Transport for London
Transport for London is a local government body responsible for the transport system in Greater London, England. Its head office is 55 Broadway in the City of Westminster. TfL has responsibility for London's network of principal road routes, for various rail networks including the London Underground, London Overground, Docklands Light Railway and TfL Rail, it does not control National Rail services in London, but does for London's trams and taxis, for cycling provision, for river services. The underlying services are provided by a mixture of wholly owned subsidiary companies, by private sector franchisees and by licensees. TfL is responsible, jointly with the national Department for Transport, for commissioning the construction of the new Crossrail line, will be responsible for franchising its operation once completed. In 2015 -- 16, TfL had a budget of £ 40 % of which comes from fares; the rest comes from government funding, Congestion Charge and other income and Crossrail funding. TfL was created in 2000 as part of the Greater London Authority by the Greater London Authority Act 1999.
It gained most of its functions from its predecessor London Regional Transport in 2000. The first Commissioner of TfL was Bob Kiley; the first Chair was then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, the first Deputy Chair was Dave Wetzel. Livingstone and Wetzel remained in office until the election of Boris Johnson as Mayor in 2008. Johnson took over as chairman, in February 2009 fellow-Conservative Daniel Moylan was appointed as his Deputy. TfL did not take over responsibility for the London Underground until 2003, after the controversial public-private partnership contract for maintenance had been agreed. Management of the Public Carriage Office had been a function of the Metropolitan Police. Transport for London Group Archives holds business records for TfL and its predecessor bodies and transport companies; some early records are held on behalf of TfL Group Archives at the London Metropolitan Archives. After the bombings on the underground and bus systems on 7 July 2005, many staff were recognised in the 2006 New Year honours list for the work they did.
They helped survivors out, removed bodies, got the transport system up and running, to get the millions of commuters back out of London at the end of the work day. Those mentioned include Peter Hendy, at the time Head of Surface Transport division, Tim O'Toole, head of the Underground division, who were both awarded CBEs. Others included Station Supervisor, London Underground. On 1 June 2008, the drinking of alcoholic beverages was banned on Tube and London Overground trains, trams, Docklands Light Railway and all stations operated by TfL across London but not those operated by other rail companies. Carrying open containers of alcohol was banned on public transport operated by TfL; the Mayor of London and TfL announced the ban with the intention of providing a safer and more pleasant experience for passengers. There were "Last Round on the Underground". Passengers refusing to observe the ban may be asked to leave the premises; the Greater London Authority reported in 2011 that assaults on London Underground staff had fallen by 15% since the introduction of the ban.
TfL commissioned a survey in 2013 which showed that 15% of women using public transport in London had been the subject of some form of unwanted sexual behaviour but that 90% of incidents were not reported to the police. In an effort to reduce sexual offences and increase reporting, TfL—in conjunction with the British Transport Police, Metropolitan Police Service, City of London Police—launched Project Guardian. In 2014, Transport for London launched the 100 years of women in transport campaign in partnership with the Department for Transport, Network Rail, Women's Engineering Society and the Women's Transportation Seminar; the programme is a celebration of the significant role that women have played in transport over the past 100 years, following the centennial anniversary of the First World War, when 100,000 women entered the Transport industry to take on the responsibilities held by men who enlisted for military service. TfL is controlled by a board whose members are appointed by the Mayor of London, a position held by Sadiq Khan since May 2016.
The Commissioner of Transport for London reports to the Board and leads a management team with individual functional responsibilities. The body is organised in three main directorates and corporate services, each with responsibility for different aspects and modes of transport; the three main directorates are: London Underground, responsible for running London's underground rail network known as the tube, managing the provision of maintenance services by the private sector. This network is sub-divided into different service delivery units: London Underground BCV: Bakerloo, Central and Waterloo & City lines. JNP: Jubilee and Piccadilly lines. SSL: Metropolitan, District and Hammersmith & City lines. TfL Rail. Surface Transport, consisting of: Docklands Light Railway: abbreviated DLR, this is the automatically driven light rail network in East London and South London, although actual operation and maintenance is undertaken by a private sector concessionaire. London Buses, responsible for managing the red
A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways; the term electric street railways was used in the United States. In the United States, the term tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tyred trackless trains, which are unrelated to other kinds of trams. Tram vehicles are lighter and shorter than main line and rapid transit trains. Today, most trams use electrical power fed by a pantograph sliding on an overhead line. In some cases by a contact shoe on a third rail is used. If necessary, they may have dual power systems—electricity in city streets, diesel in more rural environments. Trams carry freight. Trams are now included in the wider term "light rail", which includes grade-separated systems; some trams, known as tram-trains, may have segments that run on mainline railway tracks, similar to interurban systems. The differences between these modes of rail transport are indistinct, a given system may combine multiple features.
One of the advantages over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the trams to haul a greater load for a given effort. Problems included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed and cared for day in and day out, produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with disposing of. Electric trams replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport such as buses led to decline of trams in mid 20th century. Trams have seen resurgence in recent years; the English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram derived from Middle Flemish trame; the identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers to the wooden beams the railway tracks were made of before the railroad pioneers switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and steel.
The word Tram-car is attested from 1873. Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; the term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or trolleys. A held belief holds the word to derive from the troller, a four-wheeled device, dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires. "Trolley" and variants refer to the verb troll, meaning "roll" and derived from Old French, cognate uses of the word were well established for handcarts and horse drayage, as well as for nautical uses. The alternative North American term'trolley' may speaking be considered incorrect, as the term can be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US.
Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and, in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations. The term may apply to an aerial ropeway, e.g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was associated with the trolleybus, a rubber-tyred vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires; these electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are called trackless trolleys, or sometimes trolleys. The New South Wales, government has decided to use the term "light rail" for their trams; the history of trams, streetcars or trolley systems, began in early nineteenth century. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used; the world's first passenger train or tram was the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, in Wales, UK.
The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1804, horse-drawn service started in 1807. The service was restarted in 1860, again using horses, it was worked by steam from 1877, from 1929, by large electric tramcars, until closure in 1961. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was something of a one-off however, no street tramway would appear in Britain until 1860 when one was built in Birkenhead by the American George Francis Train. Street railways developed in America before Europe due to the poor paving of the streets in American cities which made them unsuitable for horsebuses, which were common on the well-paved streets of European cities. Running the horsecars on rails allowed for a much smoother ride. There are records of a street railway running in Baltimore as early as 1828, however the first authenticated streetcar in America, was the New York and Harle
New Works Programme
The New Works Programme of 1935–1940 was the major investment programme delivered by the London Passenger Transport Board known as London Transport, created in 1933 to coordinate underground train, tram and bus services in the capital and the surrounding areas. The programme was to develop many aspects of the public transport services run by the LPTB and the suburban rail services of the Great Western Railway and London and North Eastern Railway; the investment was backed by government assistance as well as by the issuing of financial bonds and was estimated to cost £42,286,000 in 1936. The Programme saw major reconstructions of many central area Underground stations, with escalators being installed to replace lifts; these included: Metropolitan line provision of additional parallel tracks between Harrow-on-the-Hill and Rickmansworth electrification of the tracks from Rickmansworth to Aylesbury and Chesham installation of colourlight signals on the line between Rickmansworth and Aylesbury and platform extensions for stations on this stretch of the line Bakerloo line new tunnels to form a branch from Baker Street to Finchley Road, where they connected with and took over the realigned slow tracks of the Metropolitan line to Wembley Park and the Stanmore branch new Bakerloo line stations at St. John's Wood and Swiss Cottage between Finchley Road and Baker Street, to replace three closing stations on the Metropolitan line Northern line transfer of the Metropolitan line's Great Northern & City branch to Northern line operation connection of the GN&C branch at Finsbury Park to the LNER's line to Edgware, High Barnet and Alexandra Palace construction of new tunnels from Archway to Highgate and East Finchley to connect to the Edgware and High Barnet branches extension from Edgware to Bushey Heath Central line relining of the tunnels and lengthening of station platforms between Shepherd's Bush and Liverpool Street to increase speeds and allow longer trains replacement of the line's non-standard track power supply with the Underground's normal fourth rail system western extension from North Acton to connect to and take over the GWR's suburban line to Denham eastern extension from Liverpool Street via Stratford to connect to and take over the LNER's lines to Epping and Hainault Rolling stock design and construction of a new fleet of trains, the 1938 stock, to operate on the Central line and Northern line extensions further conversion of existing locomotive-hauled "Dreadnaught" coaches to Electric Working for the newly electrified Metropolitan Mainline to Aylesbury.
Extra "T" stock driving motor coaches had been constructed to allow for this. This scheme was abandoned and new stock was designed; when rolled out, this was to be the A60 stock Design and construction of a new fleet of trains for the Hammersmith and City Line, the "O" stock Provision of similar new trains for the Metropolitan line to Uxbridge, the "P" stock Conversion of existing hand-worked-door stock to air-door operation and the construction of some new stock for the District line, the "Q" stock programme Infrastructure improvements to the power supply system from Lots Road Power Station improvements to and rebuilding of many busy central area stations including the installation of escalators to replace lifts On the city's roads, the Programme was to see the large-scale abandonment of trams and their replacement by trolleybuses, creating the world's largest trolleybus system at that date. Substantial and rapid progress was made on the network across the capital before the advent of World War II delayed prevented its completion.
The Central line tunnel relining works were completed in 1938 and the replacement of the line's power supply was completed in 1940. The Bakerloo line service to Stanmore started on 20 November 1939; the 1938 tube stock came into operation as intended although the extensions they were built for were not completed at once. Progress on the Northern line works enabled the extension from Archway to come into service as far as East Finchley on 3 July 1939, where interchanges were made with the LNER services. Underground services to High Barnet commenced on 14 April 1940. Highgate station came into use on 19 January 1941 and services started operating on the branch to Mill Hill East on 18 May 1941; this latter section was finished, exceptionally. The outstanding electrification works on the remainder of the LNER's branch from Finsbury Park to Highgate, from Highgate to Alexandra Palace and from Mill Hill East to Edgware were halted. Works on the extension beyond Edgware were stopped, although the construction of the new tube depot at Aldenham was completed and the buildings were used to construct Halifax bomber aircraft for the RAF.
Other parts of the land purchased for the Bushey Heath extension were farmed during the war to provide food for London Transport canteens. On the Central line, works on the eastern extension had progressed furthest with tunnels constructed to Leyton and from Leytonstone to Newbury Park; these were put into service as underground factories operated by Plessey. After the war, a prioritisation of the limited resources available to London Transport saw the Central line extensions progressed, with the first new section in the east opening to Stratford in 1946 and the services to West Ruislip and Epping starting in 1948 and 1949. Plans were put
Secretary of State for Transport
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Transport is the member of the cabinet responsible for the British Department for Transport. The office used to be called the Minister of Transport and has been merged with the Department for the Environment at various times; the current Secretary of State for Transport is Chris Grayling. The Secretary of State is supported by a small team of junior Ministers; each Minister is a Member of Parliament from the House of Lords. The number of Ministers supporting the Secretary of State for Transport vary from time to time, but is about 3; the titles given to these Ministers vary. The positions are held by one Minister of State for Transport and two Parliamentary Under-Secretaries of State for Transport. During the tenure of different governments the title of Minister of/for Transport has been used to refer to the Secretary of State for Transport, one or more of the junior Ministers or both the Secretary of State and the junior Ministers at the same time.
From 2003 until June 2007 the role of Secretary of State for Transport was combined with the role of Secretary of State for Scotland. This arrangement changed on 28 June 2007, when in the appointment of his first Cabinet, Prime Minister Gordon Brown assigned the responsibilities of Secretary of State for Scotland to Des Browne, his Secretary of State for Defence; the names provided in the sections below are those who have served in a position equivalent to the Secretary of State for Transport. Colour key: Conservative Labour National Labour Liberal National Liberal The Ministry of Transport absorbed the Ministry of Shipping and was renamed the Ministry of War Transport in 1941, but resumed its previous name at the end of the war; the Ministry of Civil Aviation was created by Winston Churchill in 1944 to look at peaceful ways of using aircraft and to find something for the aircraft factories to do after the war. The new Conservative Government in 1951 appointed the same Minister to Transport and Civil Aviation amalgamating the Ministries on 1 October 1953.
Colour key: Conservative Labour National Liberal Colour key: Conservative The Ministry was renamed back to the Ministry of Transport on 14 October 1959, when a separate Ministry of Aviation was formed. Colour key: Conservative Labour Transport responsibilities were subsumed by the Department for the Environment, headed by the Secretary of State for the Environment from 15 October 1970 to 10 September 1976. Colour key: Conservative Labour The junior ministers responsible for transport within the Department for the Environment: John Peyton Fred Mulley John Gilbert The Department for Transport was recreated as a separate department by James Callaghan in 1976. Colour key: Labour Not an official member of the cabinet. Colour key: Conservative Colour key: Conservative The super-department Department of the Environment and the Regions was created in 1997 for Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott. Colour key: Labour From 1997 to 2001, the Ministers of State with responsibility for Transport were: Gavin Strang John Reid Helen Liddell Lord Macdonald of Tradeston John Reid attended cabinet meetings, but was not formally a member of the cabinet whereas Gavin Strang was given a seat in the cabinet when he held the position.
The Department of the Environment and the Regions was considered unwieldy and so was broken up, with the Transport functions now combined with Local Government and the Regions in the DTLR. Critics argued from the outset that this was a mistake and that a post of Secretary of State for Transport was needed in its own right. Colour key: Labour After Byers' resignation, such a division was made, with the portfolios of Local Government and the Regions transferred to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. During the lifetime of DTLGR, John Spellar served as Minister of State for Transport with a right to attend Cabinet. John Spellar Colour key: Conservative Labour Ministry of Civil Aviation Aerodrome Fire Service Track record: Transport secretaries
Buses in London
The London Bus is one of London's principal icons, the archetypal red rear-entrance AEC Routemaster being recognized worldwide. Although the Routemaster has been phased out of regular service, with only one route still using the vehicles, the majority of buses in London are still red and therefore the red double-decker bus remains a recognised symbol of the city. Buses have been used on the streets of London since 1829, when George Shillibeer started operating his horse drawn omnibus service from Paddington to the city. In 1850 Thomas Tilling started horse bus services, in 1855 the London General Omnibus Company was founded to amalgamate and regulate the horse-drawn omnibus services operating in London. LGOC began using motor omnibuses in 1902, manufactured them itself from 1909. In 1904 Thomas Tilling started its first motor bus service; the last LGOC horse-drawn bus ran on 25 October 1911, although independent operators used them until 1914. In 1909 Thomas Tilling and LGOC entered into an agreement to pool their resources.
The agreement restricted the expansion of Thomas Tilling in London, allowed the LGOC to lead an amalgamation of most of London's bus services. However in 1909 Thomas Clarkson started the National Steam Car Company to run steam buses in London in competition with the LGOC. In 1919 the National company reached agreement with the LGOC to withdraw from bus operation in London, steam bus services ceased that year. In 1912 the Underground Group, which at that time owned most of the London Underground, bought the LGOC. In 1933 the LGOC, along with the rest of the Underground Group, became part of the new London Passenger Transport Board; the name London General was replaced by London Transport, which became synonymous with the red London bus. Bus numbers were first used in 1906; when the independent firms started in 1922, they used General route numbers, along with suffixes from the alphabet to denote branch routes. In 1924, under the London Traffic Act, the Metropolitan Police was given the authority of allocating route numbers, which all buses had to carry.
This led to chaos and in the London Passenger Transport Act of 1933 the powers of allocating route numbers was taken away from the police and handed once again to professional busmen. Suffixes were abolished over the decades, the last such route in London being the 77A, which became the 87 in June 2006; the LPTB, under Lord Ashfield, assumed responsibility for all bus services in the London Passenger Transport Area, an area with a radius of about 30 miles of central London. This included the London General country buses, Green Line Coaches and the services of several Tilling Group and independent companies. London buses continued to operate under the London Transport name from 1933 to 2000, although the political management of transport services changed several times; the LPTB oversaw transport from 1933 to 1947 until it was re-organised into the London Transport Executive. Responsibility for London Transport was subsequently taken over to the London Transport Board, the Greater London Council and London Regional Transport.
However, in 1969 legislation was passed to transfer the green country services, outside the area of the Greater London Council, to the formed National Bus Company. Trading under the name London Country the green buses and Green Line Coaches became the responsibility of a new NBC subsidiary, London Country Bus Services, on 1 January 1970. A former network of express buses operated by London Transport in central London was the Red Arrows; the routes, all numbered in the 500s, ran from main line stations to various locations in the West End and City. They were introduced in 1966 and expanded in 1968, but in the 1990s they were phased out and only two former routes, 507 and 521, remain. In 1974 Jill Viner became the first female bus driver for London Transport. In 1979 the operation of London's buses under the GLC was divided among eight areas or districts, as described in the table below: The districts were reorganised and reduced to six, following the Transport Act of 1985, were done away with in 1989 with privatisation imminent.
In the 1980s the government of Margaret Thatcher decided to privatise the bus operating industry in the Great Britain. At the time, local bus transport was dominated by London Transport in London, in other major cities by large municipally owned operators, as well as by the government-owned National Bus Company and Scottish Bus Group elsewhere; the Transport Act 1985 brought about bus deregulation throughout Great Britain which opened up local bus operation to private operators and required municipal companies to operate independently of local government on a commercial basis. In London a different model was used from the rest of the country; this regime is still in place today, bus operations in London must be put out to competitive tendering so that routes are operated by a number of private companies. In 2000, as part of the formation of the new Greater London Authority, the ownership of London Buses moved from the central government-controlled London Regional Transport to the Mayor of London's transport organisation, Transport for London.
From the early days of motor bus operation by the London General Omnibus Company in the 1900s until the 1960s, London went its own way
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
National Bus Company (UK)
The National Bus Company was a nationalised bus company that operated in England and Wales between 1969 and 1988. NBC did not run buses itself, but was the owner of a number of regional subsidiary bus operating companies. Following the Labour Party victory at the 1966 general election, Barbara Castle was appointed Minister for Transport. Castle ordered a review of public transport, with a view to formulating a new transport policy. Among the issues to be tackled were the ownership and operation of bus services, which were losing patronage and profitability due to increased prevalence of private motor cars; the state owned a considerable proportion of scheduled bus operators outside the major cities, having obtained the Tilling Group companies in 1948 as a byproduct of nationalising the railways. The Tilling Group was subsequently placed under the ownership of the nationalised Transport Holding Company. London Transport was nationalised in 1948 and others voluntarily aquiesced, such as Red & White in 1950.
When the Labour Party lost power to the Conservatives in 1951, the Nationisation Policy remained unfinished. Castle proposed forming regional transport authorities, which would take over the THC subsidiaries and municipal transport undertakings in their area, would have the power to acquire private bus operators. However, in November 1967 British Electric Traction unexpectedly offered to sell its bus operations to the government. BET, the only major private bus operating group, received £35 million for its 25 provincial bus companies and 11,300 vehicles; the deal meant that the state or municipal bus operators now operated some 90% of scheduled bus services in England and Wales. Instead of forming the regional authorities, the government published a white paper proposing the merger of the THC and BET organisations into a single National Bus Company; the recommendations of the white paper formed part of the Transport Act 1968. The 1968 Act reorganised the nationalised bus operation in Scotland, where subsidiaries formed the Scottish Bus Group.
The National Bus Company was formed on 1 January 1969. In 1970, the company was enlarged when it acquired the country area buses of London Transport, the bus operations of the county boroughs of Exeter and Luton, the Gosport & Fareham Omnibus Company, trading under the name of Provincial. Buses were operated with their own fleetnames and liveries. In the early years of the company, there was some rationalisation leading to the amalgamation of operators into larger units and the transfer of areas between them. One was the merging of Aldershot & District with Thames Valley on 1 January 1972. Another example was the transfer of the'land-locked' Trowbridge operations from Western National to Bristol Omnibus in 1970. Following the appointment of Fred Wood as chairman in 1972, NBC introduced corporate images. Henceforward its coaches were branded as National Travel and painted in unrelieved white, with the NBC logo and the'NATIONAL' name in alternate red & blue letters; the services were rebranded as National Express soon afterwards.
The addition of blue and white stripes appeared in 1978. National Travel was the country's first attempt at a uniformly marketable express network, which superseded Associated Motorways and the plethora of other services provided by individual NBC subsidiaries; the coaches were managed by a few areas and included travel agent booking offices based at major bus stations. A hub and spoke system operated with the main hub at Cheltenham. Around the same time the company launched a wide number of UK holiday services under the banner "National Holidays"; this brand and its travel agent booking offices existed until the mid-1990s when the coach holiday division closed. The National Express overseas travel business was relaunched under the name Eurolines. In the 1970s all local service buses adopted a uniform design in either leaf green or poppy red with white relief, bearing the company fleetname in white with the new NBC "double-N" arrow logo. There were, exceptions: buses operating in the area of the Tyne & Wear Passenger Transport Executive became yellow in a similar fashion to the PTE's own fleet but to the NBC design.
Although NBC operated throughout England and Wales, it was not a monopoly. Services were provided by London Transport in Greater London, the fleets of the municipal bus companies and passenger transport executives, by independent operators in some rural areas and a few small towns; the NBC inherited from the Transport Holding Company 75% shareholdings in chassis manufacturer Bristol Commercial Vehicles and body builder Eastern Coach Works. In 1969 NBC formed a joint venture with British Leyland, by means of which British Leyland became a 50% owner of the NBC's manufacturing companies; the joint venture built a new single-deck bus, the Leyland National. The first was delivered in 1972, it remained in production until 1986; the National was available to other bus operators. In 1982 NBC sold its 50% interest in the joint venture to British Leyland. In the late 1970s and early 1980s services were reviewed under a process known within instigator Midland Red as the Viable Network Project and subse