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History of Haiti

The recorded written history of Haiti began on 5 December 1492 when the European navigator Christopher Columbus happened upon a large island in the region of the western Atlantic Ocean that came to be known as the Caribbean. It was inhabited by the Taíno, Arawakan people, who variously called their island Ayiti, Bohio, or Kiskeya. Columbus promptly claimed the island for the Spanish Crown, naming it La Isla Española Latinized to Hispaniola. French influence began in 1625, French control of what was called Saint-Domingue modern day Haiti began in 1660. From 1697 on, the western part of the island was French and the eastern part was Spanish. Haiti became one of the wealthiest of France's colonies, producing vast quantities of sugar and coffee and depended on a brutal slave system for the necessary labor. Inspired by the message of the French Revolution, Haitian slaves rose up in revolt in 1791 and after decades of struggle the independent republic of Haiti was proclaimed in 1804. Successive waves of Arawak migrants, moving northward from the Orinoco delta in South America, settled the islands of the Caribbean.

Around A. D. 600, the Taíno, an Arawak culture, arrived on the island. They were organized into cacicazgos, each led by a cacique. Christopher Columbus established La Navidad, near the modern town of Cap-Haïtien, it was built from the timbers of his wrecked ship, Santa María, during his first voyage in December 1492. When he returned in 1493 on his second voyage he found the settlement had been destroyed and all 39 settlers killed. Columbus continued east and founded a new settlement at La Isabela on the territory of the present-day Dominican Republic in 1493; the capital of the colony was moved to Santo Domingo in 1496, on the south west coast of the island in the territory of the present-day Dominican Republic. The Spanish returned to western Hispaniola in 1502, establishing a settlement at Yaguana near modern-day Léogâne. A second settlement was established on the north coast in 1504 called Puerto Real near modern Fort-Liberté – which in 1578 was relocated to a nearby site and renamed Bayaja.

Following the arrival of Europeans, La Hispaniola's indigenous population suffered to near extinction, in the worst case of depopulation in the Americas. A accepted hypothesis attributes the high mortality of this colony in part to European diseases to which the natives had no immunity. A small number of Taínos were able to set up villages elsewhere. Spanish interest in Hispaniola began to wane in the 1520s, as more lucrative gold and silver deposits were found in Mexico and South America. Thereafter, the population of Spanish Hispaniola grew at a slow pace; the settlement of Yaguana was burnt to the ground three times in its just over a century long existence as a Spanish settlement, first by French pirates in 1543, again on May 27, 1592, by a 110-strong landing party from a four-ship English naval squadron led by Christopher Newport in his flagship Golden Dragon, who destroyed all 150 houses in the settlement, by the Spanish themselves in 1605, for reasons set out below. In 1595, the Spanish, frustrated by the twenty-year rebellion of their Dutch subjects, closed their home ports to rebel shipping from the Netherlands, cutting them off from the critical salt supplies necessary for their herring industry.

The Dutch responded by sourcing new salt supplies from Spanish America where colonists were more than happy to trade. So large numbers of Dutch traders/pirates joined their English and French brethren trading on the remote coasts of Hispaniola. In 1605, Spain was infuriated that Spanish settlements on the northern and western coasts of the island persisted in carrying out large scale and illegal trade with the Dutch, who were at that time fighting a war of independence against Spain in Europe and the English, a recent enemy state, so decided to forcibly resettle their inhabitants closer to the city of Santo Domingo; this action, known as the Devastaciones de Osorio, proved disastrous. Five of the existing thirteen settlements on the island were brutally razed by Spanish troops including the two settlements on the territory of present-day Haiti, La Yaguana, Bayaja. Many of the inhabitants escaped to the jungle, or fled to the safety of passing Dutch ships; this Spanish action was counterproductive as English and French pirates were now free to establish bases on the island's abandoned northern and western coasts, where wild cattle were now plentiful and free.

In 1697, after decades of fighting over the territory, the Spanish ceded the western part of the island to the French, who henceforth called it Saint-Domingue. Saint-Domingue developed into a lucrative colony for France, its economy was based on a labor-intensive sugar industry which rested on vast numbers of African slaves. Meanwhile, the situation on the Spanish part of the island deteriorated; the entire Spanish empire sank into a deep economic crisis, Santo Domingo was in addition struck by earthquakes, hurricanes and a shrinking population. In 1711, the city of Cap-Français was formally established by Louis XIV and took over as capital of the colony from Port-de-Paix. In 1726, the city of Les Cayes was founded on the Southern coast which became the biggest settlement in the south. In 1749, the city of Port-au-Prince was established on the West coast, which in 1770 took over as the capital of the colony from Cap-Français, however that same year the 1770 Port-au-Prince earthquake and tsunami destroyed the city killing 200 people and 30,000 from famine and di

List of Subaru transmissions

Subaru motor vehicles have used manual, conventional automatic, continuously variable transmissions. Subaru manufactures its own manual and CVT transmissions. Since the 1970s, all Subaru conventional automatic transmissions have been Jatco designs adapted to Subaru specifications. Since the 2014 model year, the conventional automatic transmissions in North American-spec Subaru vehicles have been replaced with Lineartronic CVTs. All of Subaru's three speed automatic transmissions were made by Jatco. Gear Ratios: 1st 2.600 2nd 1.505 3rd 1.000 Rev 4.100 Usage: 1975–1979 Subaru Leone Gear Ratios: 1st 2.600 2nd 1.505 3rd 1.000 Rev 2.166 Usage: 1980–1982 Subaru Leone The 3EAT was an electronically controlled 3AT with available Single-Range 4WD. Gear Ratios: 1st 2.821 2nd 1.559 3rd 1.000 Rev 2.257 Usage: 1983–,19841994 Subaru Leone 1985–1989 Subaru XT and Subaru BRAT Subaru built their own four-speed automatic transmission based on the old Jatco design. It was available in Full-time awd. Subaru uses two types of traction delivery systems, called Active Torque Split, or the performance oriented Variable Torque Distribution, called VTD.

Active Torque Split the rear wheels through a hydraulic clutch. The control unit monitors several factors including vehicle speed, gear position, wheel speed and varies the application of the clutch based on a model stored in memory; the effect is a and changing torque to the rear wheels anywhere from a few percent to locked. The control unit does alter torque several times per second. Vehicles with higher power engines use a more aggressive model resulting in higher rear engagement. Attempts at reducing customer confusion resulted in torque split numbers being given, but these have no meaning as there is no mechanical or other device to provide a static starting point for the control unit; this system is the more used setup used on most Subaru products after its introduction on the XT6. VTD adds a twin planetary center differential to the clutch and therefore has a static, starting torque split calculated on the planetary gear ratio, with the most common being 45:55; the active clutch operation is similar to the ACT system, although the clutch is used to suppress differential action instead of as the differential itself.

VTD was introduced on the Alcyone SVX in 1991 and is found in performance models equipped with a turbocharger, along with the VDC outback. Active Torque Split and VTD are found in both generations of the 4 speed while the 5 speed uses only VTD; this transmission was released in 1988 for use in the Subaru Leone Touring Wagon. The bellhousing and input shaft were changed for the Subaru EJ engine, the first generation was used until about 1998, when a major redesign of the holding devices was released; the second generation saw use until 2008. Gear Ratios: 1st 2.785 2nd 1.545 3rd 1.000 4th 0.694 Rev 2.272 Some versions had gear ratios of 1st 3.030 2nd 1.620 3rd 1.000 4th 0.694 Rev 2.272 Usage: 1988–1991 Subaru XT, 1990–2004 Subaru Legacy, 1992–1997 Subaru Alcyone SVX, all Subarus 1995–2009The Ford Motor Company uses a transmission on some Ford, Kia Motors and Mazda products called the F-4EAT, which shares some similarities with the Subaru, since they are both manufactured by Jatco. The Nissan Pathfinder has used this transmission in the past with an external transfer case attached.

Subaru released the 5EAT w/ SportShift in 2003 based on the Jatco JR507E transmission. Gear Ratios:1st 3.540 2nd 2.264 3rd 1.471 4th 1.000 5th 0.834 Rev 2.370 Usage: 2005+ Subaru Legacy and 3.0R. Gear Ratios: 1st 3.636 2nd 2.264 3rd 1.471 4th 1.000 5th 0.834 6th 0.700 Rev 3.272 Usage: B11S Concept Car Only Subaru developed a CVT for the Subaru Justy to gain reasonable acceleration and fuel economy from its small three cylinder engine. It employs a push-belt system and comes with an optional 4WD unit that engages the rear wheels when a button on the shifter is depressed, it has a'sport mode' that when activated nearly doubles engine RPM for better torque distribution when towing or going uphill. The Shift Indicator reads P-R-N-D-Ds, Ds stands for Drive Sport, which doubles engine RPM; the CVT transmission proved unreliable after accumulating high mileage, causing Subaru to stop exporting cars with CVTs to North America until the fifth generation Legacy/Outback. Subaru did continue to build Kei cars with CVTs, only for sale in Japan.

In addition to improving the design of the transmission over the years, Subaru has supplied other companies with CVTs, as well. The Justy ECVT was available with hydraulically actuated 4WD in November 1988, this model was called the Justy 4WD ECVT. Gear Ratios: Infinite Usage: 1989–1994 Subaru Justy The fifth generation Legacy/Outback and the JDM Subaru Exiga received a newly revised CVT under the Lineartronic name, it is a metal chain, pulley-based CVT, considered the most reliable, due to the simplicity of the pulley system and durability of the metal chain. In addition, the metal chain pulley system is quieter than other CVT designs. In the US, the Lineartronic is available with the 2.5i engine in the Outback and Forester, the 2.0 FB engine in the Impreza and modified for the XV Crosstrek. In SE Asia this transmission is available for the 2.0i engine for the 2010 and Legacy Legacy Asia spec. Subaru claims that the transmission provides "uninterrupted power that maximizes fuel efficiency while k

Eggborough power station

Eggborough power station was a large coal-fired power station in North Yorkshire, capable of co-firing biomass. It is situated on the River Aire, between the towns of Knottingley and Snaith, deriving its name from the nearby village of Eggborough; the station had a generating capacity of 1,960 megawatts, enough electricity to power 2 million homes, equivalent to the area of Leeds and Sheffield. The station closed in September 2018, but there are plans to replace it with a 2.5 GW gas power plant. Opened in 1966 to use nearby coal-reserves, the station was built for, operated by, the Central Electricity Generating Board. Eggborough Power Station was built between 1962 and 1970, first began generating electricity in 1967; the station comprises four 500 megawatt coal-fired pulverised fuel units, giving the station a total electrical output of 1,960 MW. There were four boilers rated at 403 kg/s, steam conditions were 158.58 bar at 566/566°C reheat. Units 3 and 4 had Flue Gas Desulphurisation equipment installed, which reduced the units' emissions of Sulphur Dioxide by around 90%.

There were 3 × 17.5 MW auxiliary gas turbines on the site, these were first commissioned in May 1967. Eggborough power stations were supplied with fuel via a 1½ mile branch line off the Wakefield and Goole Line. Rail facilities include a west-facing junction on the Goole line, two coal discharge lines, gross- and tare-weight weighbridges, a hopper house, a limestone unloading line and an oil discharge line; the eight cooling towers are arranged in two rows of four located to the west of the power station building. There is a single 200 m tall chimney located to the north of the main building; the electrical switching station was located to the south of the main building. In 2005 a retrofit turbine upgrade was carried out to increase the station's efficiency and flexibility by improving part-load and two-shift operation; the station employed around 300 people, as well as contractors. Alongside Ferrybridge Power Stations, Eggborough used to pump ash from the incineration process to a piece of land south of the railway line, The M62 and the Aire and Calder Navigation called Gale Common Ash Disposal.

The area was landscaped by Brenda Colvin into a hill with contours. The hill reaches a height of 160 feet and stands out amongst the rather flat landscape of this part of North Yorkshire. In late 2018 the decommissioned station was used as a filming location for the Fast and the Furious film, Hobbs & Shaw; the station was built for, operated by, the Central Electricity Generating Board. The station became the property of National Power on privatisation of the industry in 1990. British Energy bought Eggborough Power Station, as its only coal-fired power station, in 2000 to provide a more flexible power production facility alongside its nuclear power stations to reduce penalty charge risks from the New Electricity Trading Arrangements introduced in March 2001; the purchase of Eggborough occurred at the peak of the market for power stations, in 2002 the value of the station was written down by half. At the beginning of 2009, Électricité de France purchased British Energy. In August 2009, it became apparent that the station's lenders had the option to buy the station the following April, to comply with commitments made to the European Commission when agreeing the acquisition of British Energy.

On 1 April 2010, EDF transferred Eggborough to the plant's bondholders. In November 2014 it was announced, that power station was to be acquired by Czech Republic-based Energetický a průmyslový holding; the acquisition was finalised January 2015. In September 2015 the owners announced the plant was expected to stop producing electricity by the end of March 2016; however less than two months before the closure, in February 2016 it was announced that the plant would continue to operate for at least another twelve months through to March 2017. On 1 August it was announced that a further unit would be available to run commercially from mid September 2016. Units 1 & 2 will generate for National Grid under the Supplementary Balance Reserve contracts providing 775 MW Unit 4 returned to commercial operation on 16 September 2016 to generate 440 MW into the wholesale market following six months of deep maintenance. On 26 August 2016 Eggborough Power Limited proposed to develop a new Eggborough Gas-Fired Power Station on the site of its existing coal-fired power station.

The new power station will be a combined cycle gas turbine or ‘CCGT’ plant with three units generating 2,000 MW. Outline plans for the new development, which should be completed by 2022, involve demolishing the coal fired site and building a new gas connection; the plans are available on the National Infrastructure Planning web site and summarised on Eggborough's own website. On 2 February 2018 it was announced that Eggborough would close the following September.. Eggborough power station stopped generating and de-synced on 23 March 2018. Generator 4 was the last operational unit and was declared unavailable at 02:00. Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom Energy policy of the United Kingdom Aire valley power stations Eggborough Power Ltd. Image on Historic England of a coal train approaching Eggborough PS