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Hingham, Massachusetts

Hingham is a town in metropolitan Greater Boston on the South Shore of the U. S. state of Massachusetts in northern Plymouth County. At the 2010 census, the population was 22,157. Hingham is known for its colonial location on Boston Harbor; the town was named after Hingham, Norfolk and was first settled by English colonists in 1633. The town of Hingham was dubbed "Bare Cove" by the first colonizing English in 1633, but two years was incorporated as a town under the name "Hingham." The land on which Hingham was settled was deeded to the English by the Wampanoag sachem Wompatuck in 1655. The town was within Suffolk County from its founding in 1643 until 1803, Plymouth County from 1803 to the present; the eastern part of the town split off to become Cohasset in 1770. The town was named for Hingham, a village in the English county of Norfolk, East Anglia, whence most of the first colonists came, including Abraham Lincoln's ancestor Samuel Lincoln, his first American ancestor, who came to Massachusetts in 1637.

A statue of President Lincoln adorns the area adjacent to downtown Hingham Square. Hingham was born of religious dissent. Many of the original founders were forced to flee their native village in Norfolk with both their vicars, Rev. Peter Hobart and Rev. Robert Peck, when they fell foul of the strict doctrines of Anglican England. Peck was known for what the eminent Norfolk historian Rev. Francis Blomefield called his "violent schismatical spirit." Peck lowered the chancel railing of the church, in accord with Puritan sentiment that the Anglican church of the day was too removed from its parishioners. He antagonized ecclesiastical authorities with other forbidden practices. Hobart, born in Hingham, Norfolk, in 1604 and, like Peck, a graduate of Magdalene College, sought shelter from the prevailing discipline of the high church among his fellow Puritans; the cost to those who emigrated was steep. They "sold their possessions for half their value," noted a contemporary account, "and named the place of their settlement after their natal town."

While most of the early Hingham settlers came from Hingham and other nearby villages in East Anglia, a few Hingham settlers like Anthony Eames came from the West Country of England. The early settlers of Dorchester, for instance, had come under the guidance of Rev. John White of Dorchester in Dorset, some of them moved to Hingham. Accounts from Hingham's earliest years indicate some friction between the disparate groups, culminating in a 1645 episode involving the town's "trainband", when some Hingham settlers supported Eames, others supported Bozoan Allen, a prominent early Hingham settler and Hobart ally who came from King's Lynn in Norfolk, East Anglia. Prominent East Anglian Puritans like the Hobarts and the Cushings, for instance, were used to holding sway in matters of governance; the controversy became so heated that John Winthrop and Thomas Dudley were drawn into the fray. The bitter trainband controversy dragged on for several years. A weary Eames, in his mid-fifties when the controversy began and who had served Hingham as first militia captain, a selectman, Deputy in the General Court, threw in the towel and moved to nearby Marshfield where he again served as Deputy and emerged as a leading citizen, despite his brush with the Hingham powers-that-be.

Although the town was incorporated in 1635, the colonists didn't get around to negotiating purchase from the Wampanoag, the Native American tribe in the region, until three decades later. On July 4, 1665, the tribe's chief sachem, Josiah Wompatuck, sold the township to Capt. Joshua Hobart and Ensign John Thaxter, representatives of Hingham's colonial residents. Having occupied the land for 30 years, the Englishmen felt entitled to a steep discount; the sum promised Josiah Wompatuck for the land encompassing Hingham was to be paid by two Hingham landowners: Lieut. John Smith and Deacon John Leavitt, granted 12 acres on Hingham's Turkey Hill earlier that year. Now the two men were instructed to deliver payment for their 12-acre grant to Josiah the chief Sachem; the grant to Smith and Leavitt—who together bought other large tracts from the Native Americans for themselves and their partners—was "on condition that they satisfy all the charge about the purchase of the town's land of Josiah—Indian sagamore, both the principal purchase and all the other charge that hath been about it".

With that payment the matter was considered settled. The third town clerk of Hingham was Daniel Cushing, who emigrated to Hingham from Hingham, with his father Matthew in 1638. Cushing's meticulous records of early Hingham enabled subsequent town historians to reconstruct much of early Hingham history as well as that of the early families. Cushing was rather unusual in that he included the town's gossip along with the more conventional formal record-keeping. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 26.3 square miles, of which 22.2 square miles is land and 4.1 square miles, or 15.58%, is water. Hingham is bordered on the east by Cohasset, Scituate, on the south by Norwell and Rockland, on the west by Weymouth, on the north by Hingham Bay and Hull. Cohasset and Weymouth are in Norfolk County. Hingham is 14 miles southeast of downtown Boston. Hingham lies along the sou

Paludititan

Paludititan is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur which lived in the area of present Romania during the Late Cretaceous. It existed in the island ecosystem known as Hațeg Island. Paludititan was a small member of the Sauropoda, with a shoulder height of about 2 metres. Gregory S. Paul in 2016 estimated the length of Magyarosaurus dacus and Paludititan, by him considered a possible single taxon, at 6 m, the weight at one tonne; the fossil remains show at least four unique features, which demonstrate that P. nalatzensis is a species distinct from comparable titanosaurians. In the rear vertebrae of the back, the top of the lamina centrodiapophysealis anterior, the front ridge on the underside of the lateral process, obliquely curving to the front and above runs parallel to the top of the lamina centrodiapophysealis posterior, the rear ridge, instead of touching it. In the vertebrae of the tail base and the first vertebrae of the middle tail, the neural spines, while being short and erect, possess a conspicuous corner on their front rim, projecting to the front.

While vertebrae of the tail base and the first vertebrae of the middle tail are procoelous, thus with a concave front facet of the vertebral centre, some middle tail vertebrae more to the rear are amphiplatous, with flat front and rear facets. The peduncle of the ischium, touching the ilium, has a conspicuous triangular process at the outer upper rear, forming a buttress that overlaps the ischial pedicel of the ilium. In 2002, a Belgian-Romanian expedition uncovered a sauropod skeleton in the bed of the river Râul Mare, at Nǎlaț-Vad, it was at the time the most complete sauropod skeleton discovered in Romania. In 2010, the type species Paludititan nalatzensis was named and described by Zoltán Csiki, Vlad Codrea, Cǎtǎlin Jipa-Murzea and Pascal Godefroit; the generic name is derived from "marsh" and Greek Titan. The specific name refers to its finding place Nǎlaț-Vad; the holotype, UBB NVM1, was found in the Hațeg Basin, in a silty mudstone layer of the Sânpetru Formation, dating from the early Maastrichtian.

It consists of a partial skeleton lacking the skull. It contains three dorsal vertebrae, at least nine caudal vertebrae, twelve chevrons, the right half of the pelvis, a left ischium, the lower end of the right thighbone, two toe claws; the remains were not found in articulation but in such close association that it is they represent a single individual. The describing authors of Paludititan considered the possibility that the skeleton was a specimen of Magyarosaurus dacus, a coeval titanosaurian sauropod sharing the same habitat. Overlapping remains were identical. On the other hand, they did not show any shared unique traits, M. dacus is known from a different location. They felt justified to name a separate taxon, pending further discoveries. Paludititan was placed in 2010 in the Titanosauria. More it was considered a probable member of the Lithostrotia. Cladistic analysis suggested. Paludititan lived on the Cretaceous Hațeg Island with a diverse assemblage of animals, including other island dwarfs such as its relative Magyarosaurus, the hadrosaurid Telmatosaurus and the iguanodontian Zalmoxes.

Other endemic dinosaurs include the nodosaurid Struthiosaurus, several small, fragmentary maniraptorans Bradycneme, Elopteryx and the avialan Balaur. The top predator of the island ecosystem was the giant azhdarchid pterosaur Hatzegopteryx

Sheep Rock

Sheep Rock is an overlook of Hells Canyon in the Payette National Forest about 45 miles northwest of Council, Idaho. It was designated a National Natural Landmark in 1976; the formation consists of two contrasting series of layers from the Columbia River Basalt Group. The layers are separated by an unconformity and provide an unobstructed view of this type of geologic phenomenon. Sheep Rock is named for the bighorn sheep. To the north is part of Red Ledge Mine in Deep Creek; the National Forest maintains a mile-long interpretive trail that leads to the canyon overlook halfway around the loop. At the trailhead is a campground with vault toilet. Nearby is Kinney Point, an old lookout site over the canyon, it is just off the road to Sheep Rock about 1.5 miles south. The NFS has an interpretive site here