SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

History of Lebanon

The history of Lebanon covers the history of the modern Republic of Lebanon and the earlier emergence of Greater Lebanon under the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, as well as the previous history of the region, covered by the modern state. Ksar Akil, 10 km northwest of Beirut, is a large rock shelter below a steep limestone cliff where excavations have shown occupational deposits reaching down to a depth of 23.6 metres with one of the longest sequences of Paleolithic flint [[archaeological industry is a well tained Upper Levalloiso-Mousterian remains with long and triangular Lithic flakes. The level above this showed industries accounting for all six stages of the Upper Paleolithic. An Emireh point was found at the first stage of this level, at around 15.2 metres below datum with a complete skeleton of an eight-year-old Homo sapiens was discovered at 11.6 metres, cemented into breccia. A fragment of a Neanderthal maxilla was discovered in material from level XXVI or XXV, at around 15 metres.

Studies by Hooijer showed Capra and Dama were dominant in the fauna along with Stephanorhinus in Levalloiso-Mousterian levels. It is believed to be one of the earliest known sites containing Upper Paleolithic technologies. Artifacts recovered from the site include Ksar Akil flakes, the main type of tool found at the site, along with shells with holes and chipped edge modifications that are suggested to have been used as pendants or beads; these indicate that the inhabitants were among the first in Western Eurasia to use personal ornaments. Results from radiocarbon dating indicate that the early humans may have lived at the site 45,000 years ago or earlier; the presence of personal ornaments at Ksar Akil is suggestive of modern human behavior. The findings of ornaments at the site are contemporaneous with ornaments found at Late Stone Age sites such as Enkapune Ya Muto; the earliest prehistoric cultures of Lebanon, such as the Qaraoun culture gave rise to the civilization of the Canaanite period, when the region was populated by ancient peoples, cultivating land and living in sophisticated societies during the 2nd millennium BC.

Northern Canaanites are mentioned in the Bible as well as in other Semitic records from that period. Canaanites were the creators of the oldest known 24-letter alphabet, a shortening of earlier 30-letter alphabets such as Proto-Sinaitic and Ugaritic; the Canaanite alphabet developed into the Phoenician one, influencing the entire Mediterranean region. The coastal plain of Lebanon is the historic home of a string of coastal trading cities of Semitic culture, which the Greeks termed Phoenicia, whose maritime culture flourished there for more than 1,000 years. Ancient ruins in Byblos, Sidon and Tyre show a civilized nation, with urban centres and sophisticated arts. Phoenicia was a cosmopolitan centre for many cultures. Phoenician art and religion reveal considerable Mesopotamian and Egyptian influence; the sarcophagi of Sidonian kings Eshmunazzar II and Tabnit reveal that Phoenician royalty adopted Egyptian burial customs. Phoenician traders exported spices from Arabia, such as frankincense, to the Greeks.

This trade led to the transmission of the Phoenician alphabet to Greece. Herodotus attests that the Phoenicians "introduced into Greece upon their arrival a great variety of arts, among the rest that of writing, whereof the Greeks till had, as I think, been ignorant."According to legend however, it is Cadmus, Prince of Tyre, who brought the alphabet with him to Greece in his search for his abducted sister Europa. Cadmus settles in Greece and founds the city of Thebes. Ancient Greek history accepts the Phoenician origin of the Greek alphabet. According to Herodotus, " they shaped their letters like all the other Phoenicians, but afterwards, in course of time, they changed by degrees their language, together with it the form of their characters."Herodotus attests the persistence of traces of the Phoenician alphabet in Greece on tripods in Delphi in what is now known as the 5th century BC. The Phoenicians were reputed for their seafaring skills, they were the first to circumnavigate the African continent.

Herodotus writes that Egyptian Pharaoh Necos, " sent to sea a number of ships manned by Phoenicians, with orders to make for the Pillars of Hercules, return to Egypt through them, by the Mediterranean. The Phoenicians took their departure from Egypt by way of the Erythraean sea, so sailed into the southern ocean; when autumn came, they went ashore, wherever they might happen to be, having sown a tract of land with corn, waited until the grain was fit to cut. Having reaped it, they again set sail. On their return, they declared - I for my part do not believe them, but others may - that in sailing round Libya they had the sun upon their right hand. In this way was the extent of Libya first discovered."The last phrase is regarded by modern historians as lending credibility to the Phoencian narrative, as they could not have otherwise known that the sun would be on their right hand side as they sailed southwards below the Equator line. The Phoenicians founded various colonies in the Mediterranean.

The most famous of them were Cadiz in today's Spain. Phoenicia maintained an uneasy tributary relationship with the neo-Assyrian

A386 road

The A386 is a primary route in Devon, England. It runs from Plymouth on the south coast to Appledore on the north coast; the road starts in the centre of Plymouth, forms Tavistock Road, the main route out of the city to the north. It crosses a section of Dartmoor to Tavistock; the A386 heads northeast across the western fringe of Dartmoor past the village of Lydford to the A30 west of Okehampton. It passes to the west of Okehampton to reach Hatherleigh, where the road joins the valley of the River Torridge, it follows the valley to, Merton, Great Torrington and Appledore. The route is little changed from its original alignment in 1922, it ended at Bideford, was extended north first to Northam and to Appledore on the former route of the B3236. The route went through the town of Okehampton. In about 1971 it was realigned to its present route on the former route of the B3219. In the north of Plymouth the road was rebuilt in the 1970s to bypass the village of Crownhill. SABRE page on the A386 Media related to A386 road at Wikimedia Commons

Dave Hunt (musician)

Dave Hunt is an English extreme metal vocalist. He is the vocalist of Anaal Nathrakh under the pseudonym V. I. T. R. I. O. L. A phrase found in alchemical literature, he was the vocalist of Mistress under the pseudonym Dave Cunt until their split in March 2008. Notably, Dave Hunt's lyrics for his main band, Anaal Nathrakh, are never released or published in album liner notes; the one known exception is the song "Tod Huetet Uebel" from Passion, written as a collaboration with Rainer Landfermann, best known for his vocal work on the Bethlehem album Dictius Te Necare. He lives in England; as of late 2011, Hunt writes an online column for Terrorizer Magazine entitled'More of Fire than Blog', a play on an Anaal Nathrakh song/video title from the album In the Constellation of the Black Widow. With Anaal NathrakhThe Codex Necro When Fire Rains Down from the Sky, Mankind Will Reap as It Has Sown Domine Non Es Dignus Eschaton Hell Is Empty and All the Devils Are Here In the Constellation of the Black Widow Passion Vanitas Desideratum The Whole of the Law A New Kind of Horror With BenedictionOrganised Chaos Killing Music With MistressMistress Mistress II: The Chronovisor In Disgust We Trust The Glory Bitches of Doghead With DethronedDethroned demo