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Hiranyakashipu was an Asura and king of the daityas from the Puranic scriptures of Hinduism. His name translates to "clothed in gold", is interpreted as depicting one, fond of wealth. In the Puranas, however, it is stated the name was derived from a golden throne called'Hiranyakashipu' the asura sat in or nearby during the Atiratra sacrifice. Hiranyakashipu's younger brother, Hiranyaksha was slain by Varaha avatar of Lord Vishnu. Angered by this, Hiranyakashipu decided to gain magical powers by performing a penance for Lord Brahma, he is subsequently killed by the Narasimha avatara of Lord Vishnu. His tale depicts the futility of desiring power over others and the strength of God's protection over his surrendered devotees. Hiranyakashipu, according to legend, earned a boon from Lord Brahma that made him indestructible; the story of Hiranyakashipu is in three parts. The first has to do with the curse of the Four Kumaras on the gatekeepers of Vaikuntha and Vijaya, which causes them to be born as the daityas Hiranyakashipu and Hiranyaksha.

The second part deals with Hiranyakashipu's penance to gain a boon from him. The final part deals with his efforts to kill his son Prahlada and his subsequent death at the hands of Narasimha. According to a story from Bhagavata Purana and Hiranyaksha are Vishnu's gatekeepers Jaya and Vijaya, born on earth as the result of a curse from the Four Kumaras. In Satya Yuga and Hiranyaksha - together called the Hiranyas - were born to Diti and the sage Kashyapa, it is said that asuras were born to them as a result of their union at the time of dusk, said to be an inauspicious time for such a deed. After Hiranyakashipu's younger brother Hiranyaksha's death at the hands of the Varaha avatar of Vishnu, Hiranyakashipu comes to hate Vishnu, he decides to kill him by gaining mystical powers, which he believes Brahma, the chief among the devas, will award to him if he undergoes many years of great austerity and penance, just as Brahma awarded powers to other Rakshasas. This seemed to work as planned, with Brahma becoming pleased by Hiranyakashipu's austerities.

Brahma offers him a boon of his choice. But when Hiranyakashipu asks for immortality, Brahma refuses. Hiranyakashipu makes the following request: O my lord, O best of the givers of benediction, if you will kindly grant me the benediction I desire, please let me not meet death from any of the living entities created by you. Grant me that I not die within any residence or outside any residence, during the daytime or at night, nor on the ground or in the sky. Grant me that my death not be brought by any being other than those created by you, nor by any weapon, nor by any human being or animal. Grant me that I not meet the death from any entity, living or nonliving. Grant me, that I not be killed by any demigod or demon or by any great snake from the lower planets. Since no one can kill you in the battlefield, you have no competitor. Therefore, grant me the benediction that I too may have no rival. Give me sole lordship over all the living entities and presiding deities, give me all the glories obtained by that position.

Furthermore, give me all the mystic powers attained by long austerities and the practice of yoga, for these cannot be lost at any time. In other Puranas, many variations of the boon are given; the Shiva Purana mentions that Hiranyakashipu asked Brahma that he would be invulnerable to dry or wet weapons, mountains, missiles or any form of weapon. The Vayu Purana mentions that Hiranyakashipu asked to be so powerful, only Vishnu would slay him. Other variations include not being slain by any living being, not at daytime or nighttime and not above or below. In section 14, the Anusasana Parva of the Mahabharata, the Sage Upamanyu mentioned to Krishna that Hiranyakashipu performed another penance to please Lord Shiva. Shiva granted Hiranyakashipu the boon that he would have unrivalled combat prowess, exceeding skill in the use of bow and other weapons as well as the powers of all the gods, including Indra, Kubera, Sūrya, Vayu and Varuna. In consequence of these two boons, Hiranyakashipu become so mighty that he was able to shake the Himalayas down to their roots.

Ravana once tried to lift Hiranyakashipu's earrings but he was unable to do so because they were heavy. The Brahmanda Purana mentions. Whilst Hiranyakashipu is performing the penance to be granted this boon and the other devas attack his home, seizing the opportunity in his absence. At this point the divine sage Narada intervenes to protect Hiranyakashipu's wife Kayadhu, whom he describes as'sinless'. Narada takes Kayadhu into his care, while she is under his guidance, her unborn child Prahlada becomes affected by the transcendental instructions of the sage in the womb. Growing as a child, Prahlada begins to show symptoms of Narada's prenatal training and becomes recognised as a devoted follower of Vishnu, much to his father's disappointment. Hiranyakashipu becomes so angry and upset at his son's devotion to Vishnu that he decides he must kill him but each time he attempts to kill the boy, Prahlada is protected by Vishnu's mystical power; when asked, Prahlada refuses to acknowledge his father as the supreme lord of the universe and claims that Vishnu is all-pervading and omnipresent.

To which Hiranyakashipu points to a nearby pillar and asks if'his Vishnu' is in it: "O most unfortunate Prahlada, yo

Santuario de la Medalla Milagrosa y San Agustín, Montevideo

The Sanctuary of the Miraculous Medal and Saint Augustine, popularly known as Iglesia de la Unión is a Roman Catholic parish church in Montevideo, Uruguay. The parish was established on 12 October 1849, during the Guerra Grande. In 1896, bishop Mariano Soler blessed the fundamental stone, it has been a landmark of this neighbourhood since. Held by the Congregation of the Mission, it is dedicated to Saint Augustine and the Immaculate Virgin Mary of the Miraculous Medal. Cardinal Antonio Barbieri was decisive in this dedication. Furthermore, in 1975 it was declared a National Monument; the Montevideo Philharmonic Orchestra holds concerts here during its seasons. There is another church in Uruguay dedicated to the Miraculous Medal: Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal Parish Church in San Isidro, near Las Piedras

Eduard Gruner

Carl Eduard Gruner was a Basel-born Swiss engineer, manager of the Swissboring Company and on a partner at the "Gruner Brothers" engineering company. He made considerable contributions to many projects in Europe; the Middle East, Central Asia and South America, most the construction of the Trans-Iranian Railway, in which he participated as a Sector Engineer. During the Second World War Gruner was in charge of several military construction works in his homeland. Between 1941 and 1943 he was in charge of railways and power plants construction in Norway. From 1946 he was involved in projects outside Europe. In 1947 he experienced the death of his father, Heinrich Gruner, who had established an engineering company of his own in 1862. In 1948, Gruner became partner in his late father's company; as the responsible for the Public Works Department, Gruner directed the construction of power plants and irrigation systems in India, Syria and Uruguay. In 1976 he was asked by a subcommittee of the United Nations General Assembly to survey the damage caused to the Syrian town of Quneitra during the Israel-Syrian wars in 1967 and in 1973.

Gruner worked with team of Swiss engineers and military experts, who lived in the town for four months and examined every recognizable structure. They concluded that some damage had been caused by the warfare, however most of the damage had been the result of deliberate destruction by heavy machinery. Gruner's report served as a confirmation of the Syrian allegation that Israel deliberately destroyed the town after the 1973 War, before handing it back to Syrian civil control according to the ceasefire agreements; the UN General Assembly adopted his report

Willow River, British Columbia

Willow River is a community northeast of Prince George, on the northeast bank of the Willow River, 2.5 kilometres southeast of the confluence with the Fraser River, in central British Columbia. The name derives from the many willow swamps in the river valley. Comprising about 150 residents, it has a general store/post-office, a volunteer fire department, church building and a small community hall. Street map. A trackside signpost marks the flag stop for Via Rail's Jasper – Prince Rupert train; the immediate Via Rail stops are Aleza Lake to the east. The river confluence, close proximity to the Salmon River, being handy to the Giscome Portage, made it a strategic location; the Cariboo, Barkerville & Willow River Railway proposed linking Eagle Lake. In its 1909 Annual Report, the Willow River Timber Co. of Ontario highlighted the line's value in accessing the company's remote timber limits in the upper reaches of the Willow River. Investing $1.5 million in timber limits, a British syndicate planned a mammoth sawmill at the river mouth.

The CB&WR never eventuated. Asset sales followed the 1922 WRT receivership. By 1912, a Victoria-based syndicate acquired Lot 788, the GTP acquired Lot 785, about two miles due east and across the Willow River. Lot 782 lay between; that March, the Railway Commission had approved the future station location as near the centre of Lot 785. The Lot 788 syndicate publicized a 2,500-lot subdivision called "Willow City" on the soon coming Grand Trunk Pacific Railway and at the terminal for the proposed Pacific & Hudson Bay Railway, additional misleading claims. Although, the proposed P&HB passed no closer than 20 miles away, the locality was a possible terminus for an unlikely branch line crossing the Fraser, but no track eventuated anywhere. Tree clearing defined the planned streets the following year. Meanwhile, the GTP surveyed and subdivided its land, contracted to have the 40 acres cleared by Christmas. Further lots were surveyed, cleared. Warning prospective buyers not to confuse their 640-acre development with the syndicate's one three miles away by rail from the planned station, the GTP began marketing their real estate.

Owning Lot 784, bordering to the north, the GTP purchased Lot 781, northwest of the latter, to secure an overland access to the Fraser. The syndicate renamed its parcel as "Willow River", further described the location as "the only townsite registered as Willow River". Either their acquisition of Lot 782 between the two developments or legal pressure amended it to "next to the GTP townsite of Willow River"; the devious marketing practices created some buyer remorse among naïve faraway investors. Most of the premium lots with river frontage are now river silt. Meanwhile, the GTP weekly advertisements publicized their land as "the only one official and original GTP town of Willow River". Based in South Fort George, F. W. Crawford, the BC manager of the GTP's Transcontinental Townsites Co. was secretary-treasurer of the chamber of commerce and a director of the Herald. The start of World War I saw land prices tumble; the syndicate lots never became more than rural and the GTP ones attained a hint of the significance promised by the promoters.

Of the surveyed GTP town, the demand for lots evaporated. Only a quarter of the land, comprising the central portion and a sliver east along Railway Ave. to beyond the Upper Fraser Rd. intersection, was developed, but half these lots have since reverted to open spaces. The Prince George-Willow River sternwheeler service provided a destination for day excursions, an indispensable link until the railway service became reliable. Willow River lies at Fraser Subdivision; the hospital, near the mouth on Hospital Creek, was at Mile 217. The 17-mile railway right-of-way contract, completed by J. M. Kullander during 1912/13, advanced from camps at Miles 208 and 217, encompassed Willow River and Newlands; the camp received some supplies from Prince George, but most came down the Fraser River. A. Roy Spurr at Penny, maintained a camp store and accommodation at this time; the unprecedented low water limiting navigation on the Upper Fraser made it impossible to transport steam shovels downstream in 1912. The Collander contract was light work through considerable muskeg.

During the following springtime, a large force was at work, but much of the unfinished grade was submerged. In late summer, near the D. J. Carey camp southwest of the river mouth at Mile 220, the single firing of over 200 tons of explosives demolished a solid rock hill; the previous winter, an employee at Carey's camp, who suffered frostbite when lost, had both feet amputated at the GTP hospital. Willow River, like Shelley to its southwest, Giscome to its east, was an original train station on the GTP; the railway bridge spans at Mile 127.8. Although tracks were laid across this bridge on 31 December 1913, the discrepancy of having reached Mile 220 the previous day indicates that mileage references in newspapers were sometimes approximations. In 1920, around three miles to the west, a freight locomotive derailed and submerged in the Fraser River. About two miles to the east, a westbound passenger train fatally struck Albert Beacham, asleep on the track; the wheels severed his head, one arm at the shoulder, one arm at the elbow, the right foot at the ankle.


Peace X Peace

Peace X Peace is a nonprofit women's organization founded in 2002 that promotes building peace through online communications. Peace X Peace was founded in 2002 by Patricia Smith Melton. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11th, Smith Melton gathered experts in peace and women's rights from around the world to discern a women's response to the September 11 attacks, they agreed that women are the key to peace, that women must stand together to claim their full power. In 2002 Smith Melton incorporated the organization and took a film crew around the world to interview extraordinary women; the award-winning documentary that resulted, Peace by Peace: Women on the Frontlines, premiered at the United Nations on International Women's Day in 2003. It was aired around the world and on PBS in the United States. In 2003, the organization launched a website and an online women’s news service, began connecting women for virtual conversations across geographic and cultural divides. Peace X Peace is governed and informed by "Circle Principles."

These principles are: Communicate and thoughtfully Listen without judgment Invite silence when in doubt Affirm one another Offer experience, not advice Share leadership and resources Build consensus Maintain confidentialityThe organization strives to achieve what it calls "Pillars of Peace." They identify these pillars as essential to creating thriving communities. The Pillars of Peace are: Conflict transformation Cross-cultural understanding Economic empowerment Education Environmental sustainability Health and well-being Interfaith dialogue Justice and good governance In fall of 2008 Dr. Pat Morris took office as Executive Director of Peace X Peace, in 2010 Kim Weichel took the helm as CEO; as of June, 2011 the organization had six staff members. Peace X Peace advocates for effective, sustained policies and programs that support and advance women, they are part of a civil society coalition that offers recommendations into a US Government National Action Plan for Women and Security. Peace X Peace operates entirely online, hosting a private online community, as well as publishing original and re-posted material on their blogs.

These blogs include Voices from the Frontlines, Be the Change, Connection Point. The organization puts out a monthly newsletter, PeaceTimes, sends the Weekly Blog Digest each Friday; the Peace X Peace community now numbers some 18,000 women in more than 100 countries. Peace X Peace collaborates on UN initiatives for women, including the Commission on the Status of Women, Millennium Development Goals, UN Women, advocates on behalf of UN conventions, participates in UN programs in the Washington DC area. In February 2011, Peace X Peace launched a new project, called "Connection Point." The goal of this project is to "link Arab and Muslim women with women from Western countries in a vibrant online community." It works to achieve this goal by posting articles and interviews with women from the Arab world and Muslim women, as well as collecting and posting resources pertinent to Arab and Muslim women, their relations with women in the west. Every November, Peace X Peace hosts the Women and Peace Awards.

Award categories include Peace Media, Peace Philanthropy, the Patricia Smith Melton Peacebuilder award, the Community Peacebuilder award. Every other year these awards are given out in a ceremony held in Washington, DC. In 2002 the Isabel Allende Foundation honored Peace X Peace with the Espiritu Award for the Pursuit of Peace The documentary Peace by Peace: Women on the Frontlines won the Golden Eagle Cine Award in 2004 and the Best Documentary Aurora Award in 2006 In 2005, Religious Science International, a nonprofit based in Seattle, recognized Peace X Peace with its Golden Works Award for activities that exemplify the RSI mission, "awakening humanity to its spiritual magnificence" In 2006, Working Mother named it one of the 25 Best Places for Women to Work In 2007, Peace X Peace won the ePhilanthropy Foundation's Best Community Building/Activism Award In November 2008, Peace X Peace won the Technology Innovation Award from NPower Greater DC and Accenture In December 2008, Peace X Peace Founder Patricia Smith Melton was selected as one of OneWorld's People of 2008 and received The Rumi Peace and Dialogue Award Official website Peace by Peace: Women on the Frontlines on IMDb The 21st Century Motherhood Movement: Mothers Speak Out on Why We Need to Change the World and How to Do It.

- includes chapter on Peace X Peace Melton, Patricia Smith. "World Peace Emerging – Daring to Save the World". "Palestinian and Israeli Women, in New Book, Seek Peace". Voice of America. Jan 9, 2009. Banjo, Shelly. "Women as Practical Peace Activists". The Wall Street Journal Online. Sofer, Barbara. "The Human Spirit: One in 60". The Jerusalem Post, Online Edition. "Patricia Smith Melton Interview". WE Magazine for Women. July 3, 2008


Elmton-with-Creswell is a civil parish in the English county of Derbyshire. Forming part of Bolsover district its main settlements are Elmton and Creswell Model Village. According to Census data in 2001, Elmton with Creswell parish had a population of 4,755, in 2011 had a population of 5,550; the village lies on the border with Nottinghamshire. In 1870–72, John Marius Wilson's Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales described Elmton like this: The Parish now known as Elmton with Cresswell began as a medieval settlement. Elmton being recorded in the Domesday Book commissioned by William the Conqueror, but if Creswell existed it would have been a small outlying hamlet or farm. Elmton didn't grow much in fact hasn't done so over the past 150 years, but Creswell might have become a small hamlet in the Creswell valley consisting of yeoman farmers. In 1722 an Estate Map shows what this post medieval settlement may have looked like with buildings spread along the valley and a nucleus of buildings at the southern end of the village around an open space called Creswell Green, part of, now known as Fox Green.

Further development of Creswell took place in the 18th century in response to the construction of a turnpike road along the valley linking Chesterfield and Mansfield. In 1854 the Duke of Portland acquired the Rodes estate in Elmton and Creswell resulting in a significant development of Creswell Village. Over the next 40 years comprehensive improvements to the estate followed with further development of the enclosed landscape, new farm houses, improvements of Elmton Church and at Creswell a school and church. By 1984 Creswell had grown into a hamlet of 30 - 40 houses; the Midland Railway was constructed west of the hamlet in 1975 and the Beighton branch of the Lancashire and East Coast Railway was constructed a little further west in 1886/97. The overall effects of these changes was to bring about a profound change in the relative importance of the two settlements of Elmton and Creswell between 1841 and 1881; the population of Elmton remained static at just over 200, whilst that of Creswell grew from 222 to 300.

Over the next two decades it was to rise to over 2000. Between 1894 and 1900 North Eastern Derbyshire was transformed by the Coal Industry and associated increase in population and housing; the Bolsover Colliery Company was formed in 1894 and trial sinking in Crewsell began in the September of the same year. A good seam was found and coal turning commenced in 1897. Construction of the Model Village in Creswell began in 1896 on land purchased from the Duke of Portland and the Village was built to provide cottages for the colliery workforce. Covering land to an extent of approx. 10 acres, the Model Village consists of 250 two storied houses built in the form of a double octagon. After completion of the Model Village, Creswell began to grow. Other historic buildings of note include Creswell Drill Hall, built by Bolsover Colliery Company in 1903–04 to provide recreational facilities for the Creswell Boys Brigade. During World War 1 the building was converted to a Military Hospital, after which it retained its name Drill Hall but served the community as a social centre until 1976 when it was taken over by the Parish Council and took on its new name Creswell Social Centre.

The heritage significance of the village core is enhanced by the fact that the buildings are of a high standard design and construction, reflecting the concerns of the Bolsover Company and the patronage of Duke of Portland - the schools, Model Village, Miners Welfare, Social Centre, the original shop fronts 12-16 18-20 28-30 Elmton Road Both Village Greens - Elmton and Creswell Fox Green are now registered Village Greens. The population of the Parish has seen prolific growth from its 18th-century total of 500, to 2,000 in 1900, 6,450 in 1971; when the Creswell Colliery closed in 1991 the population dropped 4,820. With new housing at Elmfields and Markland the restoration of the Model Village the population has increased to over 5,000. During 1899–1947 a large proportion of the population was employed by the Bolsover Colliery Company, which at its peak was part of the FT 30 index of leading companies on the London Stock Exchange during that time. In 1831, 70 out of the 86 males above the age of 20 living in Elmton worked in agriculture, be it mining or farming There are 2,384 households in the Elmton and Creswell area according to 2011 Census data.

According to Neighbourhood Statistics on unshared and shared properties in Elmton-with-Creswell, out of the 2,511 dwellings 100% of them are unshared dwellingsOut of the 2,834 households, 655 of those are one person households, 27.47% of the households in the area There are 10 Listed building within the Elmton area, all with grade two listing, these include, Barn to South of Grange Farmhouse, Church of St Mary Magdalen, Church of St Peter, Creswell Church of England Infants School, Creswell Junior School, Elmton Park Farmhouse, Elmtree Farmhouse, Former Creswell Church of England Secondary School, Grange Farmhouse and the War Memorial on Elmton Road. The closest main towns to Elmton with Creswell are Mansfield which has a population of 104,466 and is 9.2 miles away, as well as Chesterfield which has a population of 103,788 and is 11.5 miles away from Elmton with Creswell. Parish official website