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Hispania

Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Under the Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into two new provinces and Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis was split off, first as Hispania Nova renamed "Callaecia". From Diocletian's Tetrarchy onwards, the south of remaining Tarraconensis was again split off as Carthaginensis, then too the Balearic Islands and all the resulting provinces formed one civil diocese under the vicarius for the Hispaniae; the name Hispania was used in the period of Visigothic rule. The modern place names Spain and Hispaniola are both derived from Hispania; the origin of the word Hispania is much disputed. The evidence for the various speculations is based upon what are at best mere resemblances to be accidental, suspect supporting evidence; the most held theory holds it to be of Punic origin, from the Phoenician language of colonizing Carthage.

It may derive from a Punic cognate ī shāpān of Hebrew ī shāfān meaning "island of the hyrax", referring to the European rabbit. Some Roman coins of the Emperor Hadrian, born in Hispania, depict a rabbit. Others derive the word from Phoenician span, meaning "hidden", make it indicate "a hidden", that is, "a remote", or "far-distant land". Other far-fetched theories have been proposed. Isidore of Sevilla considered Hispania of Iberian origin and derived it from the pre-Roman name for Seville, Hispalis; this was revived for instance by the etymologist Eric Partridge who felt that this might hint at an ancient name for the country of *Hispa an Iberian or Celtic root whose meaning is now lost. Hispalis may alternatively derive from Heliopolis. However, according to modern research by Manuel Pellicer Catalán, the name derives from Phoenician spal "lowland", rendering the above explanations of Hispania unlikely. Hispania was called Hesperia ultima "farthest western land" by Roman writers since the name Hesperia "western land" had been used by the Greeks to refer to the Italian peninsula.

During the 18th and 19th centuries, Jesuits scholars like Larramendi and José Francisco de Isla tied the name to the Basque word ezpain ‘lip’, but ‘border, edge’, thus meaning the farthest area or place. During Antiquity and Middle Ages, the literary texts derive the term Hispania from an eponymous hero named Hispan, mentioned for the first time in the work of the Roman historian Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus, in the 1st century BC. Although "Hispania" is the Latin root for the modern name "Spain", substituting Spanish for Hispanicus or Hispanic, or Spain for Hispania, should be done and taking into account the correct context; the Estoria de España written on the initiative of Alfonso X of Castile "El Sabio", between 1260 and 1274, during the Reconquest of Spain, is believed to be the first extended history of Spain in Old Spanish using the words "España" and "Españoles" to refer to Medieval Hispania. The use of Latin "Hispania", Castilian "España", Catalan "Espanya" and French "Espaigne", among others, to refer to Roman Hispania or Visigothic Hispania was common throughout all the Late Middle Ages.

A document dated 1292 mentions the names of foreigners from Medieval Spain as "Gracien d'Espaigne". Latin expressions using "Hispania" or "Hispaniae" like "omnes reges Hispaniae" are used in the Middle Ages at the same time as the emerging Spain Romance languages during the Reconquista use the Romance version interchangeably. In James Ist Chronicle Llibre dels fets, written between 1208 and 1276, there are many instances of this: when it talks about the different Kings, "los V regnes de Espanya"; the Latin term Hispania used during Antiquity and the Low Middle Ages as a geographical name, starts to be used with political connotations, as shown in the expression laus Hispaniae, "Praise to Hispania", to describe the history of the peoples of the Iberian Peninsula of Isidore of Seville's "Historia de regibus Gothorum, Vandalorum et Suevorum".: You are, Oh Spain and always happy mother of princes and peoples, the most beautiful of all the lands that extend far from the West to India. You, by right, are now the queen of all provinces, from whom the lights are given not only the sunset, but the East.

You are the honor and ornament of the orb and the most illustrious portion of the Earth... And for this reason, long ago, the golden Rome desired you In modern history and Spanish have become associated with the Kingdom of Spain alone, although this process took several centuries. A

Shahabad, Rampur

Shahabad is a town and a nagar panchayat in Rampur district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Shahabad has a famous temple Mahakaal Shiv Mandir. Shahabad is a place of nawabs. Shahabad is made by the first nawab of rampur Hamid Ali Shah. Shahabad is famous for its heritage of old palace made by nawab rampur in the 18th century, known as Kothi. Shahabad has mixed population. Hindus and Muslim. Shahabad has town area. Current Chairman is Mr. Matlub Ansari Shahabad is located at 28.566°N 79.009°E / 28.566. It has an average elevation of 143 metres; as of 2001 India census, Shahabad had a population of 32,015. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Shahabad has an average literacy rate of 31%, lower than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 38%, female literacy is 24%. In Shahabad, 20% of the population is under 6 years of age

Hawaii (island)

Hawaiʻi anglicized Hawaii is the largest island located in the U. S. state of Hawaiʻi. It is the largest and the southeasternmost of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of volcanic islands in the North Pacific Ocean. With an area of 4,028 square miles, it has 63% of the Hawaiian archipelago's combined landmass, is the largest island in the United States. However, it has only 13% of Hawaiʻi's people; the island of Hawaiʻi is the third largest island in Polynesia, behind the two main islands of New Zealand. The island is referred to as the Island of Hawaiʻi, the Big Island, or Hawaiʻi Island to distinguish it from the state. Administratively, the whole island encompasses Hawaiʻi County; as of the 2010 Census the population was 185,079. The county seat and largest city is Hilo. There are no incorporated cities in Hawaiʻi County. Hawaiʻi is said to have been named after Hawaiʻiloa, the legendary Polynesian navigator who first discovered it. Other accounts attribute the name to the legendary realm of Hawaiki, a place from which some Polynesian people are said to have originated, the place where they transition to in the afterlife, or the realm of the gods and goddesses.

Captain James Cook, the English explorer and navigator, captain of the first European expedition that discovered the Hawaiian Islands, called them the "Sandwich Islands" after his patron, the Earl of Sandwich. Cook was killed on the Big Island at Kealakekua Bay on 14 February 1779, in a mêlée which followed the theft of a ship's boat. Hawaiʻi was the home island of Paiʻea Kamehameha known as Kamehameha the Great. Kamehameha united most of the Hawaiian islands under his rule in 1795, after several years of war, gave the kingdom and the island chain the name of his native island. In 1822 William Ellis arrived and was one of a party that completed a tour of the island and kept a journal, this was published. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 5,086 square miles, of which 4,028 square miles is land and 1,058 square miles is water; the county's land area comprises 62.7 percent of the state's land area. It is the highest percentage by any county in the United States.

At its greatest dimension, the island is 93 miles across. It has a land area of 4,028 square miles comprising 62% of the Hawaiian Islands' land area. Measured from its sea floor base to its highest peak, Mauna Kea is the world's tallest mountain, taller than Mount Everest, since the base of Mount Everest is above sea level. Ka Lae, the southernmost point in the 50 states of the United States, is on Hawaii; the nearest landfall to the south is in the Line Islands. To the northwest of the island of Hawaii is the island of Maui, whose Haleakalā volcano is visible from Hawaiʻi across the Alenuihaha Channel; the island of Hawaiʻi is built from five separate shield volcanoes that erupted somewhat sequentially, one overlapping the other. These are: Kohalaextinct Mauna Kea – dormant Hualālai – active Mauna Loa – active within Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park Kīlauea – active: erupting continuously from 1983 to 2018. Geologists now consider these "outcrops" to be part of the earlier building of Mauna Loa.

Because Mauna Loa and Kīlauea are active volcanoes, the island of Hawaii is still growing. Between January 1983 and September 2002, lava flows added 543 acres to the island. Lava flowing from Kīlauea has destroyed several towns, including Kapoho in 1960, Kalapana and Kaimū in 1990. In 1987 lava filled in "Queen's Bath", a large, L-shaped, freshwater pool in the Kalapana area. Another 875 acres were added between May to 2018 by the 2018 lower Puna eruption; some geologists count seven volcanoes as building the island, which include the submarine volcanoes Māhukona and Lōʻihi as parts of the base of the island. Māhukona off the northwest corner of the island has disappeared below the surface of the ocean. 22 miles southeast of Hawaii lies the undersea volcano known as Lōʻihi. It is an erupting seamount that now reaches 3,200 feet below the surface of the ocean. Continued activity at current rates from Lōʻihi will cause it to break the surface of the ocean sometime between 10,000 and 100,000 years from now.

The Great Crack is an eight-mile-long, 60-foot-wide and 60-foot-deep fissure in the island, in the district of Kau. According to the United States Geological Survey, the Great Crack is the result of crustal dilation from magmatic intrusions into the southwest rift zone of Kilauea. While neither the earthquake of 1868 nor that of 1975 caused a measurable change in the Great Crack, lava welled out of the lower 6 miles of the Great Crack in 1823. Visitors can find trails, rock walls, archaeological sites from as old as the 12th century around the Great Crack. 1,951 acres of private land were purchased during the presidency of Bill Clinton to protect various artifacts in this area, as well as the habitat of local wildlife. The Hilina Slump is a 4,760-cubic-mile section of the south slope of the Kīlauea volcano, slipping away from the island. Between 1990 and 1993, Global Positioning System measurements showed a southward displacement of about 4 inches per year. Undersea measurements show that a "bench" has formed a buttress and that this buttress may tend to reduce