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History of Israel

The Land of Israel known as the Holy Land or Palestine, is the birthplace of the Jewish people, the place where the final form of the Hebrew Bible is thought to have been compiled, the birthplace of Judaism and Christianity. It contains sites sacred to Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the Bahá'í Faith; the region has come under the sway of various empires and, as a result, has hosted a wide variety of ethnicities. However, the land was predominantly Jewish from 1,000 years before the Common Era until the 3rd century of the Common Era; the adoption of Christianity by the Roman Empire in the 4th century led to a Greco-Roman Christian majority which lasted not just until the 7th century when the area was conquered by the Arab Muslim Empires, but for another full six centuries. It became predominantly Muslim after the end of the Crusader period, during which it was the focal point of conflict between Christianity and Islam. From the 13th century it was Muslim with Arabic as the dominant language and was first part of the Syrian province of the Mamluk Sultanate and after 1516 part of the Ottoman Empire until the British conquest in 1917-18.

A Jewish national movement, emerged in the late-19th century, as part of which Aliyah increased. During World War I, the British government publicly committed to create a Jewish National Home and was granted a Mandate to rule Palestine by the League of Nations for this purpose. A rival Arab nationalism claimed rights over the former Ottoman territories and sought to prevent Jewish migration into Palestine, leading to growing Arab–Jewish tensions. Israeli independence in 1948 was accompanied by an exodus of Arabs from Israel, the Arab–Israeli conflict and a subsequent Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries to Israel. About 43 % of the world's Jews live in the largest Jewish community in the world. Since about 1970, the United States has become the principal ally of Israel. In 1979, an uneasy Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty was signed, based on the Camp David Accords. In 1993, Israel signed Oslo I Accord with the Palestine Liberation Organization, followed by establishment of the Palestinian National Authority and in 1994 Israel–Jordan peace treaty was signed.

Despite efforts to finalize the peace agreement, the conflict continues to play a major role in Israeli and international political and economic life. The economy of Israel was primarily democratic socialist and the country dominated by social democratic parties until the 1970s. Since the Israeli economy has moved to capitalism and a free market economy retaining the social welfare system. Between 2.6 and 0.9 million years ago, at least four episodes of hominine dispersal from Africa to the Levant are known, each culturally distinct. The oldest evidence of early humans in the territory of modern Israel, dating to 1.5 million years ago, was found in Ubeidiya near the Sea of Galilee. The flint tool artefacts have been discovered at Yiron, the oldest stone tools found anywhere outside Africa. Other groups include 1.4 million years old Acheulean industry, the Bizat Ruhama group and Gesher Bnot Yaakov. In the Carmel mountain range at el-Tabun, Es Skhul and early modern human remains were found, including the skeleton of a Neanderthal female, named Tabun I, regarded as one of the most important human fossils found.

The excavation at el-Tabun produced the longest stratigraphic record in the region, spanning 600,000 or more years of human activity, from the Lower Paleolithic to the present day, representing a million years of human evolution. Other notable Paleolithic sites include caves Manot; the oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans found outside Africa are the Skhul and Qafzeh hominids, who lived in northern Israel 120,000 years ago. Around 10th millennium BCE, the Natufian culture existed in the area. During the 2nd millennium BCE, part of which became known as Israel, was dominated by the New Kingdom of Egypt from c.1550 to c. 1180. The earliest recorded battle in history took place in 1457 BCE, at Megiddo, between Canaanite forces and those of Pharoh Thutmose III; the Canaanites left no written history. The first record of the name Israel occurs in the Merneptah stele, erected for Egyptian Pharaoh Merneptah c. 1209 BCE, "Israel is laid waste and his seed is not." William G. Dever sees this "Israel" in the central highlands as a cultural and political entity, more an ethnic group rather than an organized state.

Ancestors of the Israelites may have included Semites native to the Sea Peoples. McNutt says, "It is safe to assume that sometime during Iron Age I a population began to identify itself as'Israelite'", differentiating itself from the Canaanites through such markers as the prohibition of intermarriage, an emphasis on family history and genealogy, religion; the archeological evidence indicates a society of village-like centres, but with more limited resources and a small population. Villages had populations of up to 300 or 400, which lived by farming and herding, were self-sufficient. Writing was known and available for recording in small sites; the first use of grapheme-based writing originated in the area among Canaanite peoples resident in Egypt. This evolved into the Phoenician alphabet from which all modern alphabetical writing systems are descended; the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet was one of the first to develop and evidence of its use exists

Football in Hungary

Football is the most popular sport in Hungary. The Hungarian Football Federation is the highest body of professional football in Hungary and was founded in 1901; the Hungarian national team has played in numerous international tournaments, including the first football tournament in the Olympic Games, nine World Cups, two European Championships. Greatest achievements are the three gold medals in the 1952, 1964 and 1968 Olympic Games, the runner-up in the 1938 and 1954 World Cups; the team known as the Mighty Magyars was the first non-British team to defeat England, 6-3 at Wembley in 1953. Months they defeated the English by a convincing 7-1 in Budapest in 1954, the worst defeat in the history of the English team; the Hungarian Football Federation, the sport's national governing body, was founded in 1901. Hungary were regular features at major tournaments, such as the first Olympic Football Tournament and many FIFA World Cup, they were the first non-UK team to beat England at Wembley Stadium with their 6-3 victory in 1953.

The golden age of Hungarian football took place in the 1950s, with the emergence of players of the caliber of Ferenc Puskás, László Kubala, Zoltán Czibor, Sándor Kocsis, Nándor Hidegkuti, Ferenc Szusza, József Bozsik & Gyula Grosics. This team was known as the Golden Team and remained undefeated for 32 consecutive games, winning the gold medal in the 1952 Olympic Games in Helsinki and reaching the final in the 1954 World Cup in Switzerland, always with Ferenc Puskás as a star; the twilight of this team that marveled the world came with the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, after a match of the European Champion's Cup Budapest Honvéd in Bilbao, many of the stars like Czibor and Puskás decided not to return to their country and sign for teams from Western Europe, meaning his retirement from the national team. Puskás joined Real Madrid in 1958, winning three European Cups and debuting with the Spanish national team in 1961, while Czibor and Kocsis joined FC Barcelona. In 1967, the Ferencváros T. C.

Flórián Albert became the first Hungarian to win the Golden Ball, surpassing the second place achieved by Puskás seven years before. Hungary's capital Budapest has seven professional football teams, six of them have won the Hungarian 1st division; until July 2012 teams based in Budapest have won the Hungarian Championship 96 times and teams from other cities have won it 14 times. The Hungarian football clubs have several international successes. Ferencvárosi TC won the 1964–65 edition of the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup and was runner-up in the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1974–75 season and the Cup of Fairs in 1968, while Újpest FC reached the final of the Fair Cup in 1969, Videoton FC UEFA Cup in 1985, the MTK Budapest to that of the Recopa in 1964. Hungarian National Championship I Hungarian National Championship II Hungarian Cup Hungarian Super Cup The table below lists all Budapest clubs in the top three tiers of the Hungarian football league system: from the top division, down to the Nemzeti Bajnokság III.

League status is correct for the 2012–13 season. Budapest is the location of the headquarters of the Hungarian Football Federation; the Hungarian national team, in its different categories, is controlled by the Hungarian Football Federation. The Hungarian team played their first official game on October 12, 1902 in Vienna against Austria, a match, resolved with 5-0 for the Austrians. Hungary has played nine two European Cups; the best result of Hungary national team reached the FIFA World Cup final twice. Since Hungary's performance has diminished

Comic book

A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comics art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.

As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. There are many technological formulas used to create comic books, including directions, axes and metrics. Following these key formatting procedures is the writing and coloring.

Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book. Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with the first comic standard-sized comic being Funnies on Parade. Funnies on Parades was the first book that established the size and format of the modern comic book. Following this was, Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true newstand American comic book; the introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics. The Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras.

The Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man. The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s; the Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. Wertham claimed that comic books were responsible for an increase in juvenile delinquency, as well as potential influence on a child's sexuality and morals.

In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comics. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Underground comix "reflected and commented on the social divisions and tensions of American society". Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order.

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