History of Singapore

The history of Singapore may date back to the eighteenth century. Evidence suggests that a significant trading settlement existed in Singapore during the 14th century. In the late 14th century, Singapore was under the rule of Parameswara, who killed the previous ruler and he was expelled by the Majapahit or the Siamese, it came under the Malacca Sultanate and the Johor Sultanate. In 1819, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles negotiated a treaty whereby Johor allowed the British to locate a trading port on the island, leading to the establishment of the British colony of Singapore in 1819. During World War 2, Singapore was conquered and occupied by the Japanese Empire from 1942 to 1945; when the war ended, Singapore reverted to British control, with increasing levels of self-government being granted, culminating in Singapore's merger with the Federation of Malaya to form Malaysia in 1963. However, social unrest and disputes between Singapore's ruling People's Action Party and Malaysia's Alliance Party resulted in Singapore's expulsion from Malaysia.

Singapore became an independent republic on 9 August 1965. Facing severe unemployment and a housing crisis, Singapore embarked on a modernization programme beginning in the late 1960s through the 1970s that focused on establishing a manufacturing industry, developing large public housing estates and investing on public education. By the 1990s, the country had become one of the world's most prosperous nations, with a developed free market economy, strong international trading links, the highest per capita gross domestic product in Asia outside Japan; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana at the tip of Golden Chersonese in the second and third century. The earliest written record of Singapore may be in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung; this is thought to be a transcription from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". In 1025 CE, Rajendra Chola I of the Chola Empire led forces across the Indian Ocean and invaded the Srivijayan empire, attacking several places in Malaysia and Indonesia.

The Chola forces were said to have controlled Temasek for a couple of decades. The name Temasek however did not appear in Chola records, but a tale involving a Raja Chulan and Temasek was mentioned in the semi-historical Malay Annals; the Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. The name Temasek is given in Sejarah Melayu, which contains a tale of the founding of Temasek by a prince of Srivijaya, Sri Tri Buana in the 13th century. Sri Tri Buana landed on Temasek on a hunting trip, saw a strange beast said to be a lion; the prince took this as an auspicious sign and founded a settlement called Singapura, which means "Lion City" in Sanskrit. The actual origin of the name Singapura however is unclear according to scholars. In 1320, the Mongol Empire sent a trade mission to a place called Long Ya Men, believed to be Keppel Harbour at the southern part of the island; the Chinese traveller Wang Dayuan, visiting the island around 1330, described Long Ya Men as one of the two distinct settlements in Dan Ma Xi, the other being Ban Zu.

Ban Zu is thought to be present day Fort Canning Hill, recent excavations in Fort Canning found evidence indicating that Singapore was an important settlement in the 14th century. Wang mentioned that the natives of Chinese residents lived together in Long Ya Men. Singapore is one of the oldest locations where a Chinese community is known to exist outside China, the oldest corroborated by archaeological evidence. By the 14th century, the empire of Srivijaya had declined, Singapore was caught in the struggle between Siam and the Java-based Majapahit Empire for control over the Malay Peninsula. According to the Malay Annals, Singapore was defeated in one Majapahit attack; the last king, Sultan Iskandar Shah ruled the island for several years, before being forced to Melaka where he founded the Sultanate of Malacca. Portuguese sources however indicated that Temasek was a Siamese vassal whose ruler was killed by Parameswara from Palembang, Parameswara was driven to Malacca, either by the Siamese or the Majapahit, where he founded the Malacca Sultanate.

Modern archaeological evidence suggests that the settlement on Fort Canning was abandoned around this time, although a small trading settlement continued in Singapore for some time afterwards. The Malacca Sultanate extended its authority over the island and Singapore became a part of the Malacca Sultanate. However, by the time the Portuguese arrived in the early 16th century, Singapura had become "great ruins" according to Alfonso de Albuquerque. In 1511, the Portuguese seized Malacca; the Portuguese however destroyed the settlement in Singapore in 1613, the island sank into obscurity for the next two centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the Malay Archipelago was taken over by the European colonial powers, beginning with the arrival of the Portuguese at Malacca in 1509; the early dominance of the Portuguese was challenged during the 17th century by the Dutch, who came to control most of the ports in the region. The Dutch established a monopoly over trade within the archipelago in spices the region's most importa

Elena Topuridze

Elena Topuridze was a prominent Georgian philosopher and writer. Born in Batumi, her family moved to Tbilisi during her childhood. In 1945, she graduated from the faculty of philosophy of the M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University; as a postgraduate student, Topuridze studied at the Institute of History of Art of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, in Moscow. In 1951, she returned to Tbilisi and took a position of professor at the Shota Rustaveli Theatrical Institute of Georgia. From 1961 to the end of her life she worked at S. Tsereteli Institute of Philosophy of Georgian National Academy of Sciences. Topuridze held a Doctor of Philosophy and a Doctor of Science and was a prolific writer and a professor of philosophy, aesthetics and history of Western European/American theatre and literature, she authored several works on influential figures in Italian art and philosophy: Benedetto Croce, Luigi Pirandello, Eleonora Duse. In 1978, her work Aesthetics of Benedetto Croce was published in Tokyo; the problem of freedom and free choice was the main theme in her work Man in Classical Tragedy, which explored the origins of the idea of free will in the works of the ancient Greek poets.

Eleonora Duse, 1960, “Iskusstvo”, Moscow. Tevzadze, G. "Philosophy in Contemporary Georgia". Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci. 175: 128–136. Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. "Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Series in Philosophy". National Parliamentary Library of Georgia. Retrieved 2010-09-09

Jonathan L. Foote

Jonathan L. Foote, or Jonathan Lipe Foote, is an American architect whose work is associated with the preservation movement in the U. S. Foote was born in London in 1935, is the second son of U. S. Col. Ray Palmer Foote and Rosann Lipe Foote Smith, he is a direct descendant of Elizabeth Deming and Nathaniel Foote, who settled Wethersfield, Connecticut, in 1636. He attended Phillips Academy and Yale University, where he received a Bachelor of Arts in 1958. In 1959 he attended the Rhode Island School of Design, in 1964 he received a Bachelor of Architecture and a Masters of Architecture from The Yale University School of Architecture. Although the idea of historic preservation traces back at least to the 1920s, Foote is linked to its greater urgency and wider acceptance following the demolition of New York City's Pennsylvania Station in 1964, he was an early proponent of historic renovation, regional design, historic preservation for private and public works throughout rural and urban parts of New England during the 1960s.

He is more broadly noted in the American Northwest for a large variety of projects that date back to the 1970s. He is recognized for innovative reuse of indigenous hand-hewn timbers and stone and sensitive siting of buildings in their natural environment. Together in 2006, Buck Brannaman and Jon Foote received honorary doctorate degrees from Montana State University, Foote for his contributions to the state in architecture and art. During a speech, the real-life "Horse Whisperer" and an inspiration for Redford's movie, publicly credited Foote "for supporting me when I was young and nobody cared who I was, for doing it without motive or gain."Foote was an adjunct professor of Architecture at the Yale School of Architecture in 1965 and 1966 and at Montana State University from 1979 to 1989. He is a member of the American Institute of Architects and has been elected to the National Cutting Horse Association Hall of Fame. Foote is the founder of Jonathan L. Foote and Associates, Inc. an architecture firm based in Livingston, Montana.

In 2000 he retired, selling the firm to senior associate Paul Bertelli, associates Logan Leachman and Dick Storbo, CFO Tammy Hauer. Jonathan L. Foote's Personal Website National Cutting Horse Association Hall of Fame