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History of Ecuador

The History of Ecuador extends over an 8,000-year period. During this time, a variety of cultures and territories influenced what has become the Republic of Ecuador; the history can be divided into six eras: Pre-Columbian, the Conquest, the Colonial Period, the War of Independence, Gran Colombia, Simón Bolívar the final separation of his vision into what is known today as the Republic of Ecuador. During the pre-Inca period, people lived in ans, which formed great tribes, some allied with each other to form powerful confederations, as the Confederation of Quito, but none of these confederations could resist the formidable momentum of the Tawantinsuyu. The invasion of the Incas in the 16th century was painful and bloody. However, once occupied by the Quito hosts of Huayna Capac, the Incas developed an extensive administration and began the colonization of the region; the Pre-Columbian era can be divided up into four eras: the Pre-ceramic Period, the Formative Period, the Period of Regional Development and the Period of Integration and the Arrival of the Incas.

The Pre-ceramic period begins with the end of the first ice-age and continued until 4200BC. The Las Vegas culture and The Inga Cultures dominated this period; the Las Vegas culture lived on the Santa Elena Peninsula on the coast of Ecuador between 9,000–6,000 BC. The earliest people were fishermen. Around 6,000 BC cultures in the region were among the first to begin farming; the Ingas lived in the Sierra near present-day Quito between 9000 and 8000 BC along an ancient trade route. During the Formative Period, people of the region moved from hunter-gathering and simple farming into a more developed society, with permanent developments, an increase in agriculture and the use of ceramics. New cultures included the Machalilla culture, Chorrera in the coast; the Valdivia culture is the first culture. Their civilization dates back as early as 3500 B. C. Living in the area near The Valdivias, they were the first Americans to use pottery, they established a trade network with tribes in the Andes and the Amazon.

Succeeding the Valdivia, the Machalilla culture were a farming culture who thrived along the coast of Ecuador between the 2nd and 1st millennia BC. These appear to be the earliest people to cultivate maize in this part of South America. Existing in the late formative period the Chorrera culture lived in the Andes and Coastal Regions of Ecuador between 1000 and 300 BC; the period of Regional Development is identified for the first time the regional differences in the territorial or political and social organization of people that formed. Among the main towns of this period were the cultures: Jambelí, Bahia, Tejar-Daule, La Tolita, Jama Coaque in the coast of Ecuador, in the sierras the Cerro Narrío Alausí; the figurine of 300 BC – 500 AD) La Chimba is the site of the earliest ceramic northern Andes, north of Quito, is representative of the Formative Period in its final stage. Its inhabitants contacted several villages on the coast and the mountains, keeping close proximity to the Cotocollao culture, located on the plateau of Quito and its surrounding valleys.

The Bahia culture occupied the area that stretches from the foothills of the Andes to the Pacific Ocean, from Bahía de Caráquez, to the south of Manabi. The Jama-Coaque culture inhabited areas between Cabo San Francisco in Esmeraldas, to Bahía de Caráquez, in Manabi, in an area of wooded hills and vast beaches of their immigrant who facilitated the gathering of resources of both the jungle and the ocean; the La Tolita developed in the coastal region of Southern Colombia and Northern Ecuador between 600 bc and 200 AD. A Number of archaeological sites have been discovered and show the artistic nature of this culture. Artifacts are characterized by gold jewelry, beautiful anthropomorphous masks and figurines that reflect a hierarchical society with complex ceremonies. Tribes throughout Ecuador integrated during this period, they created better housing that allowed them to improve their living conditions and no longer be subject to the climate. In the mountains Cosangua-Píllaro, the Capulí and Piartal-Tuza cultures arose, in the eastern region was the Yasuní Phase while the Milagro, Manteña and Huancavilca cultures developed on the coast.

The Manteños were the last of the pre-Columbian cultures in the coastal region existing between 600–1534. They were the first to witness the arrival of Spanish ships sailing in the surrounding Pacific Ocean. According to archaeological evidence and Spanish chronicles the civilization existed from Bahia de Caraquez to Cerro de Hojas in the south, they were excellent weavers, produced textiles, articles of gold, silver spondylus shells and mother of pearls. The manteños mastered the seas and created an extensive trade routes as far as Chile to the south and Western Mexico to the north; the center of the culture was in the area of Manta, named in their honor. The Huancavilcas constitute the most important pre-Columbian culture of Guayas; these warriors were noted for their appearance. Huancavilca of culture is the legend of Guayas and Quiles, which gives its name to the city of Guayaquil; the existence of the Kingdom of Quito was formed by the Quitus, the Puruhaes and Cañari who inhabited the Andean regions of Ecuador by that time.

Their main settlement was located in the area now known as the city of Quito, its inhabitants were called Quitus. The Quitus were militarily weak, formed only a small, poorly organized kingdom; because of this it could not raise a strong resistance against invaders, were defeated and subjugated by the Shyris, ancient indigen

Bao Xin

Bao Xin was a military general and minor warlord who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China. Bao Xin was from Pingyang County, Taishan Commandery, present-day Xintai County, Shandong, his father, Bao Dan, served as a Palace Attendant in the Han central government. Bao Xin started his official career during the reign of Emperor Ling and served as a Cavalry Commandant. Around 189, the general He Jin sent Bao Xin back to Taishan Commandery to recruit soldiers to serve in the imperial army. However, before Bao Xin completed his mission, He Jin had been assassinated by the eunuch faction, the warlord Dong Zhuo had taken advantage of the political vacuum to seize control of the Han central government in Luoyang. Bao Xin saw Dong Zhuo as a serious threat to the Han Empire, so he did not return to Luoyang. In early 190, a coalition of warlords from the east of Hangu Pass started a military campaign aimed at freeing the central government and the figurehead Emperor Xian from Dong Zhuo control.

Bao Xin brought along his younger brother Bao Tao and his own troops to join the coalition and was appointed as acting General Who Destroys Barbarians. The warlords nominated Yuan Shao. Bao Xin, saw great potential in another warlord Cao Cao and befriended him. Bao Xin and Cao Cao fought together at the Battle of Bian River against Dong Zhuo's forces and scored a victory, but Bao Xin's brother Bao Tao was killed in action and Bao Xin himself was wounded. After the coalition broke up, Bao Xin advised Cao Cao to establish his own base in the Henan region, while other warlords such as Yuan Shao and Gongsun Zan were fighting over territories. In 191, after Yuan Shao recommended Cao Cao to be the Administrator of Dong Commandery, Cao Cao in turn nominated Bao Xin to be the Chancellor of the neighbouring Jibei State. In 192, when thousands of former Yellow Turban rebels swarmed into Yan Province from Qing Province, Liu Dai, the Inspector of Yan Province, wanted to lead government forces to attack the rebels.

Bao Xin advised Liu Dai against doing so because the rebels had superiority in numbers, but Liu Dai ignored him, went ahead and was killed in battle. Bao Xin recommended Cao Cao to be the Governor of Yan Province to replace Liu Dai and take the lead in the fight against the rebels. Bao Xin and Cao Cao led their troops to the east of Shouzhang County to attack the rebels. During this time, they were overwhelmed. Bao Xin fought bravely to cover Cao Cao while he escaped, but ended up sacrificing himself in the process. After Cao Cao broke out of the encirclement, he reorganised his troops and returned to the battlefield to search for Bao Xin's body but could not find it, he ordered his men to carve a wooden statue in Bao Xin's likeness and held a memorial service for Bao Xin, during which he wept bitterly. The rebels surrendered to Cao Cao, who recruited them to form the elite Qingzhou Army. Bao Xin was 41 years old; as he led a frugal life and used his personal wealth to help his subordinates, his family did not own much property at the time of his death.

In 212, Cao Cao wrote a memorial to Emperor Xian, asking him to honour Bao Xin and confer the title of a village marquis on Bao Shao, one of Bao Xin's sons. Cao Cao recruited Bao Xun, another of Bao Xin's sons, to serve as an official under him. Bao Xun continued serving as an official in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. Lists of people of the Three Kingdoms Chen, Shou. Records of the Three Kingdoms. de Crespigny, Rafe. To Establish Peace: being the Chronicle of the Later Han dynasty for the years 189 to 220 AD as recorded in Chapters 59 to 69 of the Zizhi tongjian of Sima Guang. Volume 1. Canberra: Faculty of Asian Studies, The Australian National University. ISBN 0-7315-2526-4. de Crespigny, Rafe. A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms 23-220 AD. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004156050. Pei, Songzhi. Annotations to Records of the Three Kingdoms

Oraesia emarginata

Oraesia emarginata is a species of moth of the family Erebidae first described by Johan Christian Fabricius in 1794. It is found in Australia, New Caledonia, New Guinea, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Japan and Nepal as well as Eritrea, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, the Gambia, Uganda and Yemen; the wingspan is about 35–42 mm. Antennae of male unipectinate. Palpi with the third joint produced to a point. Forewings with outer margin angled at vein 4. Male has fiery orange collar. Thorax reddish brown. Abdomen fuscous. Forewings reddish brown suffused with purple. Numerous indistinct waved oblique lines present. A dark streak found on median nervure. An oblique double line runs from apex to inner margin beyond middle, filled in with pale near apex; the area beyond it suffused with gold colour. Hindwings ochreous white. Female has much more variegated forewings. A diffused chocolate patch found below middle of cell. A white streak can be seen on vein 2. Abdomen and hindwings fuscous. Larva dark violet brown with a sub-dorsal series of scarlet and yellow spots and sub-lateral white dot series.

They pierce fruit to suck the juice. The larvae feed on Menispermaceae species, including Stephania japonica as well as Cissampelos and Cocculus species; this species overwinters in the larval stage in clusters of weeds and soil cracks around the host plant. Some other food plants are Citrus, Ipomoea, Malus pumila, Merremia quinquefolia, Prunus persica, Psidium guajava, Stephania discolor and Ardenia gummifera. Oraesia emarginata emarginata Oraesia emarginata defreinai Behounek, Hacker & Speidel, 2010 Morphology, life history and circadian rhythm of the fruit-piercing moth, Oraesia emarginata Bionomics and control methods of fruit-piercing moths, Oraesia emarginata Fabricius and Oraesia excavata Butler Pherobase Invasive Mating and flight behaviors of the Fruit Sucking Moth, Oraesia emarginata