History of Libya

Libya's history covers its rich mix of ethnic groups added to the indigenous Berber tribes. Berbers have been present throughout the entire history of the country. For most of its history, Libya has been subjected to varying degrees of foreign control, from Europe and Africa; the modern history of independent Libya began in 1951. The history of Libya comprises six distinct periods: Ancient Libya, the Roman era, the Islamic era, Ottoman rule, Italian rule, the Modern era. Tens of thousands of years ago, the Sahara Desert, which now covers 90% of Libya, was lush with green vegetation, it was home to lakes, diverse wildlife and a temperate Mediterranean climate. Archaeological evidence indicates that the coastal plain was inhabited by Neolithic peoples from as early as 8000 BCE; these peoples were drawn by the climate, which enabled their culture to grow, subsisting on the domestication of cattle and the cultivation of crops. Rock paintings at Wadi Mathendous and the mountainous region of Jebel Acacus are the best sources of information about prehistoric Libya, the pastoralist culture that settled there.

The paintings reveal that the Libyan Sahara contained rivers, grassy plateaus and an abundance of wildlife such as giraffes and crocodiles. The onset of the Piora Oscillation's intense aridification resulted in the "green Sahara" transforming into the Sahara Desert. Dispersal in Africa from the Atlantic coast to the Siwa Oasis in Egypt seems to have followed, due to climatic changes which caused increasing desertification; the Afro-Asiatic ancestors of the Berber people are assumed to have spread into the area by the Late Bronze Age. The earliest known name of such a tribe is that of the Garamantes, who were based in Germa, southern Libya; the Garamantes were a Saharan people of Berber origin who used an elaborate underground irrigation system. By the time of contact with the Phoenicians, the first of the Semitic civilizations to arrive in Libya from the East, the Lebu, Garamantes and other tribes that lived in the Sahara were well established; the Phoenicians were some of the first to establish coastal trading posts in Libya, when the merchants of Tyre developed commercial relations with the various Berber tribes and made treaties with them to ensure their cooperation in the exploitation of raw materials.

By the 5th century BCE, the greatest of the Phoenician colonies, had extended its hegemony across much of North Africa, where a distinctive civilization, known as Punic, came into being. Punic settlements on the Libyan coast included Oea and Sabratha; these cities were in an area, called Tripolis, or "Three Cities", from which Libya's modern capital Tripoli takes its name. In 630 BCE, the Ancient Greeks founded the city of Cyrene. Within 200 years, four more important Greek cities were established in the area that became known as Cyrenaica: Barce. Together with Cyrene, they were known as the Pentapolis. Cyrene became one of the greatest intellectual and artistic centers of the Greek world, was famous for its medical school, learned academies, architecture; the Greeks of the Pentapolis resisted encroachments by the Ancient Egyptians from the East, as well as by the Carthaginians from the West. In 525 BCE the Persian army of Cambyses II overran Cyrenaica, which for the next two centuries remained under Persian or Egyptian rule.

Alexander was greeted by the Greeks when he entered Cyrenaica in 331 BCE, Eastern Libya again fell under the control of the Greeks, this time as part of the Ptolemaic Kingdom. A federation of the Pentapolis was formed, customarily ruled by a king drawn from the Ptolemaic royal house. After the fall of Carthage the Romans did not occupy Tripolitania, but left it under control of the Berber kings of Numidia, until the coastal cities asked and obtained its protection. Ptolemy Apion, the last Greek ruler, bequeathed Cyrenaica to Rome, which formally annexed the region in 74 BCE and joined it to Crete as a Roman province. During the Roman civil wars Tripolitania and Cyrenaica sustained Pompey and Marc Antony against Caesar and Octavian; the Romans completed the conquest of the region under Augustus, occupying northern Fezzan with Cornelius Balbus Minor. As part of the Africa Nova province, Tripolitania was prosperous, reached a golden age in the 2nd and 3rd centuries, when the city of Leptis Magna, home to the Severan dynasty, was at its height.

On the other side, Cyrenaica's first Christian communities were established by the time of the Emperor Claudius but was devastated during the Kitos War and depopulated of Greeks and Jews alike, although repopulated by Trajan with military colonies, from started its decadence. Regardless, for more than 400 years Tripolitania and Cyrenaica were part of a cosmopolitan state whose citizens shared a common language, legal system, Roman identity. Roman ruins like those of Leptis Magna and Sabratha, extant in present-day Libya, attest to the vitality of the region, where populous cities and smaller towns enjoyed the amenities of urban life—the forum, public entertainments, baths—found in every corner of the Roman Empire. Merchants and artisans from many parts of the Roman world

Gideon Smith

Gideon Edward Smith, sometimes referred to as G. E. Smith, was an American football player and coach. Smith played college football at Michigan Agricultural College, now known as Michigan State University, from 1913 to 1915, he was the first African-American varsity athlete in any sport at MAC. Smith played one game of professional football while still attending MAC, he appeared as a tackle in one game for the Canton Bulldogs of the Ohio League, becoming one of the first African-Americans to play professional football. He played for the Bulldogs as a late fourth-quarter substitute on November 28, 1916 against their rivals, the Massillon Tigers. During that game he made a game-saving fumble recovery that preserved a 6–0 Canton victory over the Tigers for the "state championship." Smith was the last African-American to play professional football prior to the formation of the National Football League. After graduating from MAC in 1916, Smith became a teacher at the West Virginia Collegiate Institute, now known as West Virginia State University.

He served in 1920 as a teacher at the Virginia State College for Negroes—now known as Virginia State University—in Matoaca, Virginia. In 1921, Smith became the head football coach at Hampton Institute, now known as Hampton University, in Hampton, Virginia, he remained the head football coach at Hampton until 1940, compiling a 97–46–12 record, including six one-loss seasons and two undefeated seasons in 1926 and 1931. His 1931 team outscored opponents 187 to 6, his 97 wins were the most in school history at that time, rank second only behind Joe Taylor, who concluded his 16th season at Hampton in 2007 with 136 victories. Smith's teams are featured 10 times out of the top 12 on the list for fewest points allowed in a season, his 20 years leading Hampton still stand as the longest coaching tenure in program history. Smith died on May 6, 1968, at Veterans Administration Hospital in Salem, following a long illness, he was inducted into the Hampton Athletics Hall of Fame in 2009


Capendu is a commune in the Aude department in southern France. Mentioned in the form Campendud 1071. Occitan “sloping field”, “inclined field”. Fortuitous homophony with Capendu, hamlet of Blainville-Crevon which means “hung cat”. Armorial bearings One finds potteries dating about 20.000 years ago in the Mayrac locality. The traces reveal a Roman camp site near the placement of the windmill of Roque Del Die. For seven years, FestiVoix, organized by the community of communes, has invited choral societies and artists. Corbières AOC Communes of the Aude department INSEE