History of Armenia

The history of Armenia covers the topics related to the history of the Republic of Armenia, as well as the Armenian people, the Armenian language, the regions and geographically considered Armenian. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the Biblical mountains of Ararat; the original Armenian name for the country was Hayk Hayastan, translated as the land of Haik, consisting of the name of the ancient Mesopotamian god Haya and the Persian suffix'-stan'. The historical enemy of Hayk, was Bel, or in other words Baal; the name Armenia was given to the country by the surrounding states, it is traditionally derived from Armenak or Aram. In the Bronze Age, several states flourished in the area of Greater Armenia, including the Hittite Empire and Hayasa-Azzi. Soon after the Hayasa-Azzi were the Nairi and the Kingdom of Urartu, who successively established their sovereignty over the Armenian Highland; each of the aforementioned nations and tribes participated in the ethnogenesis of the Armenian people.

Yerevan, the modern capital of Armenia, dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC by King Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain. Erebuni has been described as "designed as a great administrative and religious centre, a royal capital."The Iron Age kingdom of Urartu was replaced by the Orontid dynasty. Following Persian and subsequent Macedonian rule, the Artaxiad dynasty from 190 BC gave rise to the Kingdom of Armenia which rose to the peak of its influence under Tigranes II before falling under Roman rule. In 301, Arsacid Armenia was the first sovereign nation to accept Christianity as a state religion; the Armenians fell under Byzantine, Sassanid Persian, Islamic hegemony, but reinstated their independence with the Bagratid Dynasty kingdom of Armenia. After the fall of the kingdom in 1045, the subsequent Seljuk conquest of Armenia in 1064, the Armenians established a kingdom in Cilicia, where they prolonged their sovereignty to 1375.

Starting in the early 16th century, Greater Armenia came under Safavid Persian rule. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia was conquered by Russia and Greater Armenia was divided between the Ottoman and Russian Empires. In the early 20th century Armenians suffered in the genocide inflicted on them by the Ottoman government of Turkey, in which 1.5 million Armenians were killed and many more dispersed throughout the world via Syria and Lebanon. Armenia, from on corresponding to much of Eastern Armenia, regained independence in 1918, with the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia, in 1991, the Republic of Armenia. Stone tools from 325,000 years ago have been found in Armenia which indicate the presence of early humans at this time. In the 1960s excavations in the Yerevan 1 Cave uncovered evidence of ancient human habitation, including the remains of a 48,000-year-old heart, a human cranial fragment and tooth of a similar age; the Armenian Highland shows traces of settlement from the Neolithic era.

Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe, straw skirt, wine-making facility at the Areni-1 cave complex. The Shulaveri-Shomu culture of the central Transcaucasus region is one of the earliest known prehistoric cultures in the area, carbon-dated to 6000–4000 BC. An early Bronze-Age culture in the area is the Kura-Araxes culture, assigned to the period between c. 4000 and 2200 BCE. The earliest evidence for this culture is found on the Ararat plain. From 2200 BCE to 1600 BCE, the Trialeti-Vanadzor culture flourished in Armenia, southern Georgia, northeastern Turkey, it has been speculated. Other related, cultures were spread throughout the Armenia Highlands during this time, namely in the Aragats and Lake Sevan regions. Early 20th-century scholars suggested that the name "Armenia" may have been recorded for the first time on an inscription which mentions Armanî together with Ibla, from territories conquered by Naram-Sin identified with an Akkadian colony in the current region of Diyarbekir.

Some modern researchers have placed Armani in the general area of modern Samsat, have suggested it was populated, at least by an early Indo-European-speaking people. Today, the Modern Assyrians refer to the Armenians by the name Armani. Thutmose III of Egypt, in the 33rd year of his reign, mentioned as the people of "Ermenen", calming that in their land "heaven rests upon its four pillars". Armenia is connected to Mannaea, which may be identical to the region of Minni mentioned in The Bible. However, what all these attestations refer to cannot be determined with certainty, the earliest certain attestation of the name "Armenia" comes from the Behistun Inscription; the earliest form of the word "Hayastan", an endonym for Armenia, might be Hayasa-Azzi, a kingdom in the Armenian Highlands, recorded in Hittite records dati

Semyon Belozyorov

Semyon Yefimovich Belozyorov was a Russian mathematician and a specialist in the field of history of mathematics. Professor, Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Director of Rostov State University in 1938—1954. Semyon Yefimovich Belozyorov was born on 6 February 1904, he studied at the Kulikovo village school in Kalachinsky District of Omsk Oblast. In his teens he worked as a shepherd in his home village. At the age of 18 he enrolled at Rabfak, graduated with honors from the Physics and Mathematics Faculty of Saratov State University and started to work there as teacher. In 1938 he was appointed Director of Rostov State University and remained at this post in the most difficult years of the university. In 1939, under the leadership of Professor Mark Vygodsky he defended his thesis on the topic "From the history of the theory of functions of a complex variable", he was one of the first scientists in USSR to specialize in the field of history of mathematics, studied the history of the theory of analytic functions.

He was the author of a number of scientific works and monographs: "The main stages in the development of the general theory of analytic functions", "Five famous problems of antiquity", etc. He laid the foundations of a thorough study of the history of Saratov State University, was the author of various publications on that topic. For many years he read a special lecture course "History and the modern theory of famous problems of antiquity" at Rostov State University, he died in 1987

Harvie Andre

Harvie Andre, was a Canadian engineer, businessman and federal Cabinet minister. Born in Edmonton, Alberta, on July 27, 1940, Andre was educated at the University of Alberta and pursued part of his postgraduate studies at the California Institute of Technology before becoming a professor of chemical engineering at the University of Calgary from 1966 to 1972. In the 1972 general election he won a seat in the House of Commons of Canada, where he served as the Progressive Conservative Member of Parliament for Calgary Centre for twenty-one years. In opposition, Andre was a vocal opponent of the National Energy Program, he served as the defence critic. He was appointed to the Cabinet after the 1984 election brought the Tories to power under Brian Mulroney. Andre served as Minister of Supply and Services until 1985 when he became Associate Minister of National Defence. From 1986 to 1989, he was Minister of Consumer and Corporate Affairs and Minister of Regional Industrial Expansion until 1990. In addition, in 1987 Mulroney gave Andre responsibility for Canada Post Corporation.

Andre confronted the Post Office's major labour and cost issues and in the course of two years saw that department go from losses to turn a $98-million profit for the first time in its history. For the last three years of the Mulroney government, Andre was Government House Leader, he did not run for re-election in the 1993 federal election, returned to private life. After leaving politics, Andre was involved in the business world the energy sector, as president of Cresvard Corporation since 1998, chief executive of Calgary-based Wenzel Downhole Tools and chairman of BowEnergy Resources since 2001, he served on numerous corporate boards of directors. Andre was married, had two daughters and one son. Harvie Andre – Parliament of Canada biography Canadian Encyclopedia U of A Engineer Magazine Article