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History of Alabama

Alabama became a state of the United States of America on December 14, 1819. The United States arranged for Indian Removal after 1830, forcibly displacing most Southeast tribes to west of the Mississippi River to what was called Indian Territory; these actions affected the Cherokee and Chickasaw, among others. After this, European-American arrived in large numbers, bringing or buying African Americans in the domestic slave trade. In antebellum Alabama, wealthy planters created large cotton plantations based in the fertile central Black Belt of the upland region, which depended on the labor of enslaved Africans. Tens of thousands of slaves were transported to and sold in the state by slave traders who purchased them in the Upper South. In the mountains and foothills, poorer whites practiced subsistence farming. By 1860 blacks comprised 45 percent of the state's 964,201 people; the state's wealthy planters considered slavery essential to their economy. As one of the largest slaveholding states, Alabama was among the first six states to secede.

It joined the Confederate States of America in February. During the ensuing American Civil War Alabama had moderate levels of warfare; the population suffered economic hardships as a result of the war. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation freed all enslaved people in Confederate states; the Southern capitulation in 1865 ended the Confederate state government. A decade of Reconstruction began, a controversial time, its biracial government established the first public schools and welfare institutions in the state. After the war, planters worked to get their vast cotton plantations back into production. African Americans chose to exert some independence as free tenant farmers and sharecroppers, rather than working in labor gangs. Wherever possible, African-American women left the fields. Small farms, which produced general crops before the war, turned to cotton as a cash crop; the market for cotton was overloaded, prices dropped 50%. For a half century after the Civil War, Alabama was a poor rural state, with an economy based on cotton.

Reconstruction ended when Democrats, calling themselves known as "Redeemers" regained control of the state legislature by both legal and extralegal means. They established social dominance over African Americans. In 1901, Southern Democrats passed a state Constitution that disfranchised most African Americans, as well as tens of thousands of poor whites. By 1941, a total 600,000 poor whites and 520,000 African Americans had been disfranchised. In addition, despite massive population changes in the state that accompanied urbanization and industrialization, the rural-dominated legislature refused to redistrict from 1901 to the 1960s, leading to massive malapportionment in Congressional and state representation. For decades, a rural minority dominated the state, the needs of urban, middle class and industrial interests were not addressed. African Americans living in Alabama experienced the inequities of disfranchisement, segregation and underfunded schools. Tens of thousands of African Americans from Alabama joined the Great Migration out of the South from 1915 to 1930 and moved to better opportunities in industrial cities in the North the Midwest.

The black exodus escalated in the first three decades of the 20th century. As a result of African-American disenfranchisement and rural white control of the legislature, state politics were dominated by Democrats into the 1980s as part of the "Solid South." Alabama produced a number of national leaders. The New Deal farm programs increased the price of cotton, World War II brought prosperity, as the state developed a manufacturing and service base. Cotton faded in mechanization beginning in the 1930s reduced the need for farm labor. Following years of struggles after passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965, segregation was abolished and African Americans could again exercise their constitutional right to vote; the election of Guy Hunt as governor in 1986 marked a shift in Alabama toward becoming a Republican stronghold in Presidential elections. The Democrat Party still dominated local and legislative offices, but total Democrat dominance had ended. In terms of organization, the parties are about evenly matched.

At least 12,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians appeared in what is today referred to as "The South". Paleo-Indians in the Southeast were hunter-gatherers who pursued a wide range of animals, including the megafauna, which became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene age, their diets were based on plants and processed by women who learned about nuts and other fruits, the roots of many plants. The Woodland period from 1000 BCE to 1000 CE was marked by the development of pottery and the small-scale horticulture of the Eastern Agricultural Complex; the Mississippian culture arose as the cultivation of Mesoamerican crops of corn and beans led to crop surpluses and population growth. Increased population density gave rise of urban centers and regional chiefdoms, of which the greatest was the city known as Cahokia, in present-day Illinois near the confluence of the Illinois and Mississippi rivers; the culture spread along their tributaries. Its population of 20,000 to 30,00

The Temptation of Barbizon

The Temptation of Barbizon is a French fantasy-romance film from 1946, directed by Jean Stelli, written by André-Paul Antoine and Marc-Gilbert Sauvajon, starring Simone Renant and François Périer. It was the first film of French actor Louis de Funès, who appeared in a uncredited role; the black-and-white film is listed in the 100 IMDB Top International Romance Movies of the 1940s. Martine and Michel are much in love and have decided to get married, but one evening, their love is put to the test. Two messengers, a demon and an angel, come to their house. Ben Atkinson offers Michel a good job and money. Martine suspects a trick; the angel is stopped by devil, who uses policemen to back him up. At the end, the angel prevents the demon's plans. De Funès began his show business career in the theatre. In 1945, thanks to his contact with Daniel Gélin, he made his film debut at the age of 31 with a bit part in La Tentation de Barbizon. De Funès' appeared on screen for 40 seconds in the role of the porter of the cabaret Le Paradis.

De Funès receives the character of Jérôme Chambon at the entrance of the cabaret and invites him to enter by a downstairs door, saying "C'est par ici Monsieur". Chambon declines the invitation, wanting to try to enter through the front door of the room instead, but since that door is closed, he crashes into it. De Funès says: "Ben, il a son compte celui-là, aujourd'hui"; the film was filmed at the Studio du Bologne. It was distributed in German theatres by the Internationale Filmallianz under the title Wenn der Himmel versagt – Der Satan und die Hochzeitsreise. Simone Renant: Eva Parker / Angel François Périer: Ben Atkinson / Devil Pierre Larquey: Jérôme Chambon Juliette Faber: Martine Daniel Gélin: Michel Henri Crémieux: Eva Parker's advocate Myno Burnay: Dominique Ancelin, the society's director André Bervil: Mr. Stéphane, the gambling gangster Jean Wall: the custodial judge Jean Berton: the hotel director Louis de Funès: hotel porter The Temptation of Barbizon on IMDb Images The Temptation of Barbizon at Rotten Tomatoes

Post-election pendulum for the 2016 Australian federal election

The Coalition won the 2016 federal election with a one-seat majority 76 of 150 lower house seats. Labor holds 69 seats. Classification of seats as marginal safe or safe is applied by the independent Australian Electoral Commission using the following definition: "Where a winning party receives less than 56% of the vote, the seat is classified as'marginal', 56–60% is classified as'fairly safe' and more than 60% is considered'safe'." The Mackerras pendulum was devised by the Australian psephologist Malcolm Mackerras as a way of predicting the outcome of an election contested between two major parties in a Westminster style lower house legislature such as the Australian House of Representatives, composed of single-member electorates and which uses a preferential voting system such as a Condorcet method or IRV. The pendulum works by lining up all of the seats held in Parliament for the government, the opposition and the crossbenches according to the percentage point margin they are held by on a two party preferred basis.

This is known as the swing required for the seat to change hands. Given a uniform swing to the opposition or government parties, the number of seats that change hands can be predicted

Institutional Act Number Five

The Ato Institucional Número Cinco – AI-5 was the fifth of seventeen major decrees issued by the military dictatorship in the years following the 1964 coup d'état in Brazil. Institutional Acts were the highest form of legislation during the military regime, given that they overruled the authoritarian Constitution, were enforced without the possibility of judicial review, they were issued on behalf of the "Supreme Command of the Revolution". AI-5, the most infamous of all Institutional Acts, was issued by dictator Artur da Costa e Silva, president at the time on December 13, 1968, it resulted in the forfeiture of mandates, interventions ordered by the President in municipalities and states and in the suspension of any constitutional guarantees which resulted in the institutionalization of the torture used as a tool by the State. Written by Minister of Justice, Luís Antônio da Gama e Silva, it came as a response to earlier events such as a march of over fifty thousand people in Rio de Janeiro to protest against the murder of student Edson Luís de Lima Souto by a member of the Military Police of Rio de Janeiro, the March of the One Hundred Thousand, the decision of the Chamber of Deputies denying authorization to prosecute Congressman Márcio Moreira Alves, which called Brazilians to boycott the celebrations of September 7.

It aimed to consolidate the ambitions of a group inside the military, known as "hardline", unwilling to give the power back to the civilians anytime soon. The immediate consequences of the AI-5 were: The President of the Republic was given authority to order the National Congress and the State Legislative Assemblies into forced recess; this Unclassified document shows. This document, declassified, discusses how a powerful military General thought that the Congress being closed was a "blessing." Costa e Silva used this power as soon as AI-5 was signed, resulting in the closure of the National Congress and all state legislatures except that of São Paulo for a year. The power to order the National Congress into recess would be used again in 1977; the assumption by the President of the Republic and the Governors of the States, during the periods of forced recess of the federal and state Legislatures of the fullness of the legislative power, enabling the President and the Governors to legislate by decrees with the same force and effect as statutes passed by the legislative Chambers.

This power included the power to legislate constitutional amendments. A sweeping amendment of Brazil's 1967 Constitution was promulgated in 1969, under the authority transferred to the Executive Branch by the AI-5; the permission for the federal government, under the pretext of "national security", to intervene in states and municipalities, suspending the local authorities and appointing federal interventors to run the states and the municipalities. The assumption by the President of the Republic of the power of sacking summarily any public servant, including elected political officers and judges, if they were found to be subversive or un-cooperative with the regime; this power was used to vacate the seats of Opposition members in the Legislative branch, so that elections would be held as usual, but the composition of the Legislature resulting from the elections would be changed by the deprivation of office of Opposition legislators transforming the Federal and municipal legislatures in rubber-stamp bodies.

The deprivation of office of Opposition legislators affected the makeup of the Electoral College of the President of the Republic. Thus, not only elections for the Executive Branch were indirect, but the vacancies created in the composition of the Legislative bodies affected the makeup of the Electoral College, so that it became a rubber-stamp body of the military regime. By passing AI-5 the dictatorship could take away anyone's political rights for up to ten years, put the death penalty back into effect the instant legitimacy of certain types of decrees issued by the President, that were made not liable to judicial review. Under those provisions, the Institutional Acts themselves, any action based on an Institutional Act, were not subject to judicial review; the AI-5 did not silence a group of Senators from ARENA, the political party created to give support for the dictatorship. Under the leadership of Daniel Krieger, the following Senators signed a disagreement message addressed to the president: Gilberto Marinho, Miltom Campos, Carvalho Pinto, Eurico Resende, Manoel Villaça, Wilson Gonçalves, Aloisio de Carvalho Filho, Antonio Carlos Konder Reis, Ney Braga, Mem de Sá, Rui Palmeira, Teotônio Vilela, José Cândido Ferraz, Leandro Maciel, Vitorino Freire, Arnon de Melo, Clodomir Milet, José Guiomard, Valdemar Alcântara and Júlio

Jesup station

Jesup known as the Jesup Atlantic Coast Line Depot, is a train station in Jesup, Georgia. It serves Amtrak, the national railroad passenger system; the station was built in 1903 as part of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. In February 2003, the station was damaged in a fire and subsequently boarded up as the town sought funds for restoration. In 2005, Jesup received $836,000 in federal funds after the rehabilitation was designated a High Priority Project under the federal transportation bill; the city purchased the building and land from CSX Transportation, owner of the adjacent railroad line. The city decided to return the building to its early 20th-century appearance; the completion of the rehabilitation project was celebrated in October 2012 during the city's annual Arch Festival, an event started in 2003 to highlight the renewed downtown. In addition to a passenger waiting room, the depot now includes a community meeting space and new offices and a welcome center for the Wayne County Board of Tourism.

The interior is decorated with historic photographs and memorabilia that demonstrate the strong ties between Jesup and the railroads. A formal ribbon-cutting ceremony was held on March 8, 2013 and included speeches by the mayor and an Amtrak representative. Media related to Jesup at Wikimedia CommonsJesup, GA – Amtrak Jesup Amtrak Station Jesup ACL Depot Jesup --Great American Stations

List of business schools in South Africa

This is a list of business schools in South Africa. For the purposes of this list business schools are defined as accredited, degree-granting, postsecondary institutions. Institutions are accredited in South Africa by the Council on Higher Education, whilst institutions pursue international accreditation from AMBA, EQUIS and AACSB. Founded in 1949, the University of Pretoria's now defunct Graduate School of Management was the first business school in South Africa and was the first MBA programme to be launched outside of North America, whilst the University of Cape Town Graduate School of Business and University of Stellenbosch Business School, founded in 1964, are the oldest business schools in continuous operation. Founded in 2005, the Nelson Mandela University Business School is the newest business school in South Africa. 1 GIBS offers company specific programmes in London, United Kingdom2 Note as of January 2008 GIBS replaced the Graduate School of Management League tables of South African business schools are based on international business schools rankings, because South African rankings have not as yet been published.

South African Business Schools Association List of universities in South Africa Ranking of South African universities List of colleges and universities by country List of colleges and universities List of post secondary institutions in South Africa List of South African university chancellors and vice-chancellors List of medical schools in South Africa List of law schools in South Africa List of architecture schools in South Africa Higher Education South Africa Academic boycotts of South Africa