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History of the People's Republic of China (1949–1976)

The history of the People's Republic of China is divided distinctly by historians into the "Mao era" and the "post-Mao era". The country's Mao era lasted from the founding of the People's Republic on 21 September 1949 to Deng Xiaoping's consolidation of power and policy reversal at the Third Plenum of the 11th Party Congress on 22 December 1978; the Mao era focuses on Mao Zedong's social movements from the early 1950s on, including land reform, the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. The People's Republic of China was founded on a land, ravaged by a century of foreign invasion and civil wars. Both urban and rural communities, as well as both agriculture and industry, experienced significant growth between 1949–1959. Mao's government carried out Land Reform, instituted collectivisation and implemented the laogai camp system. Economically, the country followed up on the Soviet model of Five-Year Plans with its own first Five-Year Plan from 1953–1957; the country went through a transformation whereby means of production were transferred from private to public entities, through nationalization of industry in 1955, the state controlled the economy in a similar fashion to the economy of the Soviet Union.

China's role in the Korean war has been evaluated by each participant in different ways. Soon after its founding, the newly born People's Republic of China was drawn into its first international conflict. On June 25, 1950, Kim Il-sung's North Korean forces crossed the 38th parallel, invaded South Korea, advanced as far as the Pusan Perimeter in south-east Korea. United Nations forces entered the war on side of the South, American General Douglas MacArthur, having forced a Communist retreat, proposed to end the war by Christmas 1950; the Soviet Union and China saw a UN victory as a major political victory to the United States, a prospect seen as dangerous in the beginnings of the Cold War. However, Stalin had no desire to go to war with the United States, left China the responsibility of saving the regime in Pyongyang. Up to this time, the Truman Administration was disgusted with the corruption of Chiang Kai-shek's government and considered recognizing the PRC. On June 27, the US 7th Fleet was sent to the Taiwan Straits both to prevent a Communist invasion of the island and to prevent an attempted reconquest of the mainland.

China meanwhile warned. After the UN forces liberated Seoul in September, Beijing countered by saying that ROK troops could cross into North Korea, but not American ones. MacArthur ignored this. After Pyongyang fell in October, the UN troops approached the strategically sensitive Yalu River area. China responded by sending waves of troops south, in what became known as the People's Volunteers in order to disassociate them from the PLA; the Chinese army was poorly equipped but contained many veterans of the civil war and the conflict with Japan. In addition, it possessed huge reserves of manpower; the United States was on its way to the height of military power, historians contend that Mao's participation in the war asserted China as a new power to not be taken lightly. Known as the Resist America, Aid Korea Campaign in China, the first major offensive of the Chinese forces was pushed back in October, but by Christmas 1950, the "People's Volunteer Army" under the command of Gen. Peng Dehuai had forced the United Nations to retreat back to the 38th Parallel.

However, the war was costly to the Chinese side, as more than just "volunteers" were mobilised, because of the lack of experience in modern warfare and the lack of modern military technology, China's casualties vastly outnumbered that of the United Nations. On 11 April 1951, a U. S. Seventh Fleet destroyer approached close to the port of Swatow, on the southwest coast of China, provoking China to send an armada of more than forty armed powered junks to confront and surround the destroyer for nearly five hours before the destroyer departed the area without either side widening the conflict by initiating hostile fire. Declining a UN armistice, the two sides fought intermittently on both sides of the 38th Parallel until the armistice was signed on July 27, 1953; the Korean War ended any possibility of normalised relations with the United States for years. Meanwhile, Chinese forces invaded and annexed Tibet in October 1950. Tibet had been nominally subject to the Emperors in past centuries, but declared its independence in 1912.

Under Mao's direction, China built its first atomic bomb in its nuclear program, Project 596, in 1964. The Korean War had been enormously costly to China coming on the heels of the civil war, it delayed postwar reconstruction; as a result, Mao Zedong declared that the nation would "lean to the east", meaning that the Soviet Union and the communist bloc would be its principal allies. Three months after the PRC was established in October 1949, Mao and his delegation traveled to Moscow, they were not received warmly by Stalin, who doubted if they were Marxists and not a group of Chinese nationalists. He had recognized Chiang Kai-Shek's government, furthermore distrusted any communist movement, not under his direct control. After a meeting with Mao, the Soviet leader remarked "What sort of a man is Mao? He seems to have some idea of revolution involving the peasants, but not the workers." A frustrated Mao was ready to go home, but Zhou Enlai refused to leave without a formal agreement. Thus, the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Friendship was signed and the Chinese at last departed in February 1950.

According to Hua-yu Li, writing in

Michael Hastings (politician)

Michael E. Hastings is a Democratic member of the Illinois Senate from the 19th Legislative District; the district includes all or parts of Lockport, New Lenox, Orland Park, Tinley Park, Frankfort Square, Homer Glen, Richton Park, University Park, Homewood, Park Forest, Olympia Fields, Country Club Hills, Hazel Crest and Oak Forest. Prior to his election as a State Senator, Hastings was an officer in the United States Army, businessman and a vice president of a school board. Michael E. Hastings was born and raised in Orland Hills, Illinois as one of six children of Mary and Kyle Hastings. Hastings was an Illinois All-State Football offensive lineman in high school, he served as student government president of Victor J. Andrew High School, qualified for an appointment to the U. S. Military Academy at West Point. Hastings earned his Bachelor of Science degree in leadership and management at West Point and played as an offensive lineman on Army's Division-I football team for four seasons, including the annual Army-Navy rivalry game in Washington D.

C. Hastings graduated from West Point in 2003 and was commissioned as an officer in the U. S. Army. Hastings was at West Point when al-Qaida terrorists attacked the U. S. on September 11, 2001. He served in Iraq, advanced to the rank of captain and served as aide-de-camp to the commanding general of the 1st Infantry Division, he earned a Bronze Star for meritorious service in a combat zone. In 2008, Hastings joined Johnson & Johnson's Biosurgery sales division in Chicago serving hospitals, health care facilities and surgeons. Hastings' public service career began with his election to the Board of Trustees for High School District 230 and as vice president of the board. Hastings served as co-chair of the district's finance and education committees. Hastings earned a master's degree in business administration with honors from the University of Illinois and a Juris Doctor degree from John Marshall Law School in Chicago. Hastings sponsored Senate Bill 2591 to help combat the state's nearly $100 billion pension shortfall.

The plan, created with help from the University of Illinois Institute for Government and Public Affairs, calls for workers at state colleges and universities to kick in an additional two percent to their pension funds. The increase would be phased in over a four-year period. Under the plan, the three percent compound interest on cost-of-living-adjustments, or COLAs, would change to one-half of the inflation rate. Although the proposal involves the State Universities Retirement System, Glenn Poshard, President of Southern Illinois University, said it could "serve as an example for a more comprehensive pension reform plan."Hastings sponsored HB 4691 which provides that, upon creation of a new downstate police pension fund by referendum or census, the Illinois Municipal Retirement Fund shall transfer to the new pension fund the employee contributions for service as a police officer of the municipality, creating the new pension fund, plus interest, an amount representing employer contributions, equal to the total amount determined under item.

Provides that the transfer shall terminate any further rights of such employees under IMRF that arise out of that service. House Bill 4691 was signed into law by Governor Pat Quinn on July 16, 2014. Hastings co-sponsored Senate Bill 20, signed into law by Governor Quinn on July 25, 2014; the act, co-sponsored by Hastings, dedicated funding to the development of a new airport in Peotone. The airport will be built by the Illinois Department of Transportation and operate in a public-private partnership, known as a "P3". "I made a commitment to the residents of the 19th District that I would look for new opportunities to create jobs and foster growth in the Southland," Hastings said. "An excerpt from Hastings' speech on the Senate Floor: "It is our job as legislators to create policy to foster an economic environment to create jobs, good paying jobs to bring a quality of life that our people expect and deserve. But when you when you travel around the Chicago Southland area and you see the economic blight due to the downturn of our economy, you see our businesses closing and families out of work and struggling to make ends meet.

That is. The Chicago Southland is uniquely positioned geographic region for an airport. Not only is it one of the largest and fastest growing regions in the State of Illinois, but we have the convergence of major highways, proximity to rail hubs and the land available necessary to construct such an airport. The South Suburban Airport will help create close to 11,000 jobs for our skilled laborers in addition to providing the much needed direct and ancillary economic development to business that surround the community." Senator Hastings has received the following legislative and community service awards: Distinguished Legislative Service Award, The Link & Option Center Excellence in Leadership Award, Chicago Southland Convention & Visitors Bureau Excellence in Leadership Award, South Suburban Park and Recreation Professional Association Environmental Champion, Illinois Environmental Council Elected Official of the Year, Matteson Chamber of Commerce Friend of Agriculture, Illinois Farm Bureau Humanitarian Award, Grand Prairie Services Legislator of the Year, Illinois Association of Family Physicians Legislator of the Year, Illinois Association of Park Districts Legislator of the Year, Illinois Municipal League Legislator of the Year, Illinois Public Transportation Association Legislator of the Year, Illinois Public Higher Education Cooperative Legislator of the Year, Illinois State Crime Commission Legislator of the Year, Illinois State Veterinary Medical Association Legislator of th

Balsam Lake Provincial Park

Balsam Lake Provincial Park is a provincial park located in south-central Ontario on Balsam Lake. The park is situated along a few kilometres southwest of Coboconk, it is an all-seasons recreation area offering camping and fishing, while closed in winter it is used for skiing and snowshoeing. Balsam Lake is part of a waterway; the waterway, entitled Trent-Severn Waterway, allows lakes and rivers throughout Ontario to be connected through canals. These canals allow individuals to travel by boat from one lake to another. For example, one can travel from Georgian Bay to Lake Ontario in addition to other regions. In the vicinity of the park are the Haliburton Highlands, the Muskoka Lakes, the Precambrian wilderness; the wildlife consists of animals such as deer, raccoons, squirrels, beavers, coyotes, a wide variety of birds and North American black bears. Camping: Balsam Lake Provincial Park has 506 campsites distributed throughout the region. Of these campsites, 206 have electricity; the park contains 3 group camping sites accompanied by vault privies and drinking water.

These sites must be reserved in advance through an application form and are only offered to non-profit youth groups. Alcohol and trailers are prohibited; some of the other services in the campsites include: showers, Laundromats as well as a playgrounds for children. Shopping: The Park Store is located at the entrance of the park and carries park souvenirs. Firewood is made available at the Park Store and can be found at the main office. In addition, there is a snack bar located on the beach. More stores are accessible in the local town of Coboconk. Rentals: Balsam Lake Provincial Park offers kayaks and paddle boats for rent; these rentals can be obtained from the Water Craft Rental Centre on the south side of the beach. Campers can rent equipment in overnight. Hiking: There are two trails that are situated in the Balsam Lake Provincial Park, they are the Lookout trail, 2.6 km and the Plantation trail, 4.2 km. The Lookout trail begins on an esker and goes through different landscapes such as a cedar swamp, a deciduous forest, a meadow.

The Plantation trail identifies. The trail travels through farm fields, as well as reforestation plantations. Park Activities: Balsam Lake Provincial Park has a beach close to most campsites where campers can perform water-based activities during spring and summer. Several fish including Bass, walleye and panfish are found in the lake for when campers go fishing. Other beach activities include canoeing and swimming. Aside from water-based activities, cycling is an option as there are paved roads distributed amongst the park. In the autumn season, visitors tend to observe the trees. During the winter campers come to ski, or hike. Official website

Alison Bales

Alison Marie Bales is an American former professional basketball player of the WNBA. At the age of five, her family moved from Indianapolis, where she was born, to the Dayton suburb of Beavercreek, Ohio. Bales was named a WBCA All-American, she participated in the 2003 WBCA High School All-America Game. After her senior year, she committed to Duke University to play for the Duke Blue Devils women's basketball team. At 6' 7" she played center for Duke, became the all-time shot block leader at Duke and 3rd all-time in NCAA history. In the 2006 NCAA Women's Tournament, Bales set a Women's Tournament record by blocking 30 shots in six games; this would stand as a record until it was broken by Baylor's Brittney Griner in 2010. Bales graduated from Duke with a double major in cultural biology. Source On her birthday, Bales was drafted No. 9 overall by the Indiana Fever in the 2007 WNBA Draft. After a season and a half with Indiana, Bales was traded to the Atlanta Dream for Kristen Mann on July 4, 2008.

She would complete the season with Atlanta, be traded to the Phoenix Mercury on January 21, 2009 for the 18th pick in the 2009 WNBA Draft. Bales was waived by the Phoenix Mercury on June 4, 2009. After another season overseas, Bales was picked back up by the Atlanta Dream. Over the course of her WNBA career, Bales averaged 4.0 rebounds per game. On April 10, 2012, Bales announced her retirement to attend medical school. Bales played for the Dynamo Moscow professional basketball club in Russia during the winter of 2007–2008, she is playing in the offseason for L Union Jainaut Basket Saint Amon in France. She played for Turkey's Samsun during the 2008–09 off-season. Dream trades Mann for Bales

Alpha Yaya Diallo

Alpha Yaya Diallo is a Guinean-born Canadian guitarist and songwriter. He incorporates Guinea's rich musical tradition into his original compositions. Diallo has won two Juno Awards, shared a third, was nominated another three times. Diallo was born in the capital of Guinea; when he was young, he followed his father, a doctor, in demand all around the country. When Guinea gained its independence from France in 1958, its Marxist first president, Ahmed Sékou Touré, launched a cultural program aimed at the rediscovery and support of "Guinea's music, arts and languages." Diallo recalled that, "At the time every family had a member, being trained in music." He taught himself to play the guitar at an early age. At the University of Conakry, he became the bandleader of the Sons of Rais and toured extensively with them throughout West Africa. After graduation, he performed with Kaloum Star and Sorsornet Rhythm. Diallo moved to Europe in the mid-1980s, where he worked with the Fatala group, which played traditional Guinean music and was associated with Peter Gabriel's music label.

After extensive touring, Diallo settled down in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in 1991. In 1993, he released his solo first album, nominated for a Juno Award, as was his 1996 album Futur, he won his first Juno, for The Message in 1999 in the "Best World Music Album" category, a second in 2002 and shared a third in 2004 for the African Guitar Summit compilation. He released Djama in 2005, he won the Best World Artist-Solo at the inaugural Canadian Folk Music Awards in 2006. He plays with Ghanaian guitarist Pa Joe Diallo, Adam Solomo and Mighty Popo in African Guitar Summit. In addition to the guitar, he plays the balafon and the djembe, his backup band, since 1992, is called Baffing. He produced a film documentary entitled Best of Both Worlds, filmed in West Africa and France. 1993: Néné – nominated for a Juno Award 1996: Futur – nominated for a Juno Award 1998: The Message – won the Juno Award for Best Global Album 2001: The Journey – won the Juno Award for Best Global Album 2004: African Guitar Summit collaboration – won the Juno Award in Best World Music Album category 2005: Djama – nominated for a Juno Award 2010: Immé Alpha Yaya Diallo at AllMusic

Menemsha Pond

Menemsha Pond is a salt pond split between the towns of Aquinnah & Chilmark, Massachusetts. At the mouth of the pond, the Menemsha Creek leads into the Vineyard Sound. Along Menemsha Creek sits the historic sea-side fishing village of Menemsha. Menemsha Pond connects to both Stonewall Pond via Nashaquitsa Pond and to Squibnocket Pond via the Squibnocket Herring Run. Since 1902, Menemsha Pond is a federally recognized Harbor of Refuge; this designation altered the development of both the harbor at Menemsha and the channel into Menemsha Pond. Before the federal designation and redesign of the inlet, the channel was dredged locally to maintain access. Archeological exploration indicates that indigenous peoples of the Wampanoag tribe have inhabited the shores of Menemsha Pond for 10,000 to 7,500 years. Additionally, the tribe still maintains a presence on the pound with the tribal run hatchery, herring run, with the tribal members who fish both recreationally and commercially. In his 1969 book, Archaeology of Martha's Vineyard, William A Ritchie excavated and carbon-dated materials found in the shell middens and living sites around the Vineyard including around Menemsha and Sqiudnocket Pond.

In 1748 the Menemsha Road was laid out from Menemsha Pond to the common road. In 1890, the Chief of Engineers of the US Army conducted a preliminary examination of Menemsha Bight Although no work was done on the bight or creek at that time, this report would be a harbinger. In 1938, all but one building in the town of Menemsha was destroyed during the hurricane of 1938; the strong surf surged through Menemsha and the small barrier beach that separated Menemsha pond and the ocean, washing away the collection of fishing shacks that populated the village. In the aftermath of the hurricane, the Army Corps of Engineers dredged the channel and built jetties on either side, hardening Menemsha's status as a port of refuge; the Menemsha channel would wander and change shape until the jetties were built. In fact, the Wampanoag word for the channel to Menemsha Pond is Wawitukq, meaning "the winding, twisting river"; the 1938 hurricane greatly damaged the fishing villages of Lobsterville and Squibnocket, both of whom would never recover.

The new dredging of Menemsha harbor, with its added depth and dock space, made it ideal for the newly innovated motor-powered fishing and leisure boats. The Menemsha Bike Ferry known as the Aquinnah-Menemsha ferry, travels the short distance between Aquinnah and Chilmark, taking bikes and pedestrians over the water where Menemsha Pond meets Menemsha Creek; the pond is dually administered by the towns of Chilmark. Each town has their own harbormaster. Menemsha Pond supports commercial oyster farming; the towns seed bay scallops and oysters in the pond. In addition, the Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head runs a hatchery on the southwest side of the pond. In the past, the hatchery conducted flounder spawning programs. There are no spawning programs.