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History of Florida

The history of Florida can be traced to when the first Native Americans began to inhabit the peninsula as early as 14,000 years ago. They left behind artifacts and archeological evidence. Florida's written history begins with the arrival of Europeans; the state received its name from this Spanish conquistador, who called the peninsula La Pascua Florida in recognition of the verdant landscape and because it was the Easter season, which the Spaniards called Pascua Florida. This area was the first mainland realm of the United States to be settled by Europeans. Thus, 1513 marked the beginning of the American Frontier. From that time of contact, Florida has had many waves of colonization and immigration, including French and Spanish settlement during the 16th century, as well as entry of new Native American groups migrating from elsewhere in the South, free blacks and fugitive slaves, who in the 19th century became allied with the Native Americans as Black Seminoles. Florida was under colonial rule by Spain and Great Britain during the 18th and 19th centuries before becoming a territory of the United States in 1821.

Two decades in 1845, Florida was admitted to the union as the 27th US state. Since the 19th century, immigrants have arrived from Europe, Latin America and Asia. Florida is nicknamed the "Sunshine State" due to its warm climate and days of sunshine, which have attracted northern migrants and vacationers since the 1920s. A diverse population and urbanized economy have developed. In 2011 Florida, with over 19 million people, surpassed New York and became the third largest state in population; the economy has developed over time, starting with natural resource exploitation in logging, mining and sponge diving. The tourism, real estate, trade and retirement destination businesses followed; the foundation of Florida was located in the continent of Gondwana at the South Pole 650 million years ago. When Gondwana collided with the continent of Laurentia 300 Mya, it had moved further north. 200 Mya, the merged continents containing what would be Florida, had moved north of the equator. By Florida was surrounded by desert, in the middle of a new continent, Pangaea.

When Pangaea broke up 115 mya, Florida assumed a shape as a peninsula. The emergent landmass of Florida was Orange Island, a low-relief island sitting atop the carbonate Florida Platform which emerged about 34 to 28 million years ago; when glaciation locked up the world's water, starting 2.58 million years ago, the sea level dropped precipitously. It was 100 metres lower than present levels; as a result, the Florida peninsula not only emerged, but had a land area about twice what it is today. Florida had a drier and cooler climate than in more recent times. There were wetlands. Paleo-Indians entered. With lower sea levels, the Florida peninsula was much wider, the climate was cooler and much dryer than in the present day. Fresh water was available only in sinkholes and limestone catchment basins, paleo-Indian activity centered around these scarce watering holes. Sinkholes and basins in the beds of modern rivers have yielded a rich trove of paleo-Indian artifacts, including Clovis points. Excavations at an ancient stone quarry yielded "crude stone implements" showing signs of extensive wear from deposits below those holding Paleo-Indian artifacts.

Thermoluminescence dating and weathering analysis independently gave dates of 26,000 to 28,000 years ago for the creation of the artifacts. The findings are controversial, funding has not been available for follow-up studies; as the glaciers began retreating about 8000 BC, the climate of Florida became wetter. As the glaciers melted, the sea level rose. Many prehistoric habitation sites along the old coastline were submerged, making artifacts from early coastal cultures difficult to find; the paleo-Indian culture was replaced by, or evolved into, the Early Archaic culture. With an increase in population and more water available, the people occupied many more locations, as evidenced by numerous artifacts. Archaeologists have learned much about the Early Archaic people of Florida from the discoveries made at Windover Pond; the Early Archaic period evolved into the Middle Archaic period around 5000 BC. People started living in villages near wetlands and along the coast at favored sites that were occupied for multiple generations.

The Late Archaic period started about 3000 BC, when Florida's climate had reached current conditions and the sea had risen close to its present level. People occupied both fresh and saltwater wetlands. Large shell middens accumulated during this period. Many people lived in large villages with purpose-built earthwork mounds, such as at Horr's Island, which had the largest permanently occupied community in the Archaic period in the southeastern United States, it has the oldest burial mound in the East, dating to about 1450 BC. People began making fired pottery in Florida by 2000 BC. By about 500 BC, the Archaic culture, uniform across Florida, began to fragment into regional cultures; the post-Archaic cultures of eastern and southern Florida developed in relative isolation. It is that the peoples living in those areas at the time of first European contact were direct descendants of the inhabitants of the areas in late Archaic and Woodland times; the cultures of the Florida panhandle and the north and centra

Community of Democracies

The Community of Democracies is an intergovernmental coalition of states established in 2000. Its aim is to bring together governments, civil society and the private sector in the pursuit of the common goal of supporting democratic rules, expand political participation and protect democratic freedoms, strengthening democratic norms and institutions around the world; the task of more democracy is outlined in the Warsaw Declaration. It is disputed; the CD was inaugurated at its first biennial ministerial conference hosted by the government of Poland in Warsaw on June 25 to June 27, 2000. The initiative was spearheaded by Polish Foreign Minister Bronisław Geremek and U. S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, along with six co-conveners: the governments of Chile, the Czech Republic, Mali and the Republic of Korea. 106 nations signed the declaration. At the close of the conference the participating governments signed onto the Warsaw Declaration, agreeing “to respect and uphold core democratic principles and practices” including, among others and fair elections, freedom of speech and expression, equal access to education, rule of law, freedom of peaceful assembly.

In closing remarks to the ministerial conference in Warsaw, the UN Secretary General Kofi Annan praised the Community of Democracies as a positive development toward global democracy, saying. “When the United Nations can call itself a community of democracies, the Charter's noble ideals of protecting human rights and promoting "social progress in larger freedoms" will have been brought much closer." The CD works on the base of the Warsaw Declaration. Since 2018, their work is more guided by the Community’s Strategic Plan for 2018-2023 which identified the following strategic objectives: Encouraging Adherence to the Warsaw Declaration Support for Democratic Consolidation in Transitioning Countries Deepening the Dialogue on the Challenges to DemocracyTheir internal structure include regular Ministerial Conferences, a Governing Council, a Chairmanship, a Permanent Secretariat headed by the Secretary General, six Working Groups as well as two Affiliated Bodies; the Governing Council consists of the following Member States: Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Finland, Georgia,Guatemala, India, Japan, Mali, Mongolia, Norway, North Macedonia Nigeria, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Sweden, United States of America and the United Kingdom As of September 2019, the two-year Presidency of the CoD is held by Romania.

Past Presidencies included: South Korea, Mali, Portugal (20017- 2009_, Mongolia, El Salvador, the United States. Between Sept 2017-Sept 2019, the CoD was led by a collective chairmanship of the CoD Executive Committee. Ministerial Conferences are held towards the end of each presidency term in the capital of the presiding state, resulting in the adoption of a common declaration / plan of action towards the following activities of the Community: Warsaw 2000, Seoul 2002, Santiago 2005, Bamako 2007, Lisbon 2009, Vilnius 2011, Ulaanbaatar 2013 and Washington D. C. 2017 Since 2009, a Permanent Secretariat of the Community of Democracies operates in Warsaw, providing technical, logistical and administrative support to all the bodies of the Community. The current head of the Permanent Secretariat and therefor Secretary General of the CoD is Thomas E. Garrett, appointed September 1, 2017. Working Groups are action-oriented structures that drive the implementation of the strategic objectives of the Community of Democracies.

WGs are composed of states, civil society representatives, other democracy stakeholders. WG mandates are approved by the Governing Council, they supported and coordinated by the Permanent Secretariat of the Community of Democracies. There are six Working Groups: Working Group on Enabling and Protecting Civil Society Working Group on Promoting Freedom of Opinion and Expression Working Group on Women and Democracy Working Group on Education for Democracy Working Group on Elections Working Group on CoD Governance and Effectiveness The CoD consults two external bodies on a regular basis; the Academic Advisory Board assists the work of the CoD by providing an academic perspective. The Civil Society Pillar refers to the non-governmental process of the CoD, including civil society organizations and experts devoted to promoting democracy, it is represented by the non-governmental "International Steering Committee", composed of 26 leaders of civil society organizations from all regions of the world, the Chair and Vice-Chair and the organization which serves as the ISC's secretariat.

In April 2018, Fundacion Multitudes was elected as the first Permanent Secretariat of the CSP and Paulina Ibarra as Chair of the ISC. The ISC advises governments on the actions needed to enable civil society to work to strengthen democracy, rule of law, protection for the fundamental rights enshrined in the Warsaw Declaration; the ISC coordinates a variety of initiatives for civil society, including the civil society forum taking place in the biannual Ministerial Conferences of the Community, which results in a set of recommendations to the Ministerial Declaration made by civil society representatives. In 2018, the CoD finalised the Phase III of the Myanmar Constitutional Democracy Project, implemented cooperation with Australia-Myanmar Constitutional Democracy Project, that aimed to facilitate an inclusive constituti

Black Eye (film)

Black Eye is a 1974 neo-noir action film and blaxploitation film produced by Pat Rooney, directed by Jack Arnold and starring Fred Williamson. The film was based on the novel Murder on the Wild Side by Jeff Jacks. A private detective takes a case involving a movie star's death. An LA cop, turned private detective is called to investigate the multiple murders that are all connected to a cane, stolen, from a deceased silent movie star. Fred Williamson as Stone Rosemary Forsyth as Miss Francis Teresa Graves as Cynthia Richard Anderson as Dole Richard X. Slattery as Bowen Larry Mann as Avery Theodore Wilson as Lindy Dennis Schwartz of Ozus' World Movie Reviews wrote: "The gritty blaxploitation crime thriller gives it a good try to be in the Chandler mode. List of American films of 1974 14. Black Eye. Monthly Film Bulletin. FLAF International Index to Film Periodicals Database. Retrieved 2019-04-13 https://nostalgiacentral.com/movies/movies-by-decade/movies-1970s/black-eye-1974/ Black Eye on IMDb