The history of Indonesia has been shaped by its geographic position, its natural resources, a series of human migrations and contacts and conquests, as well as by trade and politics. Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,000 to 18,000 islands stretching along the equator in South East Asia; the country's strategic sea-lane position fostered international trade. The area of Indonesia is populated by peoples of various migrations, creating a diversity of cultures and languages; the archipelago's landforms and climate influenced agriculture and trade, the formation of states. The boundaries of the state of Indonesia represent the 20th century borders of the Dutch East Indies. Fossilised remains of Homo erectus and his tools, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by at least 1.5 million years ago. Austronesian people, who form the majority of the modern population, are thought to have been from Taiwan and arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BCE. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished bringing Hindu and Buddhist influences with it.
The agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties subsequently thrived and declined in inland Java. The last significant non-Muslim kingdom, the Hindu Majapahit kingdom, flourished from the late 13th century, its influence stretched over much of Indonesia; the earliest evidence of Islamised populations in Indonesia dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra. For the most part, Islam mixed with existing cultural and religious influences. Europeans such as the Portuguese arrived in Indonesia from the 16th century seeking to monopolise the sources of valuable nutmeg and cubeb pepper in Maluku. In 1602 the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company and became the dominant European power by 1610. Following bankruptcy, the VOC was formally dissolved in 1800, the government of the Netherlands established the Dutch East Indies under government control. By the early 20th century, Dutch dominance extended to the current boundaries; the Japanese invasion and subsequent occupation in 1942–45 during WWII ended Dutch rule, encouraged the suppressed Indonesian independence movement.
Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, nationalist leader, declared independence and became president. The Netherlands tried to reestablish its rule, but a bitter armed and diplomatic struggle ended in December 1949, when in the face of international pressure, the Dutch formally recognised Indonesian independence. An attempted coup in 1965 led to a violent army-led anti-communist purge in which over half a million people were killed. General Suharto politically outmanoeuvred President Sukarno, became president in March 1968, his New Order administration garnered the favour of the West, whose investment in Indonesia was a major factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth. In the late 1990s, Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the East Asian Financial Crisis, which led to popular protests and Suharto's resignation on 21 May 1998; the Reformasi era following Suharto's resignation, has led to a strengthening of democratic processes, including a regional autonomy program, the secession of East Timor, the first direct presidential election in 2004.
Political and economic instability, social unrest, natural disasters, terrorism have slowed progress. Although relations among different religious and ethnic groups are harmonious, acute sectarian discontent and violence remain problems in some areas. In 2007 analysis of cut marks on two bovid bones found in Sangiran, showed them to have been made 1.5 to 1.6 million years ago by clamshell tools. This is the oldest evidence for the presence of early man in Indonesia. Fossilised remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man" were first discovered by the Dutch anatomist Eugène Dubois at Trinil in 1891, are at least 700,000 years old, at that time the oldest human ancestor found. Further H. erectus fossils of a similar age were found at Sangiran in the 1930s by the anthropologist Gustav Heinrich Ralph von Koenigswald, who in the same time period uncovered fossils at Ngandong alongside more advanced tools, re-dated in 2011 to between 550,000 and 143,000 years old. In 1977 another H. erectus skull was discovered at Sambungmacan.
The earliest evidence of artistic activity found, in the form of diagonal etchings made with a sharks tooth, was detected in 2014 on a 500,000-year-old fossil of a clam found in Java in the 1890s associated with H. erectus. In 2003, on the island of Flores, fossils of a new small hominid dated between 74,000 and 13,000 years old and named "Flores Man" were discovered much to the surprise of the scientific community; this 3 foot tall hominid is thought to be a species descended from Homo erectus and reduced in size over thousands of years by a well known process called island dwarfism. Flores Man seems to have shared the island with modern Homo sapiens until only 12,000 years ago, when they became extinct. In 2010 stone tools were discovered on Flores dating from 1 million years ago, the oldest evidence anywhere in the world that early man had the technology to make sea crossings at this early time; the archipelago was formed during the thaw after the latest ice age. Early humans travelled by spread from mainland Asia eastward to New Guinea and Australia.
Homo sapiens reached the region by around 45,000 years ago. In 2011 ev
The Ivy Mills Historic District is a national historic district located in Concord Township, Delaware County, United States. It encompasses the ruins of a paper mill, a clerk's house, the Ivy Mills Mansion House; the mansion house is a 2 1/2-story, five bay wide, stuccoed masonry structure, which includes a saltbox wing and a wide verandah. The original paper mill was erected in 1729, the original mansion house in 1744. Both of the original buildings were replaced in the early-19th century by the present buildings; this district was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. In 1726, Thomas Willcox along with Thomas Brown built a mill dam across the Chester Creek. In 1729 a paper mill was erected and the first paper was sold; the Ivy Mills is the second oldest paper mill built in America. Only the Rittenhouse mill in Philadelphia is older; the first output from Ivy Mills was pressboard and printing paper. Thomas Willcox was known to have made paper for him. Willcox received the first order for paper used in the production of colonial and continental currency.
After 1775, the mill was devoted entirely to making government paper for the continental bills, loan certificates and bills of exchange. At the time of the American Revolution, the government depended on Ivy Mills for paper for currency; the Ivy Mills supplied paper for the Continental and United States governments as well as many South American countries. Paper was produced at Ivy Mills until 1886; the mill fell into ruins. A mission chapel was established at Ivy Mills in 1730, making it the oldest Roman Catholic parish in Pennsylvania. In 1837, St. Mary's Chapel was built as part of the new Ivy Mills Mansion; the size of the congregation was sufficient to warrant the construction of a new church in 1852 named St. Thomas the Apostle Church a mile away in what would become the borough of Chester Heights; this district was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. Media related to Ivy Mills Historic District at Wikimedia Commons "Thomas Willcox Family". Retrieved 30 June 2017
Hermann III of Baden, nicknamed the Great, was Margrave of Verona and Baden. He was the son of Hermann II of Judith von Hohenberg, he was ruler of the margraviate of Baden from 1130 until 1160. Faithfully devoted to the Staufens, Hermann III came in conflict with his relatives from Zähringen-Swabia. In 1140 he participated in the siege of Weibtreu castle, received the bailiwick of Selz in Alsace. In 1151 the margravate of Verona was taken from Ottokar III of Styria and conferred on Hermann III. A deed of donation exists from 1153, that states Frederick I bought Castle Besigheim from Hermann III. Hermann III fought in the first Italian campaign of Emperor Frederick I, gained the title margrave of Verona. Hermann III took part in the Second Crusade, he married Bertha von Lothringen, in 1134. He had the following children: Hermann IV Gertrud who married in 1180 Graf Albrecht von Dagsburg Secondly, he married Maria of Bohemia after 1141, she was the daughter of Duke Sobeslav I of Bohemia. Hermann III was buried in the Augustine Monastery in Backnang.
Arnold, Benjamin. Princes and Territories in Medieval Germany. Cambridge University Press. Berry, Virginia G.. "The Second Crusade". In Baldwin, Marshall W.. A History of the Crusade; the University of Wisconsin Press. Freed, John B.. Frederick Barbarossa: The Prince and the Myth. Yale University Press. Loud, Graham A.. The Origins of the German Principalities, 1100-1350: Essays by German Historians. Routledge