Hispania Baetica

Hispania Baetica abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania. Baetica was bordered to the west by Lusitania, to the northeast by Hispania Tarraconensis. Baetica remained one of the basic divisions of Hispania under the Visigoths down to 711. Baetica was part of Al-Andalus under the Moors in the 8th century and corresponds to modern Andalusia. In Latin, Baetica is an adjectival form of Baetis, the Roman name for the Guadalquivir River, whose fertile valley formed one of the most important parts of the province. Before Romanization, the mountainous area, to become Baetica was occupied by several settled Iberian tribal groups. Celtic influence was not as strong. According to the geographer Claudius Ptolemy, the indigenes were the powerful Turdetani, in the valley of the Guadalquivir in the west, bordering on Lusitania, the Hellenized Turduli with their city Baelo, in the hinterland behind the coastal Phoenician trading colonies, whose Punic inhabitants Ptolemy termed the "Bastuli".

Phoenician Gadira was on an island against the coast of Hispania Baetica. Other important Iberians were the Bastetani, who occupied the Almería and mountainous Granada regions. Towards the southeast, Punic influence spread from the Carthaginian cities on the coast: New Carthage and Malaca; some of the Iberian cities retained their pre-Indo-European names in Baetica throughout the Roman era. Granada was called Eliberri and Illiber by the Romans; the south of the Iberian peninsula was agriculturally rich, providing for export of wine, olive oil and the fermented fish sauce called garum that were staples of the Mediterranean diet, its products formed part of the western Mediterranean trade economy before it submitted to Rome in 206 BC. After the defeat of Carthage in the Second Punic War, which found its casus belli on the coast of Baetica at Saguntum, Hispania was Romanized in the course of the 2nd century BC, following the uprising initiated by the Turdetani in 197; the central and north-eastern Celtiberians soon followed suit.

It took Cato the Elder, who became consul in 195 BC and was given the command of the whole peninsula to put down the rebellion in the northeast and the lower Ebro valley. He marched southwards and put down a revolt by the Turdetani. Cato returned to Rome in 194. In the late Roman Republic, Hispania remained divided like Gaul into a "Nearer" and a "Farther" province, as experienced marching overland from Gaul: Hispania Citerior, Ulterior; the battles in Hispania during the 1st century BC were confined to the north. In the reorganization of the Empire in 14 BC, when Hispania was remade into the three Imperial provinces, Baetica was governed by a proconsul, a praetor. Fortune smiled on rich Baetica, Baetica Felix, a dynamic, upwardly-mobile social and economic middling stratum developed there, which absorbed freed slaves and far outnumbered the rich elite; the Senatorial province of Baetica became so secure that no Roman legion was required to be permanently stationed there. Legio VII Gemina was permanently stationed in Hispania Tarraconensis.

Hispania Baetica was divided into four conventūs, which were territorial divisions like judicial circuits, where the chief men met together at major centers, at fixed times of year, under the eye of the proconsul, to oversee the administration of justice: the conventus Gaditanus, Cordubensis and Hispalensis. As the towns became the permanent seats of standing courts during the Empire, the conventūs were superseded and the term conventus is lastly applied to certain bodies of Roman citizens living in a province, forming a sort of enfranchised corporation, representing the Roman people in their district as a kind of gentry. So in spite of some social upsets, as when Septimius Severus put to death a number of leading Baetians— including women — the elite in Baetica remained a stable class for centuries. Columella, who wrote a twelve volume treatise on all aspects of Roman farming and knew viticulture, came from Baetica; the vast olive plantations of Baetica shipped olive oil from the coastal ports by sea to supply Roman legions in Germania.

Amphoras from Baetica have been found everywhere in the Western Roman empire. It was to keep Roman legions supplied by sea routes that the Empire needed to control the distant coasts of Lusitania and the northern Atlantic coast of Hispania. Baetica was rich and utterly Romanized, facts that the Emperor Vespasian was rewarding when he granted the Ius latii that extended the rights pertaining to Roman citizenship to the inhabitants of Hispania, an honor that secured the loyalty of the Baetian elite and its middle class; the Roman Emperor Trajan, the first emperor of provincial birth, came from Baetica, though of Italian stock, his kinsman and successor Hadrian came from a family residing in Baetica, though Hadrian himself was born at Rome. Baetia was Roman until the brief invasion of the Vandals and Alans passed through in the 5th century, followed by the more permanent kingdom of the Visigoths; the province formed part of the Exarchate of Africa and was joined to Mauretania Tingitana after Belisarius' reconquest of Africa.

The Catholic bishops of Baetica, solidly backed by their local population, were able to convert

Colville Covered Bridge

Spanning 124 feet, the 18 feet wide Colville Covered Bridge is located along the Colville Pike where it crosses Hinkston Creek about four miles northwest of Millersburg, Kentucky. The bridge is situated 28 feet above the water level in a rural area where vehicular traffic comprises local residents and farm vehicles; the bridge was constructed in 1877 and is one of 13 that remain of more than 400 covered bridges in Kentucky. The construction architecture is Burr truss consisting of multiple king-posts with panel posts spaced 10 feet apart. A number of reasons have been offered to explain the construction of covered bridges in Kentucky during the 19th century; the protection the cover provided against wood deterioration was most important. The yellow poplar used in the construction was thought - at the time - to be indestructible when shielded from the weather; the cover allowed timbered trusses and braces to season properly and kept water out of the joints, prolonging the life by seven to eight times that of an uncovered bridge.

A second plausible reason is that the boarded sides and shingled roofs prevented horses from seeing the drop to the water below and becoming "spooked". "

Industrial dye degradation

Synthetic dyes are found in a wide range of products such as clothes, leather accessories, furniture. These dyes are used every day. However, a side effect of their widespread use is that up to 12% of these dyes are wasted during the dying process and about 20% of this wastage enters the environment. Dye degradation is a process in which the large dye molecules are broken down chemically into smaller molecules; the resulting products are water, carbon dioxide, mineral byproducts that give the original dye its color. During the dyeing process, not all of the dye molecules are used; the water waste that the industry releases contains a percentage of these dye molecules. Dye molecules persist in the environment because many of them are not reactive towards light, acids and oxygen; the color of the material becomes permanent. Heterogeneous photocataylsis is a accepted technique of choice for environmental purification; the standard experimental set up for dye degradation photocatalysis is by using a UV lamp to provide energy for the creation of oxidizing radicals.

Photocatalysis is the addition of light to a semiconductor oxide/sulphide that results in electrons moving from the valence band to the conduction band. The electron-hole pairs formed will react with oxygen and water molecules to create superoxide anions and hydroxide radicals that have increased oxidizing and reducing abilities to be used on numerous industrial dye compounds. Titanium dioxide is biologically stable, non-toxic, cheap, which makes it a common semiconductor for dye degradation. Due to its large band gap, some alterations can be made to improve its photocatalytic abilities such as the synthesis of 6,13-pentacenequinone/ TiO2. Titanium dioxide in conjunction with ultraviolet light can be utilized for the decolorization and detoxification of diluted colored water waste such as Alizarin, azo dyes, methyl red, methylene blue, etc. Reduced graphene oxide-TiO2 can act as photocatalyst for the degradation of methyl orange, azo-dye, pharmaceutical water waste. 3-D structures of copper sulfide is favored for methylene blue degradation because it is nontoxic and stable under ambient conditions.

It has efficient catalytic ability because of its high surface area to volume ratio allowing for better contact between the reactants and CuS. Hierarchically porous graphitic carbon nitride had a 90% photodegradation of methyl orange, an improvement over other commercial photocatalysts; this is due to a higher surface area for an increased absorption capacity and porous features that allow for an increased diffusion of methyl orange. The Fenton process utilizes iron catalysts with H2O2 to create powerful, oxidizing hydroxides for the degradation of organic pollutants such as sewage and sludge as well as dyes. To enhance the catalytic abilities, a combination of Fe2+ cations, ultraviolet light, hydrogen peroxide can be used and has shown greater removals of dye solutions. Biomass degradation refers to the utilization of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi to produce enzymes that can interact with molecules of dyes. Laccases are proteins; these can form hydrogen bonds with synthetic dyes.

The efficiency of this enzyme is proportional to the number of hydrogen bonds that form between the enzyme and dyes. Microorganisms are easy to manipulate, but the efficiency is dependent on the pH, ionic strength, temperature; this will be varied with different effluents. Effluents can be first processed by a strain of yeast Candida tropicalis JKS2 post-treated by photocatalytic processes to degrade the aromatic rings so a cost-effective outcome can be achieved. Immobilized fungal cells are more resistant to environmental stress and cells can be used repeatedly. Many dyes in the textile industry such as methylene blue or methyl red, are released into ecosystems through water waste. Many of these dyes can come into contact with humans; as a result, newer treatments of the water waste are still in development