Historiography of Japan

The historiography of Japan is the study of methods and hypotheses formulated in the study and literature of the history of Japan. The earliest work of Japanese history is attributed to Prince Shōtoku, said to have written the Tennōki and the Kokki in 620 CE; the earliest extant work is the Kojiki of 712. The Nihon Shoki followed by 720; these two works formed the base of a history of the nation based in great part on Japanese mythology, in particular that of the Shinto religion. The works were inspired by Chinese historiography and were compiled with the support of the Japanese state. Five more works between 797 and 901 completed. An abandonment of Chinese inspiration and state support marks the historiographical writings of the period from the 9th to 16th centuries. A great number of historical tales called rekishi monogatari and war tales called gunki monogatari appeared, works such as the shikyō "four mirrors" of the 12th to 14th centuries and The Tale of the Heike of 1371 enjoyed widespread popularity.

Other art forms such as Noh theatre and emaki scrolls added to these written works. Neo-Confucian schools became preeminent at the beginning of the Edo period, they brought a methodology critical of works such as the Kojiki, but did not contradict the Mandate of Heaven. The most prominent representatives of this are the Mitogaku school; the nativist kokugaku school, inspired by Shinto, returned in the 18th century, driven by the work of Motoori Norinaga. It opposed the Neo-Confucians by seeking to demonstrate the veracity of Shinto mythology of the Age of the Gods and the early emperors, whose existence is doubted. Japanese historiography opened to Western influences at the end of the 18th century. Rangaku, translations of European works in the mid-19th century, the introduction of German historiography of Ludwig Riess in 1887 brought new analytical tools to the various Japanese schools of history. During the period of the Empire of Japan, historians questioned, at the peril of their academic freedom, one of the ideological foundations of the new regime: the place of national myths in the national history.

Marxist ideas were introduced in the 1920s and renewed in the post-World War II period with the work of Hisao Ōtsuka. Themes and research diversified from the 1970s, soon accompanied by a resurgeance of conservative and nationalist approaches; the earliest extant works aiming to present the History of Japan appeared in the 8th century CE. The Kojiki of 712 and the Nihon Shoki of 720 looked to similar Chinese models, at a time when Chinese culture had a great influence on Japan; these works were compiled following a decree in 681 from Emperor Tenmu, who sought to set a stable version of what appeared in the Teiki and Kyūji, no longer extant non-existent works of which numerous contradictory editions were said to have circulated. The Kojiki and Nihon Shoki were compiled by functionaries of the imperial administration and centred on the reigns and deeds of past emperors, seeking to legitimize their actions; the emergence of this type of publication became possible through the strengthening of centralized authority within a strong state.

The authors of the Kojiki of 712 trace the first work of this type to 620, when Prince Shōtoku is said to have written the first historical books, the Tennōki and Kokki. The existence of these works is debated, though modern historians trace the first historical writings to the mid-7th century; the form is unknown, but they are to have copied Chinese chronicles with Korean influences due to their transmission through the kingdom of Baekje on the Korean Peninsula. The Kojiki was intended for use within the court and is written in a mixture of Classical Chinese and phonetic readings of Chinese characters, it takes Imperial China as its model and depicts the territory of Japan as extending to territorial claims as far back as the Korean kingdom of Baekje. Japan is presented as a sovereign country, China is never mentioned; the writings focus on the Imperial House of Japan and the genealogy of the great families of the court. The Nihon Shoki departs from the form of the Kojiki, it is written in a classical Chinese and designed to be presented to foreign envoys.

Unlike the Kojiki, it gives only a small place to the creation myths of Japan, Chinese writings and above Koreans are cited in it. The chronology of the chronicles of the kingdom of Baekje serves as reference by which to weave Japanese history, links are made with Chinese chronology, it borrows the Chinese idea of the Mandate of Heaven, but differs from it to legitimize the entire Japanese imperial lineage. The Kojiki and Nihon Shoki differ from Chinese models by including a large number of poems. In 718 Yōrō Code commissioned the Ministry of the Centre to compile a national history. Other historical chronicles were published over the following century: the Shoku Nihongi in 797, the Nihon Kōki in 840, the Shoku Nihon Kōki in 869, the Nihon Montoku Tennō Jitsuroku in 871, the Nihon Sandai Jitsuroku in 901. With the Nihon Shoki, they form the Rikkokushi—the "six national histories". Beginning in the 11th century, in the mid-Heian period, state power weakened, this sort of great chronicle was abandoned.

Their form served as inspiration during the Edo period of the 17th–19th centuries, when the shōguns sought to legitimize their power by having historical works of this type written. The writing of the Shoku Nihongi, the first successor to the

Bobby Walker (footballer, born 1879)

Bobby Walker was a Scottish professional footballer, who played for Heart of Midlothian and Scotland. Walker joined Hearts from Dalry Primrose in 1896, he played in a few games that clinched Hearts 2nd League Championship in 1897. Walker was the first Hearts player to score over 100 league goals, he scored Hearts' 1000th league goal. Other notable achievements are his 33 goals against Hibernian, the record tally in the Edinburgh Derby if local competitions are included, he scored two hat-tricks against Hearts' Edinburgh rivals, the first at the age of 19 years and 9 months in a 5–1 victory at Easter Road on 28 October 1898. He repeated the feat on 18 September 1905 again at Easter Road in a 3–0 win. Hearts' 1901 Scottish Cup win was remembered as "Walker's Final", the Hearts beating Celtic 4–3. With the score poised at 3–3 The Scotsman reported it thus: "It, proved staunch, the Edinburgh team soon showed that they were not going to relinquish the grasp of the cup which their play entitled them to, Walker once more proved himself the grandest forward on the field.

Taking the ball some thirty yards right through the opposition, he shot true. M'Arthur sent the "leather" to Bell, who tipped it over to Houston. By the last named it was again sent towards the Celtic custodian who muddled his attempt to avert, again the Hearts were one to the good." After this match Charlie Thomson dubbed him "The Best Player in Europe" and his style of football, involving brilliant footwork and sublime passing was known as "Walkerism". He played in Hearts Scottish Cup win of 1906. During Hearts' first overseas tour to Norway in May 1912 King Haakon of Norway attended one of the games to see Walker play, his brother Alex Walker played for Hearts. Walker became a Hearts Director in 1920, he died at the early age of 51 in August 1930. Huge crowds lined thousands stood round his graveside, his obituary in The Scotsman stated the following: "The Hearts never had a more brilliant forward than Walker. He was amazingly clever in manipulating the ball, and, it was on skill alone that he relied, for he was never favoured with physique.

With the ball at his feet he could turn on his course elusively, in such little space, that he could put a whole defence out of position with his deft movement." The Football Encyclopaedia from 1934, edited by Frank Johnston, referred to him as "Bobby Walker, the greatest natural footballer who played." He was the most capped Scottish footballer for Heart of Midlothian with 29 caps until the record was broken in 2006 by Steven Pressley. He held the Scotland national team caps record at various points from 1905 to 1931. If caps are "weighted" to measure the number of games that were possible to play in a season, he is third in the all time Scottish caps list, his Scotland career of 13 Years, 1 Month and 3 days places him no 11 in the all-time list. He shares the record of 11 Scottish caps versus England, along with Alan Morton of Queens Park and Rangers; the record would have been 12 as he played in the Ibrox disaster match of 5 April 1902 which has subsequently been declared unofficial. In addition he won 14 Scottish League XI caps.

Scores and results list Scotland's goal tally first. Profile at Scotland Record at "The Greatest Ever – Bobby Walker at Dalry Primrose"

Pothos Argyros (11th century)

Pothos Argyros or Argyrus was a Byzantine commander, who served as the catepan of Italy during the eventful years of 1029 to 1031. Pothos is first mentioned in the history of John Skylitzes in c. 1026/27, or still under Basil II, as a commander in the eastern frontier, when he captured the Arab chieftain Nasr ibn Musharraf al-Rawadif, ruler of the disputed border area of Jabal Rawadif near Antioch. Nasr succeeded in being set free after promising assistance to Pothos' superior, the doux of Antioch, Michael Spondyles. Following the rise to the throne of Romanos III Argyros, Pothos was appointed Catepan of Italy in 1029. Pothos' relation to Romanos III is unknown, but according to the historians Jean-Claude Ceynet and Jean-François Vannier, he may have been his nephew. A surviving lead seal of office gives his titles as "protospatharios and katepano of Italy". According to Lupus Protospatharius, he arrived at Bari as the new Catepan of Italy in July 1029, fought in its vicinity against the Muslim commander Rayca, who had forced the capitulation of the fortress of Obbianum.

Lupus reports that in 1031, he faced another invasion by the Emirate of Sicily. The Italian chroniclers report that the Muslims sacked Cassano in June, that, hurrying to confront them, on 3 July, Pothos Argyros was defeated and killed. Pothos' death in battle is not certain, since an inventory of the metropolitan see of Reggio di Calabria includes a set of panegyrics offered by kyr Pothos and his wife, both related to a possession of a katepanissa Theoktiste. An identification of Theoktiste with the wife of kyr Pothos, of Pothos with the catepan is likely, but the copyist of the works recorded that this was done in 1033/34, "during the times of catepan Pothos, under the reign of Romanos and Zoe", by which time Pothos is supposed to have been dead. Cheynet, J.-C.. "Les Argyroi". Zbornik Radova Vizantološkog Instituta. 40: 57–90. ISSN 0584-9888. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Felix, Wolfgang. Byzanz und die islamische Welt im früheren 11. Jahrhundert. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften.

ISBN 9783700103790. Wortley, John, ed.. John Skylitzes: A Synopsis of Byzantine History, 811-1057. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-76705-7