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History of the Cook Islands

The Cook Islands are named after Captain James Cook, who visited the islands in 1773 and 1777. The Cook Islands became a British protectorate in 1888. By 1900, the islands were annexed as British territory. In 1901, the islands were included within the boundaries of the Colony of New Zealand; the Cook Islands contain 15 islands in the group spread over a vast area in the South Pacific. The majority of islands are low coral atolls in the Northern Group, with Rarotonga, a volcanic island in the Southern Group, as the main administration and government centre; the main Cook Islands language is Rarotongan Māori. There are some variations in dialect in the'outer' islands, it is thought that the Cook Islands may have been settled between the years 900-1200 AD. Early settlements suggest that the settlers were great warriors migrating from Tahiti, to the northeast of the Cooks; the Cook Islands continue to hold important connections with Tahiti, this is found in the two countries' culture and language. It is thought that the early settlers were true Tahitians, who landed in Rarotonga.

There are notable historic epics of great warriors who travel between the two nations for a wide variety of reasons. The purpose of these missions is still unclear but recent research indicates that large to small groups fled their island due to local wars being forced upon them. For each group to travel and to survive, they would rely on a warrior to lead them. Outstanding warriors are still mentioned in the countries' stories; these arrivals are evidenced by an older road in Toi, the Ara Metua, which runs around most of Rarotonga, is believed to be at least 1200 years old. This 29 km long, paved road is a considerable achievement of ancient engineering unsurpassed elsewhere in Polynesia; the islands of Manihiki and Rakahanga trace their origins to the arrival of Toa, an outcast from Rarotonga, Tupaeru, a high-ranking woman from the Puaikura tribe of Rarotonga. The remainder of the northern islands were settled by expeditions from Samoa. Spanish ships visited the islands in the 16th century. Portuguese-Spaniard Pedro Fernández de Quirós made the first recorded European landing in the islands when he set foot on Rakahanga in 1606, calling it Gente Hermosa.

British navigator Captain James Cook arrived in 1773 and 1777. Cook named. Half a century the Russian Baltic German Admiral Adam Johann von Krusenstern published the Atlas de l'Ocean Pacifique, in which he renamed the islands the Cook Islands to honour Cook. Captain Cook mapped much of the group. Cook never sighted the largest island and the only island that he set foot on was the tiny, uninhabited Palmerston Atoll; the first recorded landing by Europeans was in 1814 by the Cumberland. The islands saw no more Europeans until missionaries arrived from England in 1821. Christianity took hold in the culture and remains the predominant religion today. In 1823, Captain John Dibbs of the colonial barque Endeavour made the first official sighting of the island Rarotonga; the Endeavour was transporting Rev. John Williams on a missionary voyage to the islands. Brutal Peruvian slave traders, known as blackbirders, took a terrible toll on the islands of the Northern Group in 1862 and 1863. At first, the traders may have genuinely operated as labour recruiters, but they turned to subterfuge and outright kidnapping to round up their human cargo.

The Cook Islands was not the only island group visited by the traders, but Penrhyn Atoll was their first port of call and it has been estimated that three-quarters of the population was taken to Callao, Peru. Rakahanga and Pukapuka suffered tremendous losses; the Cook Islands became a British protectorate in 1888, due to community fears that France might occupy the territory as it had Tahiti. On 6 September 1900, the leading islanders presented a petition asking that the islands should be annexed as British territory. On 8–9 October 1900, seven instruments of cession of Rarotonga and other islands were signed by their chiefs and people, a British proclamation issued at the same time accepted the cessions, the islands being declared parts of Her Britannic Majesty's dominions; these instruments did not include Aitutaki. It appears that, though the inhabitants regarded themselves as British subjects, the Crown's title was uncertain, the island was formally annexed by Proclamation dated 9 October 1900.

The islands were included within the boundaries of the Colony of New Zealand in 1901 by Order in Council under the Colonial Boundaries Act, 1895 of the United Kingdom. The boundary change became effective on 11 June 1901, the Cook Islands have had a formal relationship with New Zealand since that time; the islands remained a New Zealand dependent territory until 1965, at which point they became a self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand. The first Prime Minister Albert Henry led the country until 1978 when he was accused of vote-rigging. Since 1965, the Cook Islands have been independent, but remained placed under New Zealand sovereignty. New Zealand is tasked with overseeing the country's defense; the Cook Islands and New Zealand (with its territories: Tokelau and the Ross De

Sonic Rivals 2

Sonic Rivals 2 is the sequel to Sonic Rivals. The game was developed by Backbone Entertainment and supervised by Sega Studio USA, for the PlayStation Portable handheld video game console. Sonic Rivals 2 was released across November and December 2007; the Chao have disappeared and Sonic the Hedgehog and Miles "Tails" Prower get on the case to find them. It turns out that Eggman Nega has concealed them inside a haunted mansion, his plan is to feed them to an inter-dimensional beast called the "Ifrit" who needs to eat them to become invincible. After that, he plans to release the Ifrit into the world. However, to open the portal to the Ifrit's world, the seven Chaos Emeralds are required. Eggman Nega secretly hires Rouge the Bat to collect the Chaos Emeralds; the Master Emerald has gone missing and Knuckles the Echidna teams up with Rouge to find it. Meanwhile, Silver the Hedgehog has returned from a now ruined future caused by the Ifrit. In order to make a happier future, he searches for and steals the Chao that are left in order to hide them.

Espio first thought that Silver was hiding Chao for a cause of evil, but Espio finds out that Silver was trying to save the world. They work together to save the world; the real Dr. Eggman sends Metal Sonic to find Shadow, tells him of Nega's plans. Nega has learned of the Ifrit by accessing Gerald Robotnik's journals, Shadow and Metal Sonic set out to retrieve the Chaos Emeralds before he does. Eggman uses Metal Sonic as a communication device to aid Shadow along the way. All of the teams meet up at the haunted mansion. Despite Rouge only collecting six of the Emeralds, the portal opens anyway and Nega dispatches his newly copy of Metal Sonic, Metal Sonic 3.0 to awaken the Ifrit. Despite possessing the minds of Sonic, Tails and Rouge, the Ifrit is defeated by the other teams. Shadow and Metal Sonic destroy the Ifrit and close the portal but they and Eggman Nega are trapped in the Ifrit's dimension. However, Metal Sonic tears revealing the 7th Chaos Emerald. Shadow uses the Emerald to teleport back with Metal Sonic.

Nega is left trapped under some rubble. Sonic and Tails save all the Chao and bring them to a Chao Garden and relax there while Knuckles finds the Master Emerald in the Emerald Detector that he and Rouge stole from Eggman Nega. Rouge runs. Silver returns to what he hopes is a happy future while Espio has to answer to Vector the Crocodile who has spent their client's advanced payment on late rental fees. Sonic Rivals 2 features eight playable characters, including all five characters from the previous title. All characters use Homing Spin Dash to move through the levels. Collecting Rings or destroying enemies will fill the Signature Meter. For example, Shadow's "Chaos Control" move has the ability to slow down the other player's movement for a few seconds; the character roster is split into teams of two, with each team having its own story campaign that tells the events of the game's story from their perspective. Sonic Rivals 2 has four main Single Player modes. Story Mode is the main single player mode.

Players go through each of the game's battle levels to advance the plot. Each zone has a boss, with the exception of the final zone; the characters are divided into four teams and each character has their own story. The game introduces. In this single player mode, players can choose any one of the eight characters and play through the zones in traditional 2D Sonic fashion, they can try Time Attacking, or finding the ten hidden Chao in the levels. There are no opponents for this mode; this is a first for many of the characters featured. In addition, players can try the Cup Circuit and Single Event modes. Races and battle can be customized in every aspect, players can try to earn cards by completing challenges. There are 150 different cards to collect, each is tied to a certain achievement. For example, getting an S Rank in Knockout Mode unlocks a card of Mephiles the Dark; the cards themselves contain art from various older Sonic games, can unlock things such as alternate suits for the characters. Unlike the first game, only one card is needed to unlock a suit.

The cards unlock the Cup Circuits, Chao Detectors for the Zones. Sonic Rivals 2 boasts a new multiplayer "Battle Mode" with six different types of competition in addition to the main race mode; these modes are worked into the story. The lengths of the battles can be set. In Knockout, each player starts with three rings. Players must knock all of the rings out of their opponent and attack them to win; the first player to get the set number of knockouts wins. In Rings Battle, players have a set amount time to collect as many rings as possible; the player with the most rings at the end of the time limit wins. Capture the Chao is a Sonic themed version of Capture the Flag. Players must steal a set number of Chao from their opponent's base and bring them back to their own base with their own Chao still there to win. In Laps Race, the first player to complete a set number of laps around the track wins. King of the Hill has an Omochao stationed at the top of the level with a light beam. Players earn points by standing under it.

The first player to get the set number of points wins. Tag is a Sonic themed cross between Hot Tag; each player has a

Barton Hall

Barton Hall is an on-campus field house on the campus of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. It is the site of the school's indoor track facilities, ROTC offices and classes, Cornell Police, it served as the location of the former band room, once used by the Cornell Big Red Marching Band and the Cornell Big Red Pep Band. However, the summer of 2013 saw the completion of a new building for the Big Red Bands adjacent to Schoellkopf Field. For a long time, Barton Hall was the largest unpillared room in existence; the interior of the building covers 2 acres, includes a 1/8 mile indoor track. The New York State Drill Hall was designed by the official State Architect of New York, Lewis Pilcher, it was built to provide military instruction to Cornell students, as required by Cornell's status as a land-grant institution. Its drill shed contained 362 x 228 feet of open floor space, large enough to accommodate 1,000 men; the building is made of local limestone with double trusses spaced 40 feet apart to support the roof.

The Architectural Record called the "splendid drill hall" a "notably modern achievement in American architecture." It was built in 1914 and 1915 and was designed as a drill hall for the Department of Military Science. Upon its completion it was referred to as the "New Armory", as opposed to the Old Armory, a building on the now Engineering Quadrangle that has since been demolished and replaced by Hollister Hall. In January 1940, it was named for Col. Frank A. Barton, Class of 1891. Colonel Barton was one of the first two Cornell students to receive an army commission in Cornell's Military Science Program, was the first ROTC commandant at Cornell from 1904 to 1908. During World War I, Barton Hall functioned as an airplane hangar and it served the ROTC as an armory during World War II. Barton Hall was well-known to all Cornellians. In the days prior to online course registration, each student would come to Barton Hall at the start of the semester to register for classes; this process would involve placing punched cards into bins for each class positioned on tables throughout the hall.

Student organizations would recruit members at these events. In the first part of the 20th century, "drill" was mandatory for all male students, it would be conducted in Barton Hall; until 1974, graduation was conducted in Barton Hall, until it was moved outdoors to Schoellkopf Field. For many years, it hosted graduation ceremonies for Ithaca High School. Barton Hall was home to Cornell Basketball between 1919 and 1990 when the new field house named Bartels Hall, was completed. In 1995, Barton received another major change with the construction of the H. Hunt Bradley Track Center under the south bleachers; the center includes a Hall of Fame/meeting room/study facility for track, an office, a library and a 1,500-square-foot weight room. In the Spring of 1969 members of the Afro-American Society occupied Willard Straight Hall, the Cornell Student Union, in protest against judicial sanctions against several black students and to demand a black studies program. Two days after the students left Willard Straight Hall, a Students for a Democratic Society meeting became a "student takeover of Barton Hall" and the Barton Hall Community was formed.

On May 11, 1972, Barton Hall was again the site of anti-war protests, one protester threw a rock through a window. The rock thrower was mistakenly identified as physics major James R. Bean, suspended and placed on trial for first degree riot, a class E felony. Bean was acquitted after a four-day trial. Before the end of the trial, the District Attorney subpoenaed the defense witnesses to appear before the grand jury to further investigate the protest; the Bean trial was a high point in political tensions between the town and the campus and marked an end to efforts to prosecute anti-war protesters off-campus. For many years, Barton Hall had a non-operational deck gun used in Navy ROTC Training, fenced off from the general public. On May 1, 1969, as a protest against the Vietnam War, members of the Students for a Democratic Society broke into the fenced area and painted anti-war slogans on the gun. In a departure from the practice of handling student disciplinary issues with the campus judicial system, eight of the protesters were prosecuted in the city courts for trespassing, but charges against them were dropped.

In September 1969, the week-long trial attracted great publicity because the defense called as witnesses a large number of administrators, President Dale Corson, former President James A. Perkins to testify. Barton Hall serves as a concert venue for the Cornell Campus, with concerts produced by the Cornell Concert Commission, it has hosted acts such as The Grateful Dead, Ludacris, Bob Dylan, The Flaming Lips. The Grateful Dead's concert at Barton Hall on May 8, 1977 is considered to by some to be the greatest of their career. In 2011, a recording of the concert was one of 25 recordings selected that year for preservation in the National Recording Registry at the Library of Congress; the concert is available in full on the band's 2017 live album Cornell 5/8/77. In 2009–2011, Barton Hall underwent a $8 million renovation, including structural repairs, work on the gutters and masonry, replacement of the roof and windows. Barton Hall now contains a 200 m track, basketball courts, the Hart Memorial Library, the Wortham Museum.

After the opening of Newman Arena, the building was remodeled into a premier indoor track facility. The Recaflex track features eight 42-inch lanes, one of the few indoor 200-meter tracks in the country with eight such lanes. Barton contains a throwing cage with a cement circle and crusher dust landing sector surrounded by a 25-foot hig

USS City of Lewes (SP-383)

USS City of Lewes USS Lewes, was a minesweeper and patrol vessel that served in the United States Navy from 1917 to 1919. City of Lewes was built as a commercial fishing boat of the same name in 1912 by W. G. Abbott at Milford, Delaware. In May 1917, the U. S. Navy purchased her for use on the section patrol as a minesweeper and patrol vessel during World War I, she was commissioned as USS City of Lewes on 12 May 1917 with Lieutenant J. S. Davis, USNR, in command, although her purchase did not become official until 19 May 1917. In accordance with a United States Department of the Navy general order that all section patrol craft should have their names shortened to surnames or single words, City of Lewes was renamed USS Lewes in July 1917. However, she still was called USS City of Lewes for the remainder of her Navy career. After fitting out as a minesweeper, Lewes departed Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on 14 August 1917 bound for Brest, which she reached on 18 September 1917. Following voyage repairs, she took up patrol and convoy escort duties, which she pursued for the remainder of World War I.

She engaged in minesweeping to keep shipping channels free of German naval mines, she continued minesweeping work after the end of the war and into 1919. Lewes was sold abroad; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Department of the Navy Naval History and Heritage Command Online Library of Selected Images: USS City of Lewes, 1917-1919. Known as Lewes NavSource Online: Section Patrol Craft Photo Archive: Lewes ex-City of Lewes

Lycée Français de Chicago

The Lycee Francais de Chicago is a private French international school in Lincoln Square, Illinois. It offers a dual English curriculum; the Lycée is founded on the French National Curriculum as defined by the French Ministry of Education and complemented by an English language program in addition to foreign language courses. The private school was founded in 1995 by a group of French and American parents, with backing from French businesses and the support of the Consul General of France in Chicago; the Lycée is accredited by the French Ministry of Education and is listed on the official directory of the French Schools in Foreign Countries as part of the AEFE French worldwide network which includes over 450 schools outside France. The school is registered with the Illinois Board of Education and accredited by the Independent School Association of Central States; the Lycée Français de Chicago opened with 134 students. Today the school has over 700 American and foreign national students representing more than 30 nationalities, including French, Italian, Austrian, Norwegian, Greek, Polish, Hungarian, Turkish, Canadian, Scottish, Croatian, South African, Haitian and many more.

The Lycée is funded in part by the AEFE, l'Agence pour l'Enseignement Française à l'Étranger, but remains an private school with no connection to the French Government. The school is run by the Board of Trustees, composed of parents and alumni, but day-to-day operations are overseen by Éric Veteau, the head of the school, Sévrine Fougerol, the head of Secondary, Pascal Léon, the head of Primary. In 2015, the Lycée moved to a new campus designed by STL Architects on the corner of Damen Avenue and Wilson Avenues in Ravenswood, west of the previous campus in Uptown; the school has a structural curriculum mandated by the French Ministry of Education and an English curriculum developed using guidelines from the National Council of Teachers of English and the State of Illinois. The program conforms to the French system, it is broken down into subdivisions that correspond to those in the American school system: pre-kindergarten, junior kindergarten and kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, high school.

The program from pre-K through 5th grade is divided into cycles: cycle 1, cycle 2 and cycle 3. Middle school comprises grade 6 through 9. Instruction is structured according to subjects: French, mathematics, geography, biology, art and physical education. Beginning in grade 7 students study physics and Latin. Starting in fourth grade, students learn a third language, either Spanish, or German; as part of the language curriculum, each language class does a cultural exchange for two weeks with another French school in the country they are studying. In high school, they are given the opportunity to do a three-month study abroad trip. Middle school offers the OIB curriculum, the International Baccalaureate Option, which focuses in addition to French history and literature on American and world history and literature. Grades 10, 11 and 12 define high school in the French system and those 3 years are known as lycée. During the lycée years students choose a track with emphasis on different courses: track L, ES or S, which, as the French Department of Education reforms its curriculum, is set to change in 2021.

The lycée years, as well as the curriculum as a whole, prepare the students for the French general Baccalaureate examination and the international option of the French Baccalaureate. With the Baccalaureate degree, students of the Lycée Français de Chicago can enter selective American or European schools, colleges, or universities; the Lycee offers the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme and Diploma Programme for English-speaking high school students. Th Agence pour l'enseignement français à l'étranger Education in France International Baccalaureate European BaccalaureateAmerican schools in France: American School of Paris - An American international school in France American School of Grenoble Lycée Français de Chicago

Jihad Kawas

James Kawas is a Lebanese entrepreneur based out of Silicon Valley in California. He is the Founder & CEO of Saily Inc, an e-commerce company that developed a shopping app and became part of Mercari Inc. Japan’s billion-dollar mobile commerce firm. Listed on the Forbes 30 Under 30 list in 2018, Kawas is the first Thiel Fellow from the MENA region and has received a grant of over $100,000 from Peter Thiel, PayPal’s co-founder. Kawas began learning how to develop apps when he was 14 years old. In 2013, Kawas launched Saily, a second-hand marketplace shopping app, with his friend, Dani Arnaout. While developing Saily, Kawas would skip high school every month to focus on developing the app and travel to San Francisco to learn from experienced people in the technology industry. Through these networking opportunities, he met Will Bunker, the founder and partner of San Francisco-based startup accelerator GrowthX. Kawas was honored in 2015 with the Young Entrepreneurship award by Entrepreneur Magazine.

He has been featured on the cover of Arabian Business Magazine, ranked as one of the most influential young Arabs in the world by Arabian Business Magazine. Kawas was an invited speaker at TEDxBeirut 2014, addressing the topic of education with his talk, Why School Is Not Ready For Us. Official website Jihad Kawas at TEDxBeirut