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History of the Jews in Russia

The history of the Jews in Russia and areas connected with it goes back at least 1,500 years. Jews in Russia have constituted a large religious diaspora. Within these territories the Ashkenazi Jewish communities of many different areas flourished and developed many of modern Judaism's most distinctive theological and cultural traditions, while facing periods of anti-Semitic discriminatory policies and persecutions; the largest group among Russian Jews are Ashkenazi Jews, but the community includes a significant proportion of other non-Ashkenazi from other Jewish diaspora including Mountain Jews, Sephardic Jews, Crimean Karaites, Bukharan Jews, Georgian Jews. The presence of Jewish people in the European part of Russia can be traced to the 7th–14th centuries CE. In the 11th and 12th centuries, the Jewish population in Kiev, in present-day Ukraine, was restricted to a separate quarter. Evidence of the presence of Jewish people in Muscovite Russia is first documented in the chronicles of 1471. During the reign of Catherine II in the 18th century, Jewish people were restricted to the Pale of Settlement within Russia, the territory where they could live or immigrate to.

Alexander III escalated anti-Jewish policies. Beginning in the 1880s, waves of anti-Jewish pogroms swept across different regions of the empire for several decades. More than two million Jews fled Russia between 1880 and 1920 to the United States and what is today the State of Israel; the Pale of Settlement took away many of the rights that the Jewish people of the late 17th century Russia were experiencing. At this time, the Jewish people were restricted to an area of what is current day Belarus, eastern Poland and Ukraine. Where Western Europe was experiencing emancipation at this time, in Russia the laws for the Jewish people were getting more strict, they were allowed to move further east, towards a less crowded population, though it was only a minority of Jews who took to the migration. The sporadic and impoverished communities formed were known as Shtetls. Before 1917 there were 300,000 Zionists in Russia, while the main Jewish socialist organization, the Bund, had 33,000 members. Only 958 Jews had joined the Bolshevik Party before 1917.

The chaotic years of World War I, the February and October Revolutions, the Russian Civil War had created social disruption that led to anti-Semitism. Some 150,000 Jews were killed in the pogroms of 1918–1922, 125,000 of them in Ukraine, 25,000 in Belarus; the pogroms were perpetrated by anti-communist forces. After a short period of confusion, the Soviets started executing guilty individuals and disbanding the army units whose men had attacked Jews. Although pogroms were still perpetrated after this by Ukrainian units of the Red Army during its retreat from Poland, in general, the Jews regarded the Red Army as the only force, able and willing to defend them; the Russian Civil War pogroms shocked world Jewry and rallied many Jews to the Red Army and the Soviet regime, strengthening the desire for the creation of a homeland for the Jewish people. In August 1919 the Soviet government arrested many rabbis, seized Jewish properties, including synagogues, dissolved many Jewish communities; the Jewish section of the Communist Party labeled the use of the Hebrew language "reactionary" and "elitist" and the teaching of Hebrew was banned.

Zionists were persecuted harshly, with Jewish communists leading the attacks. Following the civil war, the new Bolshevik government's policies produced a flourishing of secular Jewish culture in Belarus and western Ukraine in the 1920s; the Soviet government outlawed all expressions of anti-Semitism, with the public use of the ethnic slur жид being punished by up to one year of imprisonment, tried to modernize the Jewish community by establishing 1,100 Yiddish-language schools, 40 Yiddish-language daily newspapers and by settling Jews on farms in Ukraine and Crimea. At the beginning of the 1930s, the Jews were 1.8 percent of the Soviet population but 12–15 percent of all university students. In 1934 the Soviet state established the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the Russian Far East, but the region never came to have a majority Jewish population. Today, the JAO is Russia's only autonomous oblast and, outside of Israel, the world's only Jewish territory with an official status; the observance of the Sabbath was banned in 1929, foreshadowing the dissolution of the Communist Party's Yiddish-language Yevsektsia in 1930 and worse repression to come.

Numerous Jews were victimized in Stalin's purges as "counterrevolutionaries" and "reactionary nationalists", although in the 1930s the Jews were underrepresented in the Gulag population. The share of Jews in the Soviet ruling elite declined during the 1930s, but was still more than double their proportion in the general Soviet population. According to Israeli historian Benjamin Pinkus, "We can say that the Jews in the Soviet Union took over the privileged position held by the Germans in tsarist Russia". In the 1930s, many Jews held high rank in the Red Army High Command: Generals Iona Yakir, Yan Gamarnik, Yakov Smushkevich and Grigori Shtern. During World War Two, an estimated 500,000 soldiers in the Red Army were Jewish. About 160,000 were decorated, more than a hundred achieved the rank of Red Army general. Over 150 were

Carol Downer

Carol Downer is an American feminist lawyer and non-fiction author who has focused her career on abortion rights and women's health around the world. Downer was born in 1933 in Oklahoma, but was raised in Los Angeles, where she started her local political movements in East Los Angeles in the 1960s, she was not active in the women's movement until 1963, when she had her first abortion after separating from her first husband, the father of her four children. She was inspired after watching a protest on the television held at the University of California, Los Angeles, about the lack of birth control services offered on the campus. After going through her experience with the painful abortion, in the early 1970s Downer began her quest to making abortions safer for other women, she joined the LA Chapter of NOW's Abortion Committee. Mr. Karman was unlicensed in the medical field, was the one responsible for educating Downer on safe abortion procedures by using suction to remove the fetus rather than scraping the uterus.

Shortly after, Downer introduced menstrual extraction to other activists. Downer began her activist career in the movement for civil rights and local politics in California during the 1960s, she became active in the women's liberation movement in 1969, she worked to try to make abortion available in Los Angeles, California under the liberalized abortion law. Downer began her work in the women's health movement on the Abortion Task Force of NOW with Lana Clarke Phelan, author of The Abortion Handbook, who became her mentor. Downer and other women observed abortion procedures at Harvey Karman's illegal abortion clinic on Santa Monica Boulevard in West Los Angeles to learn how to perform abortions themselves. While there, she figured out how to do a vaginal self-examination. After Downer and others formed the Los Angeles Abortion Task Force, they called a meeting on April 7, 1971 at a feminist book store to educate women about abortion and their bodies. Downer demonstrated the vaginal self-examination to the estimated two dozen women.

Downer's group founded the Women's Abortion Referral Service, the first of its kind to offer pregnancy screening. "Women came from all over for help", Downer said. The result of this first meeting of the Self-Help Clinic was the development of the concept of menstrual extraction and the invention of the Del-Em kit by Lorraine Rothman; this provided women with a less traumatic abortion option than the use of a metal tool to scrape the inside of the uterus, predominately used at the time. Downer and Rothman travelled across the country and many Self-Help Clinics were formed. During this time, birth control and fertility information were not available to women; the menstrual extraction and vaginal self examinations that Downer pioneered with her team provided women with the means to learn about their bodies and take control of their reproduction. Barbara Ehrenreich described Downer and Rothman's efforts as "legitimizing the notion that we have the right to know and decide about procedures...that affect our bodies and our lives."

In 1972 she gave a notable speech to the American Psychological Association on September 5, 1972, in Hawaii, entitled "Covert Sex Discrimination Against Women as Medical Patients."She and Rothman were leaders of a group that founded the Feminist Women's Health Center in Los Angeles in 1971. Equipped with vaginal speculums, they traveled the United States to share their information with women around the country. Downer and Rothman promoted group meetings where they taught women how to self-administer cervical exams and provided them with information on a procedure called menstrual extraction. Downer and Rothman trained women how to suction out menstrual material on or near the time of the menstrual period; when they came back from their trip around the US, Downer and her followers started a women's abortion referral service at their own clinic. In 1972, the police conducted a search of Downer's clinic/health center and arrested her and Colleen Wilson for practicing medicine without a proper license.

Called the Great Yogurt Conspiracy, they were using yogurt inter-vaginally to treat a woman's yeast infection. Downer was acquitted of all charges. Within 50 days of the Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision, which ruled that women have a right to end their pregnancy, her group opened the Women's Choice Clinic in Los Angeles and Orange County. Over the next two years, other Feminist Women's Health Centers were established, forming part of the Federation of Feminist Women's Health Center in 1975. From 1987 to 1991, Downer worked for the Federation of FWHCs. Since she has practiced law in the area of disability rights. In 1981, she was the general editor of A New View of a Woman's Body, published by Simon and Schuster, she was an editor of a companion book, How to Stay Out of the Gynecologist's Office, published by Women to Women Publication. In 1984, she and Francie Hornstein assisted Ginny Casside-Brinn, a Registered Nurse, in writing Woman-Centerd Pregnancy and Birth, published by Cleis Press, but during the Reagan Administration, the anti-abortion movement grew, the clinics were hit with protests.

"The low point was 1985, when the clinic burned down, but we didn’t give up," Downer said. Many believe. So these women began mobile clinics located in vans, which did screenings in a safe and secure location. In 1992, she wrote A Woman's Book of Choices with Rebecca Chalker, published by Seven Stories Press, she has served on the Board of Directors of the National Abortion Federation. Downer's book included instructions on how to practice

Hitchhiker Program

The Hitchhiker Program was a NASA program established in 1984 and administered by the Goddard Space Flight Center and the Marshall Space Flight Center. The program was designed to allow low-cost and quick reactive experiments to be placed on board the Space Shuttle; the program was discontinued after the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster of STS-107. NASA's Hitchhiker project began in early 1984, it was created to accommodate small attached payloads in the Space Shuttle payload bay. Hitchhikers were intended for customers whose space activity requires power, data or command services; the first Hitchhiker launched on STS-61-C on January 12, 1986. Called HHG-1, it carried three experiments; the second Hitchhiker launched on STS-39 on April 28, 1991. This payload was called Space Test Payload -1 and consisted of five experiments mounted onto a cross-bay carrier. Between 1992 and 1995, 12 Hitchhikers were manifested to fly on the Space Shuttle; the Hitchhiker system provided real-time communications between the payload and customers in the Hitchhiker control center at Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland.

The system provided crew control/display capability, if necessary. Hitchhikers were created to provide a quick reaction and low cost capability for flying small payloads in the Shuttle payload bay. Along with NASA's Get Away Specials, Hitchhiker was developed and operated by the Goddard Space Flight Center Shuttle Small Payloads Project. Unlike Hitchhikers, GAS payloads were only mounted in canisters, did not connect to orbiter electrical services and did not require significant Shuttle support. Hitchhiker experiments were attached to mounting plates; the Hitchhiker canister came in two varieties—the Hitchhiker Motorized Door Canister and the Sealed Canisters. The Hitchhiker Motorized Door Canister had mechanical interfaces nearly identical to a GAS canister and could accommodate a customer payload of up to 160 pounds; this canister allowed a payload to be exposed directly to the environment of space. The Sealed Canister, without a door, could accommodate a customer payload up to 200 pounds; the payload in this canister was sealed in an atmosphere of air.

Experiments attached to mounting plates could be placed on the vertical plate, a 25 inches by 39 inches mounting surface for up to 200 pounds of customer hardware. A larger mounting plate measured 50 inches by 60 inches; this plate, available for use on the side-mount carrier, was for larger experiments or hardware requirements. Customer hardware mounted on plates may have needed additional customer-provided thermal control provisions, such as heaters or blankets. Reference for this table: The Hitchhiker carrier system was modular and expandable in accordance with payload requirements; this flexibility allowed maximum efficiency in utilizing orbiter resources and increased the potential for early manifesting on the shuttle. There were two types of carrier systems—the Hitchhiker Side-Mount Carrier System and the Hitchhiker Cross-Bay Bridge Carrier System. Either system could accept the mounting plates; the Hitchhiker Side-Mount Carrier System used a GAS Adapter Beam for all equipment. The beam attached to the orbiter frame.

The side-mount carrier was installed in the forward starboard side of the payload bay, although other configurations and locations were possible. This carrier could hold up to three experiments and the Hitchhiker avionics box, which connected the power and signal from the shuttle to the experiments; the Hitchhiker Cross-Bay Carrier could be located anywhere in the payload bay. The carrier could accommodate 11 of the smaller mounting plates. There was room for the necessary avionic units. Four additional mounting slots were located on the top of the carrier and could accept 33 inch by 27 inch pallets or 33 inch by 55 inch pallets in any combination with up to 500 pounds of equipment. Any customer experiments and hardware that could be mounted on the side-mount carrier could be flown on the cross-bay carrier. NASA created Hitchhikers to provide customers with a way to send small payloads into orbit on the Space Shuttle; this was done with a short turn-around-time—from manifest to flight took an average of 18 months.

To keep the project on schedule, experiments needed to fit in canisters or on mounting plates and meet standard mechanical and electrical interfaces. Because the payload met these conditions, it was entitled to special "handling" in the orbiter that other small payloads, like the Get Away Specials did not receive; this special handling included tapping into the Shuttle for power and "astronaut" services," such as requiring specific shuttle attitudes or maneuvers. The orbiter crew moved the Shuttle when necessary to the position needed for the Hitchhiker experiment, provided it did not interfere with the needs of the primary payloads. Hitchhikers were manifested to fly with primary payloads that either have similar requirements or that will not be affected by the changes in shuttle position necessary to the Hitchhiker experiments. In addition to making adjustments to the orbiter, the astronaut crew participated in the Hitchhiker experiments by controlling the flow of orbiter power on or off using two switches located on the Standard Switch Panel.

The first switch controlled power to the avionics unit. The second switch allowed power to flow from the avionics unit to the experiment; this simple measure allowed the astronauts to have some control over the experiment, in the event of a p

De La Salle Lipa

De La Salle Lipa or DLSL is a private college, a Lasallian educational institution located in Lipa City, Philippines. It is one of the third generation of La Salle schools founded by the Catholic religious congregation De La Salle Brothers in the Philippines: La Salle Academy-Iligan in 1958, La Salle Green Hills in 1959, Saint Joseph School-La Salle in 1960 and, De La Salle Lipa in 1962. In school year 1985-1986, the College Department was formally opened, with Elsie Rabago as officer-in-charge. Norma Blanco was appointed the school's first lay high school principal in 1989; because of the burgeoning school population, Br. Narciso Erquiza FSC was appointed as resident president. On May 15, 1995, Brother Rafael Donato FSC, former President of De La Salle University, assumed the presidency of De La Salle Lipa. Under Donato, the school constructed the SENTRUM, the Sen. Jose W. Diokno Building, the Chez Avenir Hotel, the St. La Salle Building, the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo structure clusters of the Jose Rizal Building, the Centennial Sports Plaza.

In 1996, the school opened a graduate school offering a Master in Management Technology degree. In 1997, the school became the first educational institution in Batangas to go online, with its web site launched in the same year. A year De La Salle Lipa became one of the first schools around the world to launch an alumni registry web site. Called Umpokan, the web site has become interactive and is an online meeting place for graduates of the school. In 2002, Juan Lozano was appointed Chief Operating Officer. In 2003, Donato retired from active service and was named President Emeritus at the auditorium of the Sen. Jose Diokno building. Brother Manuel Pajarillo, FSC was appointed president; the school changed its organizational structure in 2005. With Br. Pajarillo still the school's president, Lozano was elevated to the position of Executive Vice-President. Rex Torrecampo was, appointed as the first Vice-President for Administration; the following year, Corazon Abansi became the school's first Vice-President for Academics and Research.

In 2006, the school's incorporation papers were amended to make it part of an umbrella entity, De La Salle Philippines, formed to synchronize the operations of the De La Salle schools with the mission of the De La Salle Brothers in the Philippines. In May 2007, in keeping with the standards set by De La Salle Philippines, the Executive Vice-President became known as the Chancellor, while the two Vice-Presidents became known as Vice-Chancellors. In school year 2006-2007, Pajarillo was president of three De La Salle schools, in 2007 he was made president of De La Salle Lipa; the De La Salle Lipa campus sits on a 10-hectare lot next to the J. P. Laurel National highway, just on the outskirts of Lipa City, it is 5-minute drive from the Southern Tagalog Arterial Road, which links the city to the Southern Luzon Express Way. Batangas City, the provincial capital, is 5 minutes away via STAR tollway. Entering the main access gate at the front of campus, visitors drive into well-paved concrete roads with parking facilities that can accommodate more than 200 vehicles.

The SENTRUM is the first major structure seen, a multi-purpose building, the venue of pop concerts, professional basketball games, corporate assemblies and religious gatherings. In front of the SENTRUM is a well-kept garden that has a stone sculpture of the founder of the De La Salle Brothers St. John Baptist de la Salle. Nearby are the Chez Rafael, a laboratory hotel for BS Hotel & Restaurant Management majors, the Sen. Jose Diokno Building, which holds the college's Learning Resource Center and the offices of executive administration; the Student Center near the Apolinario Mabini Buildings and CBEAM Building, holds the building for the Student Government and the Council of Student Organization for college. The campus may be divided in two areas: the College side. Students are not prohibited from crossing to either side. On the Integrated School side, the most recognizable structure is the St. La Salle Building, made up of several clusters just in front of the highway; the main cluster that offers the main access gate for Integrated School students is called the Hall of Lasallian Saints.

The hall leads to the building's classrooms as well as the historic Br. Henry Virgil Memorial Gymnasium; the other main structures for IS students are the St. Benilde, St. Mutien Marie, Br. Gregory Refuerzo Buildings; the Learning Resource Center is located inside the Br. Vernon Mabile Building. On the Senior High School side, the buildings that are used are the Claro M. Recto, Jose Rizal. College students hold classes on the western half of the campus, using the Apolinario Mabini Building, CBEAM Building; the Gregorio Zara building is on the college side of the campus. Known as the I. T. Domain Building, it holds the school's Network Operations Center as well as three computer laboratories. Beside the building is an access road that leads to the De La Salle Brothers' Novitiate. College of Business, Economics and Management BS Accountancy BS Accounting Technology BS Business Administration major in Bus

Yenagoa Township Stadium

Samson Siasia Sports Stadium is a multi-use stadium located in the Yenagoa metropolis, Nigeria. It is used for football matches and is the home stadium of both Ocean Boys FC and Bayelsa United; the stadium has a capacity of 5,000 people. Before 2009, it was known as the Yenagoa Township Stadium, it was named after former Nigeria standout Samson Siasia. Samson Siasia is a former Nigerian soccer player who has coached a number of teams and recorded a number of successes; the Samson Siasia stadium is the first environmentally friendly astro turf pitch in Africa, The coconut fiber infills on its lead free artificial grass and shock pad gave it a unique closeness to natural turf. The friendly astro turf pitch was built by Monimichelle Sports Facility Construction and Development Ltd

By-elections to the 37th Canadian Parliament

By-elections to the 37th Canadian Parliament were held to fill vacancies in the House of Commons of Canada between the 2000 federal election and the 2004 federal election. The Liberal Party of Canada led a majority government for the entirety of the 37th Canadian Parliament, with little change from by-elections. Sixteen seats became vacant during the life of the Parliament. Twelve of these vacancies were filled through by-elections, four seats remained vacant when the 2004 federal election was called. Nine federal by-elections were held in 2002. At a cocktail party on May 18, 2002, Michel Bellehumeur, Member of Parliament for Berthier—Montcalm, announced his plan to resign from the House of Commons to run for the Parti Québécois in the provincial riding of Joliette, following the resignation of PQ minister Guy Chevrette. Upon his election as leader of the Canadian Alliance, Stephen Harper needed a seat in the House of Commons. Former Reform Party leader Preston Manning resigned his seat to provide a seat for Harper.

Harper represented the neighbouring riding of Calgary West from 1993–1997, but the seat was held by MP Rob Anders. The Liberal Party did not run a candidate against Harper, as a courtesy to allow Harper to win his seat; the NDP selected Bill Phipps, a former leader of the United Church and social activist in the city. Phipps challenged Harper's conservative social views. During the campaign, Harper commented he "despise" the cleric, declined to debate him; the Green Party chose environmental activist James Kohut, who had spoken out in support of the Kyoto Accord and against government subsidies for oil companies, while calling for lower gas prices for consumers. Gordon Barrett, a former candidate for the Social Credit Party of Alberta in Sherwood Park, ran in the riding as an independent; the leader of the Christian Heritage Party, Ron Gray, was parachuted into the riding in an attempt to win a seat for the CHP in the House of Commons. On election day, Harper won decisively. Phipps followed a distant second place, with 20% of the vote.

Phipps increased the NDPs vote share by nearly seventeen percent due to the lack of a candidate from the Liberal Party. The Right Honourable Herb Gray had represented the Windsor-Essex area for nearly forty years when he retired in 2002 to accept a job as Canadian Chair of the International Joint Commission. A by-election was scheduled for May 22, 2002; the incumbent Liberals chose Richard Pollock, a local lawyer and Liberal organizer, having worked on federal and provincial campaigns in Windsor since 1979. He served on the executive of the Windsor West Provincial Liberal Association, was the area organizer for the Essex Windsor Liberal Association and worked on Jean Chretien's leadership campaign in 1990; the NDP chose a municipal politician in Windsor's city council. The Progressive Conservative Party chose Ian West, who had run against Gray in the previous election; the Canadian Alliance chose an employee in the auto industry. Chris Holt represented the Green Party and the Christian Heritage Party chose Allan James, a chemical engineer.

The NDP, with Brian Masse, increased their vote by over twenty-five percent, becoming the MP for the riding. The incumbent Liberals lost nearly twenty percent of their vote; the Canadian Alliance and Progressive Conservatives had a reduction in their vote. Three federal by-elections were held in 2003 to fill vacancies in the House of Commons of Canada; these elections were all at different dates. One election, in the Ontario riding of Perth—Middlesex, was held on May 21, 2003, while the other two by-elections, in the Quebec ridings of Lévis-et-Chutes-de-la-Chaudière and Témiscamingue, were held on June 16 Three seats were vacant at parliament's dissolution. Ottawa Centre became vacant when Liberal Mac Harb was appointed to the Senate on September 9, 2003; these vacancies were filled at the subsequent general election rather than through by-elections. In the 2000 election, Liberal John Richardson was re-elected in the riding of Perth—Middlesex, defeating his rival, Progressive Conservative Gary Schellenberger by 5,000 votes.

Schellenberger had run against Richardson in 1997, had received about 25% of the vote. During the 2000 election campaign, rumours about Richardson's health began to come out after he missed four all-candidates meetings during the election, he campaigned in the 1997 election due to what was thought to be a serious medical condition. Richardson resigned his seat on October 11, 2002, citing personal reasons, it would be revealed years that Richardson suffered from Alzheimer's Disease. The resulting by-election was scheduled for May 21, 2003. Gary Schellenberger again ran for the Progressive Conservatives, with the NDP choosing their candidate in the 2000 election, Sam DiNicol to run again; the Liberal party chose farmer and educator Brian Innes, while the Canadian Alliance chose businesswoman Marian Meinen. The Leader of the Christian Heritage Party, Ron Gray, was a parachute candidate in the by-election, in an attempt to give his party representation in parliament. On election day, Schellenberger defeated Innes by 1,000 votes.

The Liberal's loss of the riding to Progressive Conservative candidate Gary Schellenberger was blamed by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien on Richardson's reluctance to leave Canadian pol