History of Djibouti

Djibouti is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Somalia to the southeast and the Red Sea to the north and northeast, Ethiopia to the west and south, the Gulf of Aden to the east. In antiquity, the territory was part of the Land of Punt; the Djibouti area, along with other localities in the Horn region, was the seat of the medieval Adal and Ifat Sultanates. In the late 19th century, the colony of French Somaliland was established following treaties signed by the ruling Somali and Afar Sultans with the French, it was subsequently renamed to the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas in 1967. A decade the Djiboutian people voted for independence marking the establishment of the Republic of Djibouti; the Djibouti area has been inhabited since at least the Neolithic 12,000 years ago. Pottery predating the mid-2nd millennium BC has been found at Asa Koma, an inland lake area on the Gobaad Plain; the site's ware is characterized by punctate and incision geometric designs, which bear a similarity to the Sabir culture phase 1 ceramics from Ma'layba in Southern Arabia.

Long-horned humpless cattle bones have been discovered at Asa Koma, suggesting that domesticated cattle was present by around 3,500 years ago. Rock art of what appear to be antelopes and a giraffe are found at Dorra and Balho. A team of archaeologists discovered funds stone houses, the walls of a rectangular edifice with orienteer recess to Mecca, they have updated shards of ceramics, chipped stone tools and a glass bead. The oldest engravings discovered to date are from the fourth or third millennium BC in the pre-Islamic period, the most famous is the site of Handoga there where the ruins of a village squares subcircular dry stone delivered different objects. An old settlement, Handoga is the site of numerous ancient ruins and buildings, many of obscure origins, including ceramic shards, matching vases used brazier, containers that can hold water, several choppers and microliths, drills, trenchers basalt, rhyolite or obsidian. A team of archaeologists discovered an elephant 1.6 million years BC near the area.

They found a pearl orange coralline, three glass paste, but there were no metal objects discovered. Together with northern Somalia and the Red Sea coast of Sudan, Djibouti is considered the most location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians as Punt; the old territory's first mention dates to the 25th century BC. The Puntites were a nation of people that had close relations with Ancient Egypt during the times of Pharaoh Sahure of the fifth dynasty and Queen Hatshepsut of the eighteenth dynasty, they "traded not only in their own produce of incense and short-horned cattle, but in goods from other neighbouring regions, including gold and animal skins." According to the temple reliefs at Deir el-Bahari, the Land of Punt at the time of Hatshepsut was ruled by King Parahu and Queen Ati. The Macrobians were a legendary people and kingdom positioned in the Horn of Africa mentioned by Herodotus. Authors place them in India instead, it is one of the legendary peoples postulated at the extremity of the known world, in this case in the extreme south, contrasting with the Hyperboreans in the extreme east.

Their name is due to their legendary longevity. They were said to be the "tallest and handsomest of all men". According to Herodotus' account, the Persian Emperor Cambyses II upon his conquest of Egypt sent ambassadors to Macrobia, bringing luxury gifts for the Macrobian king to entice his submission; the Macrobian ruler, elected based at least in part on stature, replied instead with a challenge for his Persian counterpart in the form of an unstrung bow: if the Persians could manage to string it, they would have the right to invade his country. Islam was introduced to the area early on from the Arabian peninsula, shortly after the hijra. Zeila's two-mihrab Masjid al-Qiblatayn dates to the 7th century, is the oldest mosque in the city. In the late 9th century, Al-Yaqubi wrote, he mentioned that the Adal kingdom had its capital in Zeila, a port city in the northwestern Awdal region abutting Djibouti. This suggests that the Adal Sultanate with Zeila as its headquarters dates back to at least the 9th or 10th century.

According to I. M. Lewis, the polity was governed by local dynasties consisting of Somalized Arabs or Arabized Somalis, who ruled over the similarly-established Sultanate of Mogadishu in the Benadir region to the south. Adal's history from this founding period forth would be characterized by a succession of battles with neighbouring Abyssinia. At its height, the Adal kingdom controlled large parts of modern-day Djibouti, Somalia and Ethiopia. Between Djibouti City and Loyada are a number of phallic stelae; the structures are associated with graves of rectangular shape flanked by vertical slabs, as found in Tiya, central Ethiopia. The Djibouti-Loyada stelae are of uncertain age, some of them are adorned with a T-shaped symbol. Additionally, archaeological excavations at Tiya have yielded tombs; as of 1997, 118 stelae were reported in the area. Along with the stelae in the Hadiya Zone, the structures are identified by local residents as Yegragn Dingay or "Gran's stone", in reference to Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, ruler of the Adal Sultanate.

The Ifat Sultanate was a medieval kingdom in the Horn of Africa. Founded in 1285 by the Walashma dynasty, it

Lonely (2NE1 song)

"Lonely" is the second single by South Korean girl group 2NE1 from their 2011 extended play, 2NE1. That year, a Japanese version of the song was released and was included on their first Japanese EP Nolza. A short version of the music video was uploaded through 2NE1's official YouTube account; the song was produced by Teddy Park. According to the CEO of YG Entertainment, Yang Hyun Suk, "2NE1’s new song counter feeds the people with an analogue sound unlike the majority who used strong electronics and house music and maybe, why Will I. Am have found it interesting", they released teasers of "Lonely" starting with CL and Minzy on May 9, Dara and Bom on May 10. The music video was released on May 11, 2011. By the end of 2011, "Lonely" was downloaded 2,935,930 times, reached the fourteenth position in the 2011 Gaon Year-End Chart, becoming the third-highest charting of 2NE1's 2011 singles; the music video for "Lonely" was filmed April 27, 2011, directed by Han Samin, who directed the music video for Big Bang's fourth mini-special album's title song, "Love Song".

The video was posted on their YouTube account on May 11, 2011. "Lonely" Music Video on YouTube


Confuciusornithidae is an extinct family of early birds known from the Early Cretaceous, found in northern China. They are descended from theropod dinosaurs and appeared about 27 million years after the genus Archaeopteryx, the first discovered transitional dinosaur between dinosaurs and birds, they are placed as a sister group to Ornithothoraces, a group that contains all extant birds along with their closest extinct relatives. Confuciusornithidae consists of four genera, with type-specimens possessing both shafted and non-shafted feathers, they are noted for their distinctive pair of ribbon-like tail feathers of disputed function. The wing anatomy of confuciusornithids suggests an unusual flight behavior, due to anatomy that implies conflicting abilities, they possess feathers similar to those of fast-flapping birds, which rely on quick flapping of their wings to stay aloft. At the same time, their wing anatomy suggests a lack of flapping ability. Confusiusornithids are noted for their beak and lack of teeth, similar to modern birds.

Both predators and prey, confuciusornithid fossils have been observed with fish remains in their digestive systems and have themselves been found in the abdominal cavities of Sinocalliopteryx, a compsognathid predator. Confuciusornithidae was first named by Hou et al. in 1995 to contain the type genus and assigned to the monotypic clade Confuciusornithiformes within class Aves. The group was given a phylogenetic definition by Chiappe, in 1999, who defined a node-based clade Confuciusornithidae to include only Changchengornis and Confuciusornis. There are a number of features; the most significant is the presence of a toothless jaw, which shows a more birdlike adaptation compared to archaeopteryx. The other defining features are as follows, according to al.. 1999, who defined the genus. There is a fork in the rostral part of the mandibular symphysis, the area where the mandibles fuse together; the presence of a distinct maxillary fenestra in the maxilla’s ascending ramus. The deltopectoral crest of the humerus is prominent, which allows for increased muscle attachment for adductor muscles.

The first metacarpal is not attached by bone to the other co-ossified metacarpals. The claw of the second manual digit is much smaller than the other claws. A V-shape in the sternum in the caudal end; the proximal phalanx of the third digit is much smaller than the other phalanges. Confuciusornithidae is the most basal group of the clade Pygostylia, which consists of all birds that contain a pygostyle, a fused set of caudal vertebrae that functioned as a short tail, replacing longer reptilian tails such as those present in Archaeopteryx; this change functions to improve flight. Pygostilia includes the only living members of the clade. Additional members have been added to Confuciusornitidae since 1999. Jinzhouornis was added by Hou and Zhang in 2002, in 2008, Zhang and Benton assigned the newly described genus Eoconfuciusornis to the family. Most confuciusornithids are known from the upper Jehol group, the Yixian Formation, Jiufotang Formation, dating from 125 to 120 million years ago. E. zhengi, predated the other confuciusornithids by 6 million years, dating to 131 Ma ago.

The entire body of confuciusornithids was covered in contour feathers, except for the foot, base of beak, the tarsometatarsus, the bone directly attached to the foot. It appears that they may have had down feathers; the beaks of confuciusornithids show development of modern birdlike characteristics, such as a large beak and lack of teeth. The premaxilla and dentary are larger than archaeopteryx, while lacking teeth; the anterior of these bones shows evidence of vasculature and innervation, implying the presence of a beak. The lack of recovery of this structure indicates; the softness of the beak along with the innervation suggest that the beak was sensitive, making it useful for searching for prey. Much of its anatomy resembles that of archaeopteryx the pectoral girdle and forelimbs, it is better adapted for flight than archaeopteryx, due to the elimination of two thoracic vertebrae. The development of a pygostyle shows better adaptation for flight, as this replaces the long tails present in earlier birds.

Similar to archaeopteryx, confuciusornithids possess a large first digit with a hook. The digit implies a climbing lifestyle, as they serve to allow for hooking onto the grooves of trees. A similar anatomy and function is seen in the nestlings of the Hoatzin, an extant South American bird; the biomechanics of the wing itself are quite contentious due to a combination of traits that imply different modes of flight. Confuciusornithids possess long primary feathers similar to those of modern fast-flapping birds, as opposed to gliding birds which have short primaries relative to their size. However, the narrowness of the wings of confuciusornithids along with the lack of upstroke ability during flapping motion seem to preclude the ability to flap their wings quickly. Thus, they may have relied upon a flight method; the hindlimbs of confuciusornithids do not resemble that of living birds. They were bad runners, with feet curved in a way; the long feathers of the tail of confuciusornithids are of disputed function.

Sexual dimorphism is an explanation, with males presumed to possess the feathers as a mating display. However, it has been argued that the long rectrices were instead used as a defense against predators, as many birds shed feathers to protect themselves; the observation that less than 10% of confuciusornithid fossils possess these feathers supports this, as they may be shed eith