sebastiao Manrique.
Other prominent mentions of'Hindu' include the epigraphical inscriptions from Andhra Pradesh kingdoms who battled military expansion of Muslim dynasties in the 14th century, where the word'Hindu' implies a religious identity in contrast to'Turks'
Garcia Live Volume Five is a two-CD live album by the Jerry Garcia Band. It contains the complete concert recorded at the Keystone in Berkeley, California on December 31, 1975, it was released by ATO Records on October 21, 2014. The lineup of the Jerry Garcia Band for this concert was Jerry Garcia on guitar and vocals, Nicky Hopkins on keyboards, John Kahn on bass, Greg Errico on drums; the show featured performances by guest musicians Bob Weir, Mickey Hart, Matthew Kelly. The back cover of Garcia Live Volume Five includes a notice which reads in part, "Originally captured to analog reels and transferred to digital audio tape, the enclosed recordings have been meticulously mastered for release. While certain minor sonic imperfections impervious to the latest in digital wizardry remain, rest assured this vibrant performance transcends any inherent limitation in fidelity." On AllMusic, Fred Thomas said, "A loose, appropriately celebratory feeling flows through much of the sets as the band wanders through completely unrehearsed instrumental interludes...
When they do get cooking, it's on extended 12-bar blues vamps in the first set like "It Ain't No Use" and "Pig's Boogie", while the second set tends toward laid-back jams like "Catfish John" or shuffling electric blues workouts like "Tore Up Over You". The band takes some time to get in a groove on this date settling into some of the best material near the end of the recording."In All About Jazz, Doug Collette wrote, "The fact of the matter is everyone in the group gets their own chance to shine, but these abbreviated solo intervals don't interrupt the seamless flow of the collective interaction.... Kudos to Betty Cantor-Jackson for capturing the goings-on with such clarity, but to Joe Gastwirt who in both mastering and curating this archive title deserves his co-production credit.... It's no small accomplishment to do perfect justice to the towering figure, Jerry Garcia if the content is as deceptively down-to-earth as December 31st, Keystone Berkeley." Disc 1 First set:"Let It Rock" – 13:00 "Mother Nature's Son" – 2:00 "It Ain't No Use" – 11:36 "God Save the Queen" – 0:48 "They Love Each Other" – 7:49 "Pig's Boogie" – 10:41Disc 2 Second set:New Year's countdown – 1:51 "How Sweet It Is" – 8:25 "Catfish John" – 15:29 "Mystery Train" – 7:08 "Drums" -> "New Year's Jam" – 13:14 "Mystery Train" – 1:48Third set:"Tore Up over You" – 10:46 Tuning – 0:48 "C.
C. Rider" – 8:20 " Road Runner" – 9:43 Jerry Garcia BandJerry Garcia – guitar, vocals Nicky Hopkins – keyboards, vocals John Kahn – bass Greg Errico – drumsAdditional musiciansMatthew Kelly – harmonica, guitar Mickey Hart – drums Bob Weir – guitar, vocals ProductionProduced for release by Marc Allan, Joe Gastwirt Original recordings produced by Jerry Garcia Associate producer: Kevin Monty Recording: Betty Cantor-Jackson Mastering: Joe Gastwirt Liner notes essay: David Gans Art direction, illustration: Ryan Corey Photography: Ed Perlstein, Bob Minkin
Stearns Iron-Front Building known as the Stearns Block, is a historic commercial building located in Richmond, Virginia. It was built in 1869, is a four-story, 14 bay, brick building with a cast iron front; the building measures 107 feet wide by 64 feet deep. Richmond Unionist Franklin Stearns acquired what had once been the Planters Bank Building on Main Street after the American Civil War. In 1868 he erected rental housing and commercial office space, nicknamed the "Stearns block." The city's circuit court was held there beginning in 1870. His grandchildren's estate sold the property in 1923, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1970. Stearns Iron Front Building, 1007-1013 East Main Street, Independent City, VA: 2 photos and 15 data pages at Historic American Buildings Survey
Georgia competed at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia from 7-23 February 2014. The Georgian team consisted of four athletes in two sports; the team sent seven officials. Georgia's government only decided to send athletes and coaches but no government officials due to the breakup in relations with Russia in the aftermath of the August 2008 war. Figure skater Elene Gedevanishvili was supposed to be the flagbearer. However, because of training schedules, Gedevanishvili was scheduled to arrive after the opening ceremony. Therefore, alpine skier Nino Tsiklauri was selected to replace her. According to the quota allocation released on January 20, 2014, Georgia qualified three athletes. Georgia achieved the following quota places: Georgia at the 2014 Winter Olympics at the Wayback Machine Georgia at the 2014 Winter Olympics at SR/Olympics
Robert William Foot was Director-General of the BBC, first jointly with Cecil Graves from 26 January 1942 to 6 September 1943 and solely until he resigned on 31 March 1944. Before joining the BBC, Foot was a general manager at Gas and Coke Company. After being succeeded by William Haley, he became Chairman of the Mining Association. Foot was educated at Winchester College, he started his career in 1912 as a solicitor in Calcutta, working for the firm of Orr and Company. During the First World War, he served in France with the Royal Field Artillery, he was mentioned in dispatches on two occasions, received an OBE and Military Cross for his service. In 1919, he began working for the Gas Coke Company, appointed by David Milne Watson. From 1928 to 1941, he held the position of General Manager. During the Second World War, he acted as a government advisor on organisation within the BBC. In 1942, he was appointed joint Director-General with Cecil Graves; the following year, Graves retired due to poor health, Foot served as sole Director-General.
He was not well-suited to the role and left the post in 1944. Succeeded by William Haley, Foot became chairman of the Mining Association of Great Britain, he later served as president of the British Coal Utilization Research Association. Foot believed. During his tenure at the Mining Association, he visited many mines to better understand miners' issues. In 1945, he published A Plan for Coal. In 1947, he was promoted to President of the Mining Association, a position he held until 1952, he served as the chairman for Powell Duffryn Technical Services and Wankie Colliery Company, director of Barclays and the Australia and New Zealand Banking Group. After a short time in South Africa, Foot retired in England, he was a member of the court of assistance of the Worshipful Company of Haberdashers. He died aged 83 in Whitehanger Nursing Home, Surrey in 1973, he was married, with two sons and one daughter
The 1956–57 NBA season was the 11th season of the National Basketball Association. The season ended with the Boston Celtics winning the NBA Championship, beating the St. Louis Hawks 4 games to 3 in the NBA Finals; the 1957 NBA All-Star Game was played in Boston, with the East beating the West 109-97. Local hero Bob Cousy of the Boston Celtics wins the game's MVP award. St. Louis finished ahead of Fort Wayne and Minneapolis by defeating them in tiebreaker matches.x – clinched playoff spot Note: Prior to the 1969–70 season, league leaders in points and assists were determined by totals rather than averages. Most Valuable Player: Bob Cousy, Boston Celtics Rookie of the Year: Tom Heinsohn, Boston Celtics 1956–57 NBA Season Summary basketball-reference.com. Retrieved December 10, 2010