Hirtshals is a town and seaport on the coast of Skagerrak on the island of Vendsyssel-Thy at the top of the Jutland peninsula in northern Denmark, Europe. It is located in Hjørring municipality in Region Nordjylland, the town of Hirtshals has a population of 5,959. Located on the Skagerrak, it is known for its fishing. The town of Hirtshals developed around the harbour which was constructed between 1919 and 1931. In 1925, the Hjørring-Hirtshals railway line opened to link the port of Hirtshals with the Danish rail network, in 1966, the harbour was expanded and became one of the largest fishing ports in Denmark. Until January 1,2007, Hirtshals was the seat of Hirtshals Municipality which was merged with existing Hjørring, Løkken-Vrå, Hirtshals is located on the sand and clay promontory Hirtshals, overlooking the Skagerrak between the Jammer Bay and the Tannis Bay. The shoreline is backed by low cliffs, beneath which is a narrow, the towns 35 metre high lighthouse, Hirtshals fyr, is a local landmark.
Building was begun on June 28th,1860, and it was first lit on January 1st,1863 and it is constructed of red brick, and covered with Dutch tile. The sea level has been as high as 1 meter over the norm, but in days where there is no wind, the waves typically wont be higher than max 20 cm over normal sea level. Due to the proximity of the town to the coast, sea fog is not an uncommon occurrence, in the winter, the air temperature can fall as low as 1.6 degrees, but in the summer, it can reach over 25 degrees Celsius. Hirtshals Havnekontor keeps track of wave periods, on yearly basis wave periods fluctuate between half a second, up to about 9 seconds. According to Hirtshals Havnekontor normal wave heights are between 2 and 2.5 meters, the prevailing wind in Hirtshals is to the south or south-west. Wind speeds vary all year long, usually topping at 10 m/s during the winter, fishing plays a big role for the town and its inhabitants, as does tourism and the renting of summer homes. Due to the connections with Norway, the shops in Hirtshals thrive on the large number of visitors, especially Norwegians.
It is the home of one of the largest aquariums in Europe, the Oceanarium has 70 different species in its collection. A fire in December 2003 destroyed the new extension, but the Nordsøen Oceanarium was rebuilt, Hirtshals is the Danish terminal for the services of the Norwegian ferry company, Color Line. Each year thousands of Norwegian and Dutch tourists travel back, Color Line offered services to Bergen and Oslo, but decided to stop operating these routes in early 2008. Another ferry operator, Fjord Line, now operates a route to Bergen and it has been possible since autumn 2010 to travel to Tórshavn in the Faroe Islands and to Seyðisfjörður in Iceland with Smyril Line
Regions of Denmark
Denmark, officially the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Scandinavian country in Europe and a sovereign state. The southernmost and smallest of the Nordic countries, it is south-west of Sweden and south of Norway, Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark has an area of 42,924 square kilometres. The country consists of a peninsula, and an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand, the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea, Denmark and Norway were ruled together under the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523. Denmark and Norway remained under the monarch until outside forces dissolved the union in 1814. The union with Norway made it possible for Denmark to inherit the Faroe Islands, beginning in the 17th century, there were several cessions of territory to Sweden.
In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945, the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy which had begun in 1660. It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy, the government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nations capital, largest city and main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs, Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948, in Greenland home rule was established in 1979 and further autonomy in 2009. Denmark became a member of the European Economic Community in 1973, maintaining certain opt-outs, it retains its own currency, the krone. It is among the members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE.
The etymology of the word Denmark, and especially the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as a kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centred primarily on the prefix Dan and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -mark ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, and the name of the people, from a word meaning land, related to German Tenne threshing floor. The -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth
Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts
The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts has provided education in the arts for more than 250 years, playing its part in the development of the art of Denmark. The Royal Danish Academy of Portraiture and Architecture in Copenhagen was inaugurated on 31 March 1754 and its name was changed to the Royal Danish Academy of Painting and Architecture in 1771. The building boom resulting from the Great Fire of 1795 greatly profited from this initiative, in 1814 the name was changed again, this time to the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. It is still situated in its building, the Charlottenborg Palace. The School of Architecture has been situated in former naval buildings on Holmen since 1996, the academy is larger and better funded than the Jutland Art Academy and Funen Art Academy, which offer similar programs. It teaches and conducts research on the subjects of painting, architecture, photography, the academy is under the administration of the Danish Ministry of Culture. The academy’s School of Architecture offers education in the fields of design and restoration and landscape planning and industrial, graphic.
The school has nine departments, four research institutes and six affiliated research centres. The undergraduate course, leading to the Bachelor of Architecture diploma, in 2011, the Wall Street Journal named Ingels the Innovator of the Year for architecture. Hansen Medal Thorvaldsen Medal Eckersberg Medal Thorvald Bindesbøll Medal N. L. Høyen Medal The School of Visual Arts C. C
InterCity is the classification applied to certain long-distance passenger train services in Europe. Such trains generally call at stations only. The Inter-City Rapid Transit Company was an Ohio interurban company, which operations in 1930 as it had purchased its route from the Northern Ohio Traction & Light Company. It remained in operation till 1940, the use of Inter-City was reborn in the United Kingdom, A daily train of that name was introduced in 1950, running between the cities of London and Birmingham. This usage can claim to be the origin of all usages worldwide, in 1966 British Rail introduced the brand InterCity for all of its express train routes, and in 1986 the term was adopted by the InterCity sector of British Rail. Following the privatisation of the railways in Great Britain the term is no longer in use there. The brand still exists though, and according to DfT is owned by them, in West Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn first used the name in 1968, denoting special first-class services on the F-Zug train network.
Many of the Class VT11.5 diesel multiple units used on the TEE network were converted for early Intercity services. In Switzerland, the InterCity brand replaced SwissExpress in the 1982 schedule, in Norway, intercity trains were introduced in 1975 on the Vestfold Line, also on the Østfold Line. They were fast trains on distances up to 2–3 hours. Today, the name is used not on the trains, but on the lines from Oslo to Skien and Halden – and on the Ringerike Line. An international variant of the InterCity are the EuroCity trains which were introduced in May 1987, EuroCity trains consist of high-standard, Air conditioned coaches and are usually subject to on-board border controls. The Austrian Federal Railways have operated IC services since 1991, modernised stock of Eurofima coaches is used under the brand name ÖBB-InterCity mainly on the Austrian Western and Southern Railways from Vienna to Salzburg and Villach. The ÖBB deployed electric multiple unit trains, from 2006 three ICE T trainsets in cooperation with the Deutsche Bahn, currently running from Vienna to Frankfurt via Linz, ÖBB high-speed rail service is provided by Railjet trains.
Since 2011, there is an express train service on the Western Railway operated by WESTbahn. Klagenfurt–Villach–Bischofshofen–Salzburg Salzburg-Tyrol Railway and Lower Inn Valley Railway Salzburg–Wörgl–Innsbruck Arlberg railway Innsbruck–Bregenz, the InterCity service from Vienna to Salzburg is going to be expanded for an hourly service to Landeck via Innsbruck by December 2008. Also, the service from Vienna to Graz is going to operate hourly by December 2008, some of them serve destinations outside the country. The IC between Liège and Brussels travels at 200 km/h on the HSL2, InterCity trains in Croatia mainly serve domestic routes from Zagreb to Split and from Zagreb to Osijek except one international train connecting Zagreb and Vinkovci
It constitutes the northernmost part of Den Østjyske Længdebane, the through route through the Jutland Peninsula from Padborg to Frederikshavn. The section from Nørresundby to Frederikshavn opened in 1871, in 1879 the route was continued from Aalborg to Nørresundby over the Limfjord as the Limfjordsbroen railway bridge was inaugurated. The Vendsyssel line runs north from Ålborg to Hjørring and turns east from there to Frederikshavn, making the distance about 80 km. The line is owned and maintained by Rail Net Denmark and served passenger trains by the Danish State Railways and local. The southernmost section from Aalborg to Lindholm is served by the Aalborg Commuter Rail, work on the section from Nørresundby to Frederikshavn started in May 1869. It was opened on 16 August 1871 in the presence of King Christian IX, passengers crossing the Limfjord between Nørresundby station and Aalborg station had two opportunities, a ferry or crossing the pontoon bridge located further east on foot. In 1972, several stations were closed, in 2003, two new stations Aalborg Vestby and Lindholm were opened as part of Aalborg Commuter Rail.
The Vendsyssel line runs north from Aalborg, crossing the Limfjord on a 403 metres long bascule bridge, from Nørresundby it passes west of Lindholm Høje and Hammer hills and continues north to Brønderslev and Hjørring. From Hjørring, the Hirtshals Line branches north to the town, the main line continues east, passing through Tolne hills to its terminus at Frederikshavn. From Frederikshavn, the Skagen Line branches north to the town, the line is owned and maintained by Rail Net Denmark, a government agency under the Danish Ministry of Transport. It is served with InterCity and regional trains by the Danish State Railways and local, since 2003, Aalborg Commuter Rail, operated by DSB, has served the southernmost section from Aalborg to Lindholm. Banedanmark DSB Nordjyske Jernbaner Nordjyllands Jernbaner Jensen, Niels
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility where trains regularly stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It generally consists of at least one platform and a station building providing such ancillary services as ticket sales. If a station is on a line, it often has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements. The smallest stations are most often referred to as stops or, in parts of the world. Stations may be at level, underground, or elevated. Connections may be available to intersecting rail lines or other modes such as buses. In British usage, the station is commonly understood to mean a railway station unless otherwise qualified. In the United States, the most common term in contemporary usage is train station, Railway station and railroad station are less frequent. Outside North America, a depot is place where buses, trains, or other vehicles are housed and maintained and from which they are dispatched for service. The two-storey Mount Clare station in Baltimore, which survives as a museum, first saw service as the terminus of the horse-drawn Baltimore.
The oldest terminal station in the world was Crown Street railway station in Liverpool, built in 1830, as the first train on the Liverpool-Manchester line left Liverpool, the station is slightly older than the Manchester terminal at Liverpool Road. The station was the first to incorporate a train shed, the station was demolished in 1836 as the Liverpool terminal station moved to Lime Street railway station. Crown Street station was converted to a goods station terminal, the first stations had little in the way of buildings or amenities. The first stations in the modern sense were on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, manchesters Liverpool Road Station, the second oldest terminal station in the world, is preserved as part of the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. It resembles a row of Georgian houses, dual-purpose stations can sometimes still be found today, though in many cases goods facilities are restricted to major stations. In rural and remote communities across Canada and the United States, such stations were known as flag stops or flag stations.
Many stations date from the 19th century and reflect the architecture of the time. Countries where railways arrived may still have such architecture, as stations often imitated 19th-century styles, various forms of architecture have been used in the construction of stations, from those boasting grand, Baroque- or Gothic-style edifices, to plainer utilitarian or modernist styles
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Hans Gram (historian)
Hans Gram was a Danish academic and historian. In 1714 he became a professor of Greek at the University of Copenhagen, in 1730 he was named manager of the Royal Library and the secretary of the Royal Archives. He is best known for his editions of old Danish history, being credited with the discovery of many new sources. He was a catalyst towards the 1742 founding of the Videnskaberne Selskab and he was the author of Nucleus latinitatis, qvo pleræqve Romani sermonis voces, and made contributions to Johannes Mollers Cimbria Literata
A revue is a type of multi-act popular theatrical entertainment that combines music and sketches. The revue has its roots in 19th century popular entertainment and melodrama, though most famous for their visual spectacle, revues frequently satirized contemporary figures, news or literature. Similar to the related subforms of operetta and musical theatre, the art form brings together music, dance. In contrast to these, revue does not have an overarching storyline, rather, a general theme serves as the motto for a loosely-related series of acts that alternate between solo performances and dance ensembles. George Lederers The Passing Show is usually held to be the first successful American review, the English spelling was used until 1907 when Florenz Ziegfeld popularized the French spelling. Follies is now employed as an analog for revue, though the term was proprietary to Ziegfeld until his death in 1932. Other popular proprietary revue names included George Whites Scandals and Earl Carrolls Vanities, Revues are most properly understood as having amalgamated several theatrical traditions within the corpus of a single entertainment.
Minstrelsys olio section provided a map of popular variety presentation. Theatrical extravaganzas, in particular, moving panoramas, demonstrated a vocabulary of the spectacular, itself a bawdy hybrid of various theatrical forms, lent to classic revue an open interest in female sexuality and the masculine gaze. Revues enjoyed great success on Broadway from the World War I years until the Great Depression, the high ticket prices of many revues helped ensure audiences distinct from other live popular entertainments during their height of popularity. In 1914, the Follies charged $5.00 for an opening night ticket, at time, many cinema houses charged from $0.10 to 0.25. Among the many producers of revues, Florenz Ziegfeld played the greatest role in developing the classical revue through his glorification of a new theatrical type. Revues took advantage of their revenue stream to lure away performers from other media. Performers such as Eddie Cantor, Anna Held, W. C, Bert Williams, the Marx Brothers and the Fairbanks Twins found great success on the revue stage.
One of Cole Porters early shows was Raymond Hitchcocks revue Hitchy-Koo, composers or lyricists such as Richard Rodgers, Lorenz Hart, Irving Berlin, and George M. Cohan enjoyed a tremendous reception on the part of audiences. Sometimes, an appearance in a revue provided a key early entry into entertainment, largely due to their centralization in New York City and adroit use of publicity, revues proved particularly adept at introducing new talents to the American theatre. Rodgers and Hart, one of the great composer/lyricist teams of the American musical theatre, comedian Fanny Brice, following a brief period in burlesque and amateur variety, bowed to revue audiences in Ziegfelds Follies of 1910. Specialist writers and composers of revues have included Sandy Wilson, Noël Coward, John Stromberg, George Gershwin, Earl Carroll, in Britain predominantly, Tom Arnold specialised in promoting series of revues and his acts extended to the European continent and South Africa
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east and Utah to the south, to the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. With a population of around 1.7 million people and an area of 83,569 square miles, Idaho is the 14th largest, the states capital and largest city is Boise. Idaho prior to European settlement was inhabited solely by Native American peoples, in the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the U. S. and the United Kingdom. Idaho was eventually admitted to the Union on July 3,1890, forming part of the Pacific Northwest, Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. In the states north, the relatively isolated Idaho Panhandle is closely linked with Eastern Washington, the states south includes the Snake River Plain, while the south-east incorporates part of the Great Basin.
Idaho is quite mountainous, and contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains, around 38 percent of Idahos land is held by the United States Forest Service, the most of any state. Industries significant for the economy include manufacturing, mining, forestry. Idahos agricultural sector supplies a number of different products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, the official state nickname is the Gem State, which references Idahos reputation for gemstones and, more broadly, its many wilderness areas. The exact origin of the remains a mystery. Willing claimed that he had invented the name. Congress ultimately decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861, thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado Idaho Springs. However, the name Idaho did not fall into obscurity, the same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, which was launched on the Columbia River in 1860 and it is unclear whether the steamship was named before or after Willings claim was revealed.
Regardless, a portion of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863. Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, the name Idaho may be derived from the Plains Apache word ídaahę́, which means enemy. The Comanches used this word to refer to the Idaho Territory, a 1956 Idaho history textbook says, Idaho is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation. The word consists of three parts, the first is Ee, which in English conveys the idea of coming down
Vendsyssel Historical Museum
The Vendsyssel Historical Museum is a regional museum and exhibiting the history of the region of Vendsyssel in Denmark. The museum works as an organization for a total of five departments. It was initiated in 1889 and attained recognition by the State of Denmark in 1959, the VHM has extensive collections on the natural history of the region and conducts and archives archaeological excavations. Some of the excavated items originated as early as 10,000 BC, the exhibits holds artifacts and tells stories from the earliest Nordic Stone Age to modern times, rooted in finds from the region of Vendsyssel. The museum and its collections was initiated by the first dentist in Hjørring J. J. Lønborg Friis and his old preserved clinic can be studied here, there is a museum shop and a café at the complex. Hirtshals Museum, Situated in an old house from 1880. The interior of the house is reconstructed to show how ordinary fishermens families lived anno 1915 in this region, bitters are an old and widespread tradition in Scandinavia, and is generally referred to as snaps in Denmark.
Bunker Museum Hirtshals, The shorelines around the city of Hirtshals was part of the German Atlantic Wall defence during World War II, The department in Mosbjerg 20–30 km east of Hjørring, is a landscape- and agricultural museum placed in a hilly and geologically interesting landscape. The museum is a museum, imitating the agricultural practises in the early part of the 1900s and is based in two separate farm buildings. There are three designed hiking paths in the associated with the museum, Oldtidsstien and Skovstien. The trails are focusing on prehistoric tumuli, various agricultural landuses, the long-distance hiking trail of Hærvejen passes through the area in the east. Rubjerg Knude, The old coastal farm of Strandfogedgården a few south of the decommissioned lighthouse of Rubjerg, has been administered by the VHM since 2000. As the name implies, it was formerly the home of the master at Rubjerg Knude. The relentless winds, drifting sands and migrating dunes, hints at the harsh living conditions here in former ages.
VHM has a permanent, but ever evolving exhibit at the farm, telling the stories of the four coastal parishes covered by Lønstrup Cliff and the unique conditions of life and nature found here. The Wreck Masters Farm is known as Jens Thomsens farm, in remembrance of a former owner - and the first wreck master of Rubjeg Knude - who overtook the place from his father in 1838. The place has been on the hands of the Thomsen family since 1814, Vendsyssel Historical Museum Official homepage in English